Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook

1st Edition

By Everett Baxter Jr.

CRC Press

282 pages | 343 Color Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781498701426
pub: 2015-05-21
SAVE ~$11.39
$56.95
$45.56
x
Hardback: 9781138415720
pub: 2017-09-28
SAVE ~$41.00
$205.00
$164.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429257346
pub: 2017-09-28
from $117.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

This specially developed workbook can be used in conjunction with the Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook (ISBN: 978-1-4987-0144-0) in group training environments, or for individuals looking for independent, step-by-step self-study guide. It presents an abridged version of the Handbook, supplying both students and professionals with the most critical points and extensive hands-on exercises for skill enhancement. Filled with more than 350 full-color images, the Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbookwalks readers through self-tests and exercises they can perform to practice and improve their documentation, collection, and processing techniques.

Most experienced crime scene investigators will tell you that it is virtually impossible to be an expert in every aspect of crime scene investigations. If you begin to "specialize" too soon, you risk not becoming a well-rounded crime scene investigator. Establishing a complete foundation to the topic, the exercises in this workbook reinforce the concepts presented in the Handbook with a practical, real-world application.

As a crime scene investigator, reports need to be more descriptive than they are at the patrol officer level. This workbook provides a range of scenarios around which to coordinate multiple exercises and lab examples, and space is provided to write descriptions of observations. The book also supplies step-by-step, fully illustrative photographs of crime scene procedures, protocols, and evidence collection and testing techniques.

This lab exercise workbook is ideal for use in conjunction with the Handbook, both in group training settings, as well as a stand-alone workbook for individuals looking for hands-on self-study. It is a must-have resource for crime scene technicians, investigators, and professionals who want a complete manual of crime scene collection and processing techniques.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

The Investigative Team

The Initial Responding Officer

Natural Boundary

Artificial Boundary

Start a Crime Scene Log

The Crime Scene Investigator

Goals of the Crime Scene Investigator

The Detective

The Analyst

The Prosecutor

The Defense Attorney

The Crime Scene Analyst/Reconstructionist

Exercises

Forensic Search and Seizure

Do We Have the Right to Be at the Scene?

The Fourth Amendment.

Legal Means to Process Scene

Consent

Search Incident to Arrest

Exigent Circumstances

Search Warrant

Search Warrant Returns

Court Order

Exceptions to the Warrant Requirements

Forensic Evidence

Exercises

DOCUMENTATION

Note-Taking Exercises

Purpose of Documentation

Note Taking

Task Lists/To-do Lists

Field Notes

Note Categories

Exercises

Photography Exercises

Uses of Photography

Photographic Terms

Photo Exercise

Cropping or Magnification Factor

Files

Exposure Compensation Button

Photo Exercise

Shooting Modes

Additional Equipment

Photo Exercise

Photo Exercise

Exposure

Light

Lighting Angles

Distances

Camera Distance

Light Distance

Light Source Closest to Camera

The Importance of Light

Using Direct Reflections

Photo Exercises

Additional Lighting Considerations

Photo Exercises

Photo Log

Flash Photography

Photo Exercises

Sketching Exercises

Uses of Sketches and Forensic Maps

Sketch Information

Reducing Clutter in Sketch

Admissibility of Sketches into Court

Types of Sketches

Measurement

Accuracy of Measuring Devices

Use of Landmarks

Fixed vs. Nonfixed Measurements

Measuring Methods

Creating a Sketch

Interval vs. Continual Measuring Method

Creating a Final Sketch

Making Your Rough Sketch Permanent

Three-Dimensional Sketches

Conclusion

Exercises

LOCATING EVIDENCE

Searching

Searches and Search Patterns

Intrusiveness of the Search

Special Considerations

Interior and Exterior Searches

Interior Searches

Exterior Searches

Vehicle Searches

Exercises

Alternate Light Sources

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Qualities of Light

Alternate Light Sources

Filters

Camera Filter vs. External Light Filter

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements

Presumptive Tests

Catalytic Tests

Specificity vs. Sensitivity

Swab Testing Method

Pouch Testing Method

Types of Presumptive Tests

Exercises

Photo Exercise

Chemical Enhancements

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Confirmatory Tests for Blood

