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Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook





ISBN 9781498701426
Published May 21, 2015 by CRC Press
282 Pages 343 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

This specially developed workbook can be used in conjunction with the Complete Crime Scene Investigation Handbook (ISBN: 978-1-4987-0144-0) in group training environments, or for individuals looking for independent, step-by-step self-study guide. It presents an abridged version of the Handbook, supplying both students and professionals with the most critical points and extensive hands-on exercises for skill enhancement. Filled with more than 350 full-color images, the Complete Crime Scene Investigation Workbook walks readers through self-tests and exercises they can perform to practice and improve their documentation, collection, and processing techniques.

Most experienced crime scene investigators will tell you that it is virtually impossible to be an expert in every aspect of crime scene investigations. If you begin to "specialize" too soon, you risk not becoming a well-rounded crime scene investigator. Establishing a complete foundation to the topic, the exercises in this workbook reinforce the concepts presented in the Handbook with a practical, real-world application.

As a crime scene investigator, reports need to be more descriptive than they are at the patrol officer level. This workbook provides a range of scenarios around which to coordinate multiple exercises and lab examples, and space is provided to write descriptions of observations. The book also supplies step-by-step, fully illustrative photographs of crime scene procedures, protocols, and evidence collection and testing techniques.

This lab exercise workbook is ideal for use in conjunction with the Handbook, both in group training settings, as well as a stand-alone workbook for individuals looking for hands-on self-study. It is a must-have resource for crime scene technicians, investigators, and professionals who want a complete manual of crime scene collection and processing techniques.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

The Investigative Team
The Initial Responding Officer
     Natural Boundary
     Artificial Boundary
     Start a Crime Scene Log
The Crime Scene Investigator
     Goals of the Crime Scene Investigator
The Detective
The Analyst
The Prosecutor
The Defense Attorney
The Crime Scene Analyst/Reconstructionist
Exercises

Forensic Search and Seizure
Do We Have the Right to Be at the Scene?
     The Fourth Amendment.
Legal Means to Process Scene
     Consent
Search Incident to Arrest
Exigent Circumstances
Search Warrant
     Search Warrant Returns
Court Order
Exceptions to the Warrant Requirements
Forensic Evidence
Exercises

DOCUMENTATION

Note-Taking Exercises
Purpose of Documentation
Note Taking
Task Lists/To-do Lists
Field Notes
     Note Categories
Exercises

Photography Exercises
Uses of Photography
Photographic Terms
Photo Exercise
Cropping or Magnification Factor
Files
Exposure Compensation Button
Photo Exercise
Shooting Modes
Additional Equipment
Photo Exercise
Photo Exercise
Exposure
Light
Lighting Angles
Distances
     Camera Distance
     Light Distance
     Light Source Closest to Camera
     The Importance of Light
     Using Direct Reflections
Photo Exercises
Additional Lighting Considerations
Photo Exercises
Photo Log
Flash Photography
Photo Exercises

Sketching Exercises
Uses of Sketches and Forensic Maps
Sketch Information
Reducing Clutter in Sketch
Admissibility of Sketches into Court
Types of Sketches
Measurement
     Accuracy of Measuring Devices
     Use of Landmarks
     Fixed vs. Nonfixed Measurements
     Measuring Methods
Creating a Sketch
     Interval vs. Continual Measuring Method
     Creating a Final Sketch
     Making Your Rough Sketch Permanent
     Three-Dimensional Sketches
Conclusion
Exercises

LOCATING EVIDENCE

Searching
Searches and Search Patterns
Intrusiveness of the Search
Special Considerations
Interior and Exterior Searches
Interior Searches
Exterior Searches
Vehicle Searches
Exercises

Alternate Light Sources
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Qualities of Light
Alternate Light Sources
Filters
Camera Filter vs. External Light Filter
Exercise
Photo Exercise

Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements
Presumptive Tests
     Catalytic Tests
     Specificity vs. Sensitivity
     Swab Testing Method
     Pouch Testing Method
     Types of Presumptive Tests
Exercises
Photo Exercise
Chemical Enhancements
Exercise
Photo Exercise
Exercise
Photo Exercise
Confirmatory Tests for Blood
Semen
A Note on Shelf Life

