The accessibility of the skin in vivo has resulted in the development of non-invasive methods in the past 40 years that offer accurate measurements of skin properties and structures from microscopic to macroscopic levels. However, the mechanisms involved in these properties are still only partly understood. Similar to many other domains, including biomedical engineering, numerical modeling has appeared as a complementary key actor for improving our knowledge of skin physiology.
This book presents, for the first time, the contributions that focus on scientific computing and numerical modeling to offer a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in skin physiology. The book is structured around some skin properties and functions, including optical and biomechanical properties and skin barrier function and homeostasis, with—for each of them—several chapters that describe either biological or physical models at different scales.
Table of Contents
Preface; Howard I. Maibach
Foreword; Bernard Querleux
PART 1: Skin color
Multilayer Modeling of Skin Color and Translucency; Gladimir V. G. Baranoski, Tenn F. Chen, and Aravind Krishnaswamy
Dermal component based optical modeling of the skin translucency: impact on the skin color; Igor Meglinski, Alexander Doronin, Alexey N. Bashkatov, Elina A. Genina, and Valery V. Tuchin
Mathematics and biological process of skin pigmentation; Josef Thingnes, Leiv Øyehaug, and Eivind Hovig
PART 2: Skin biomechanics
State-of-the-art constitutive models of skin biomechanics; Georges Limbert
Fiber-matrix models of the dermis; Cormac Flynn
Cellular scale model of the stratum corneum; Roberto Santoprete, and Bernard Querleux
PART 3: Skin barrier
Mathematical models of skin permeability: microscopic transport models and their predictions; Gerald B. Kasting, and Johannes M. Nitsche
Cellular scale modelling of the skin barrier; Dirk Feuchter, Michael Heisig, Arne Naegel, Martin Scherer, and Gabriel Wittum
Molecular scale modeling of skin permeation; Sophie Martel, and Pierre-Alain Carrupt
Accessing the molecular organization of the stratum corneum using high resolution electron microscopy and computer simulation; Lars Norlén, Jamshed Anwar, and Ozan Öktem
PART 4: Skin fluids and components
Water diffusion through stratum corneum; Robert E. Imhof, and Peng Xiao
Accurate multi-scale skin model suitable for determining the sensitivity and specificity of changes of skin components; Jürg Fröhlich, Sonja Hulova, Christian Beyer, and Daniel Erni
Model based Quantification of Skin Microcirculatory Perfusion; Ingemar Fredriksson, Marcus Larsson, and Tomas Strömberg
PART 5: Skin homeostasis
Graphical Multi-Scale Modeling of Epidermal Homeostasis with EPISIM; Thomas Sütterlin, and Niels Grabe
Heuristic Modeling Applied to Epidermal Homeostasis; François Iris, Manuel Gea, Paul-Henri Lampe, and Bernard Querleux
Bernard Querleux is senior research associate at the Worldwide Advanced Research center of L’Oreal Research & Innovation, France. He obtained his doctorate in electronic engineering and signal processing from the University of Grenoble, France, in 1987 and his habilitation in biophysics from Paris-Sud University, France, in 1995. Since 2005, Dr. Querleux is serving as scientific chairperson of the International Society for Biophysics and Imaging of the Skin. Apart from being an expert in functional brain imaging for the objective assessment of sensory perception, his main research interests concern the development of new non-invasive methods, including numerical modeling for skin and hair characterization.
"This book presents an excellent overview of the state of the art in the computational modeling of the skin, ranging from optical and biomechanical modeling to a discussion on the skin barrier function and skin fluids. All chapters are written by internationally well-known researchers in the field, each of them supplying a comprehensive reference list for each chapter. It is an excellent read for anyone starting in the field and also a very good source of information for experts."
Prof. Cees W. J. Oomens, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
"This book offers a fantastic approach to the non-invasive research of the skin. It will be a valuable reference for not only students but also experts in skin research."
Prof. Chil Hwan Oh, Korea University, South Korea