Semen

A Note on Shelf Life

Latent Fingerprint Development

Introduction

Attempts to Avoid Detection

Fingerprint Characteristics

Fingerprint Classification Statistics

Fingerprint Detail

Fingerprint Makeup

A Point of Clarification

Uses of Fingerprints

Things to Consider before Fingerprinting

Age of Latent Fingerprint

Prepuberty Considerations

Crime Scene Investigator Skill Level

Additional Factors to Consider

Three Categories of Fingerprints

Latent Fingerprint

Patent or Visible Fingerprint

Plastic Fingerprint

Training Is Important

Experimentation at the Scene

Types of Brushes

Fiberglass and Animal-Hair Brushes

Magnetic Brushes

Proper Uses of Brushes

Fiberglass or Squirrel-Hair Brush

Magnetic Brush

Fiberglass/Squirrel-Hair Brushes vs. Magnetic Wands

Contaminated Surfaces

Powders

Aluminum Flake Powder

Granular Powder

Magnetic Powders

All Other Powders

Powder Studies

Colored vs. Black Powders

Lifting Latent Fingerprints

Clear Lifting Tape

Latent Fingerprint Backing Cards

Fingerprint Lifting Aids

Techniques for Applying Tape to Surfaces

Techniques for Attaching Tape to Backing Card

Extending a Backing Card

Using 2-in. Tape to Make Palm-Sized Tape

Trim Ends of Tape

Other Techniques for Lifting Latent Fingerprints

Incidental Marks on the Lifting Tape

Powder-Processing Methods

Additional Fingerprint Development Techniques

Visual Examination

Ultraviolet Examination

Fluorescence Examination

Chemical Processing

Cyanoacrylate Method

Dye Stains for Post-Cyanoacrylate Fuming

Additional Methods Not Discussed

Additional Chemical Processing Methods

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Paper Evidence

Ninhydrin Method

DFO

1,2-Indanedione Method

Zinc Chloride Method

Thermal Paper

Additional Methods Not Discussed

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Adhesive Side of Tape

Sticky-Side Powder Method

Wet Wop/Wet Powder Method

TapeGlo Method

Gentian Violet Method

Submitting Tape

Additional Methods Not Discussed

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Blood-Contaminated Evidence

Acid Violet 17 Method

Acid Yellow 7 Method

Amido Black (Methanol Based) Method

Amido Black (Water Based) Method

Leucocrystal Violet Method

Fuchsin Acid Method

Coomassie Blue Method

Crowle’s Double-Stain Method

DAB Method

ABTS Method

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Skin

Direct-Transfer Method

Cyanoacrylate

Developing Latent Fingerprints on Fire-Scene Evidence

Photography

Sketches

Notes

Evidence Collection

Fingerprint Flow Charts

References

Evidence Collection and Packaging

Swabbing Techniques

Liquid Samples

Trace Evidence Lifter

Paper Bindle or Pharmacists Fold

Exercise

Scrapping

Evidence Packaging

Butcher Paper

Properly Sealing Packages

Exercise 10.2

Chain of Custody

Evidence Numbering

TYPES OF EVIDENCE

Exercises for Physical Evidence

Evidence

Characteristics of Physical Evidence

Class Characteristics

Individual or Identification Characteristics

Locard’s Exchange Principle

Physical Evidence and Investigative Questions

Clothing Documentation

Cut Clothing

Torn Clothing

Exercises

Exercises for Serological Evidence

Types of Biological/Serological

Evidence

DNA Issues

Exercises

Exercises for Trace Evidence

Trace Evidence

Abrasives

Adhesives/Calk/Sealant

Bank Security Dyes

Building Materials

Chemicals of Unknown Origin

Cigarette and Tobacco

Explosives and Explosives Residue

Feathers

Fibers

Glass

Hair

Lubricants

Metals

Paint

Plants and Plant Materials

Polymers

Rope/String/ Twine

Safe Insulation

Soil

Tape

Wood and Pieces of Wood

Exercises

Exercises for Firearms and Toolmark Evidence

Firearms and Firearm Categories

Semi-Auto Magazines

Ammunition

Revolvers

Technique for Casting the Barrel with Forensic Sil or AccuTrans

Exercise

The Gunshot Residue (GSR) Kit

Toolmarks

Rubber Casting

Durocast™ Technique

Mikrosil™ Technique

Forensic Sil/AccuTrans Technique

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Exercises for Footwear Impression Evidence