Latent Fingerprint Development
Introduction
Attempts to Avoid Detection
Fingerprint Characteristics
     Fingerprint Classification Statistics
     Fingerprint Detail
     Fingerprint Makeup
     A Point of Clarification
Uses of Fingerprints
Things to Consider before Fingerprinting
     Age of Latent Fingerprint
     Prepuberty Considerations
     Crime Scene Investigator Skill Level
     Additional Factors to Consider
Three Categories of Fingerprints
     Latent Fingerprint
     Patent or Visible Fingerprint
     Plastic Fingerprint
Training Is Important
Experimentation at the Scene
Types of Brushes
     Fiberglass and Animal-Hair Brushes
     Magnetic Brushes
Proper Uses of Brushes
     Fiberglass or Squirrel-Hair Brush
     Magnetic Brush
     Fiberglass/Squirrel-Hair Brushes vs. Magnetic Wands
     Contaminated Surfaces
Powders
     Aluminum Flake Powder
     Granular Powder
     Magnetic Powders
     All Other Powders
     Powder Studies
     Colored vs. Black Powders
Lifting Latent Fingerprints
     Clear Lifting Tape
     Latent Fingerprint Backing Cards
     Fingerprint Lifting Aids
     Techniques for Applying Tape to Surfaces
     Techniques for Attaching Tape to Backing Card
     Extending a Backing Card
     Using 2-in. Tape to Make Palm-Sized Tape
     Trim Ends of Tape
     Other Techniques for Lifting Latent Fingerprints
     Incidental Marks on the Lifting Tape
Powder-Processing Methods
Additional Fingerprint Development Techniques
     Visual Examination
     Ultraviolet Examination
     Fluorescence Examination
Chemical Processing
     Cyanoacrylate Method
     Dye Stains for Post-Cyanoacrylate Fuming
     Additional Methods Not Discussed
     Additional Chemical Processing Methods
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Paper Evidence
     Ninhydrin Method
     DFO
     1,2-Indanedione Method
     Zinc Chloride Method
     Thermal Paper
     Additional Methods Not Discussed
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Adhesive Side of Tape
     Sticky-Side Powder Method
     Wet Wop/Wet Powder Method
     TapeGlo Method
     Gentian Violet Method
     Submitting Tape
     Additional Methods Not Discussed
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Blood-Contaminated Evidence
     Acid Violet 17 Method
     Acid Yellow 7 Method
     Amido Black (Methanol Based) Method
     Amido Black (Water Based) Method
     Leucocrystal Violet Method
     Fuchsin Acid Method
     Coomassie Blue Method
     Crowle’s Double-Stain Method
     DAB Method
     ABTS Method
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Skin
     Direct-Transfer Method
     Cyanoacrylate
Developing Latent Fingerprints on Fire-Scene Evidence
Photography
     Sketches
     Notes
Evidence Collection
Fingerprint Flow Charts
References

Evidence Collection and Packaging
Swabbing Techniques
Liquid Samples
Trace Evidence Lifter
Paper Bindle or Pharmacists Fold
Exercise
Scrapping
Evidence Packaging
Butcher Paper
Properly Sealing Packages
Exercise 10.2
Chain of Custody
Evidence Numbering

TYPES OF EVIDENCE

Exercises for Physical Evidence
Evidence
Characteristics of Physical Evidence
Class Characteristics
Individual or Identification Characteristics
Locard’s Exchange Principle
Physical Evidence and Investigative Questions
Clothing Documentation
Cut Clothing
Torn Clothing
Exercises

Exercises for Serological Evidence
Types of Biological/Serological
Evidence
DNA Issues
Exercises

Exercises for Trace Evidence
Trace Evidence
     Abrasives
     Adhesives/Calk/Sealant
     Bank Security Dyes
     Building Materials
     Chemicals of Unknown Origin
     Cigarette and Tobacco
     Explosives and Explosives Residue
     Feathers
     Fibers
     Glass
     Hair
     Lubricants
     Metals
     Paint
     Plants and Plant Materials
     Polymers
     Rope/String/ Twine
     Safe Insulation
     Soil
     Tape
     Wood and Pieces of Wood
Exercises

Exercises for Firearms and Toolmark Evidence
Firearms and Firearm Categories
Semi-Auto Magazines
Ammunition
Revolvers
Technique for Casting the Barrel with Forensic Sil or AccuTrans
Exercise
The Gunshot Residue (GSR) Kit
Toolmarks
     Rubber Casting
     Durocast™ Technique
     Mikrosil™ Technique
     Forensic Sil/AccuTrans Technique
Exercise
Photo Exercise