Introduction

Usefulness of Footwear Impressions

Positive and Negative Impressions

Mirror Technique

Photographing the Impression

Impressions in Direct Sunlight May Be Shaded from the Direct Sunlight

Photographing the Cast, Electrostatic Lifter, or Gel Lifter

Stabilizing the Impression

Stabilizing with Hair Spray

Stabilizing/Visualizing with Gray Auto-Body Primer

Stabilizing/Visualizing with Red Snow Print Wax

Preparing the Casting Medium

Collection of Cast

Conventional Enhancements

Fingerprint Powders

Exercises

Tire Track Evidence

Wheelbase

Tire Position in a Turn

Photography

Exercises

Exercises for Digital Evidence

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Exercises for Injury Documentation

Injury Documentation

Open Wounds

Closed Wounds

Bruising

Mongolian Spots

Scarring

Burns

Bite Marks

Exercise

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Exercises for Shooting Scene Documentation

Ballistics

Proper Documentation of Shooting Scene

Bullet Defect Labeling

Proper Measurements to Document Bullet Defects

Locating an Exclusive Secondary Defect

Proper Rod Placement

Measurements of the Bullet Defect and Trajectory Rod

Azimuth or Horizontal Angle

Vertical Angle

Documenting Bullet Defects Using the Entrance and Exit Defects

Shotgun Patterns

Vehicle Edge Reference

Documenting Bullet Defects Using the Entrance and Exit Defects

Ricochets

Photography

Label Each Bullet Defect

Photographing Horizontal and Vertical Measurements

Bullet Defects in Glass

Photographing Bullet Defects as a Measuring Tool

Exercises

Exercises for Bloodstain Documentation

Proper Documentation of Bloodstains

Bloodstain Terminology

Additional Terms to Be Aware Of

Photo Documentation Technique for Bloodstains

Initial Overall, Midrange, and Close-Up Photographs

Label Individual Spatter Patterns

Label Individual Stains within Each Spatter Pattern

Overall Photographs, Second Set

Examination-Quality

Photographs

Exercises

Exercises for Identifying Clandestine Graves and Scattered Human Remains

Forensic Botany

Forensic Entomology

Postmortem Interval (PMI)

Geology

Hydrogeology

Soil Compaction

Subsidence

Soil Moisture

Stratigraphic Discontinuities

Superposition

Using Soil-Coring Tool/Soil Probe

Search for the Grave

Initial Search

Documenting the Scene

Exercises

Fire Scenes

The Fire

Fire Progression Stages

Fire Investigation Terminology

Burn Patterns and Indicators

Arson Accelerants

Documenting a Fire Scene

Exercises

Exercise

Photo Exercise

Exercises for Questioned Document Evidence

Importance of Questioned Document Examinations

Exercises

PUTTING IT TOGETHER

Processing Methodology Exercises

Mock Crime Scene

Exercises

Report-Writing

Exercises

Exercise

References

Photography References

Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements References

Latent Fingerprint Development References

Evidence Collection and Packaging References

Firearms and Toolmark Evidence References

Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence References

Shooting Scene Documentation References

Bloodstain Documentation References

Index

About the Author

Everett Baxter Jr. has over 21 years of combined law enforcement experience. Mr. Baxter’s education includes an associate’s degree in applied science (emergency medical technology) from Oklahoma City Community College. As a licensed paramedic in the state of Oklahoma, he also received extensive training in medical emergencies, including instruction in how to identify the mechanism of injury on a human body. As a field paramedic, he gained invaluable experience in determining the mechanism of injury from the auto collisions, shootings, stabbings, assaults, etc., that he responded to as a paramedic. He also has a bachelor of science in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma.

Once Mr. Baxter became a member of the Oklahoma City Police Department’s crime scene unit, he was able to put his medical and scientific education to use as an investigator. He continued his training with numerous courses in bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting scene reconstruction, fingerprinting, and forensic mapping.

Mr. Baxter currently teaches a basic crime scene investigations course for the Oklahoma City Police Department. He is also an adjunct professor at Oklahoma State University–Oklahoma City, where he teaches Technical Investigations, Police Photography, and Basic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW026000
LAW / Criminal Law / General
LAW041000
LAW / Forensic Science