Exercises for Footwear Impression Evidence
Introduction
Usefulness of Footwear Impressions
     Positive and Negative Impressions
     Mirror Technique
     Photographing the Impression
     Impressions in Direct Sunlight May Be Shaded from the Direct Sunlight
     Photographing the Cast, Electrostatic Lifter, or Gel Lifter
     Stabilizing the Impression
     Stabilizing with Hair Spray
     Stabilizing/Visualizing with Gray Auto-Body Primer
     Stabilizing/Visualizing with Red Snow Print Wax
     Preparing the Casting Medium
     Collection of Cast
Conventional Enhancements
     Fingerprint Powders
Exercises
Tire Track Evidence
     Wheelbase
     Tire Position in a Turn
     Photography
Exercises

Exercises for Digital Evidence
Exercise
Photo Exercise

Exercises for Injury Documentation
Injury Documentation
     Open Wounds
     Closed Wounds
     Bruising
     Mongolian Spots
     Scarring
     Burns
     Bite Marks
Exercise

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Exercises for Shooting Scene Documentation
Ballistics
Proper Documentation of Shooting Scene
Bullet Defect Labeling
     Proper Measurements to Document Bullet Defects
     Locating an Exclusive Secondary Defect
     Proper Rod Placement
     Measurements of the Bullet Defect and Trajectory Rod
     Azimuth or Horizontal Angle
     Vertical Angle
     Documenting Bullet Defects Using the Entrance and Exit Defects
     Shotgun Patterns
     Vehicle Edge Reference
     Documenting Bullet Defects Using the Entrance and Exit Defects
     Ricochets
     Photography
     Label Each Bullet Defect
     Photographing Horizontal and Vertical Measurements
     Bullet Defects in Glass
     Photographing Bullet Defects as a Measuring Tool
Exercises

Exercises for Bloodstain Documentation
Proper Documentation of Bloodstains
Bloodstain Terminology
Additional Terms to Be Aware Of
Photo Documentation Technique for Bloodstains
     Initial Overall, Midrange, and Close-Up Photographs
     Label Individual Spatter Patterns
     Label Individual Stains within Each Spatter Pattern
     Overall Photographs, Second Set
     Examination-Quality
Photographs
Exercises

Exercises for Identifying Clandestine Graves and Scattered Human Remains
Forensic Botany
Forensic Entomology
     Postmortem Interval (PMI)
Geology
     Hydrogeology
     Soil Compaction
     Subsidence
     Soil Moisture
     Stratigraphic Discontinuities
     Superposition
     Using Soil-Coring Tool/Soil Probe
Search for the Grave
     Initial Search
     Documenting the Scene
Exercises

Fire Scenes
The Fire
Fire Progression Stages
Fire Investigation Terminology
Burn Patterns and Indicators
Arson Accelerants
Documenting a Fire Scene
Exercises
Exercise
Photo Exercise

Exercises for Questioned Document Evidence

Importance of Questioned Document Examinations
Exercises

PUTTING IT TOGETHER

Processing Methodology Exercises
Mock Crime Scene
Exercises

Report-Writing
Exercises
Exercise

References

Photography References
Presumptive Tests and Chemical Enhancements References
Latent Fingerprint Development References
Evidence Collection and Packaging References
Firearms and Toolmark Evidence References
Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence References
Shooting Scene Documentation References
Bloodstain Documentation References

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Everett Baxter Jr. has over 21 years of combined law enforcement experience. Mr. Baxter’s education includes an associate’s degree in applied science (emergency medical technology) from Oklahoma City Community College. As a licensed paramedic in the state of Oklahoma, he also received extensive training in medical emergencies, including instruction in how to identify the mechanism of injury on a human body. As a field paramedic, he gained invaluable experience in determining the mechanism of injury from the auto collisions, shootings, stabbings, assaults, etc., that he responded to as a paramedic. He also has a bachelor of science in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma.

Once Mr. Baxter became a member of the Oklahoma City Police Department’s crime scene unit, he was able to put his medical and scientific education to use as an investigator. He continued his training with numerous courses in bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting scene reconstruction, fingerprinting, and forensic mapping.

Mr. Baxter currently teaches a basic crime scene investigations course for the Oklahoma City Police Department. He is also an adjunct professor at Oklahoma State University–Oklahoma City, where he teaches Technical Investigations, Police Photography, and Basic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis.

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Author - Everett  Baxter Jr.
Author

Everett Baxter Jr.

Owner, Everett Baxter Jr Forensics, LLC
Moore, Oklahoma, USA

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