1st Edition

Computational Modeling of Underground Coal Gasification

    356 Pages 133 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The book deals with development of comprehensive computational models for simulating underground coal gasification (UCG). It starts with an introduction to the UCG process and process modelling inputs in the form of reaction kinetics, flow patterns, spalling rate, and transport coefficient that are elaborated with methods to generate the same are described with illustrations. All the known process models are reviewed, and relative merits and limitations of the modeling approaches are highlighted and compared. The book describes all the necessary steps required to determine the techno-economic feasibility of UCG process for a given coal reserve, through modeling and simulation.

    Chapter 1: Introduction

    1.1. World energy scenario

    1.2. Cleaner energy from coal

    1.3. Underground coal gasification

    1.4. Computational modelling of UCG

    1.5. Organization of this book

    Chapter 2: Underground Coal Gasification: State of the Art

    2.1 Underground coal gasification

    2.2 UCG technologies

    2.3 UCG field trials

    2.4 Mitigating environmental risks

    2.5 Importance of coal properties in UCG process

    Part I: Pre-requisites of Computational Modeling

    Chapter 3: Physico-chemical Properties of Coal

    3.1 Types of coal

    3.2 Chemical properties of coal

    3.3 Physical and mechanical properties

    3.4 Summary

    Chapter 4: Kinetics of Coal Gasification

    4.1 Drying and pyrolysis

    4.2 Chemical reactions

    4.3 Kinetic studies – Experimental methods

    4.4 Kinetic models for coal gasification

    4.5 Catalytic effect of ash and char on different reactions

    4.6 Summary

    Chapter 5: Laboratory Studies on Underground Coal Gasification

    5.1. Overview of laboratory-scale UCG experiments

    5.2 Typical laboratory setup and procedure

    5.3 Combustion cavity experiments

    5.4 Gasification cavity experiments

    5.5 Experiments to measure spalling rate

    5.6 Determination of heat transfer coefficient in UCG cavity

    5.7 Summary

    Part II: Computational Modeling

    Chapter 6: Approach towards computational modeling of UCG

    6.1. Overall modelling approach

    6.2. Role of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics

    6.3. Role of flow patterns

    6.4. Role of heat and mass transport

    6.5. Role of spalling

    6.6. Overview of available process models

    6.7. Summary

    Chapter 7: Thermodynamic & Reaction Engineering Models

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Thermodynamic models

    7.3 Reaction engineering (CRE) models

    7.4 Summary

    Chapter 8: Multi-zonal and CFD Models

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Development of the compartment model

    8.3. Results from compartment model

    8.4. Model parametric studies

    8.5. New integrated 3-D UCG simulator from LLNL

    8.6. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models

    8.7. Well layout design for UCG

    8.8. Summary and Conclusions

    Part III: Summary

    Chapter 9: Summary, Conclusions and Path Forward

    9.1. UCG: Current status

    9.2. Computational modelling for pushing frontiers & realizing potential of UCG

    9.3. Path forward


    Vivek Ranade is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Queen’s University Belfast. His research focus is on developing insights, innovations & intensified solutions for sustainable energy, water and chemicals. He uses computational flow modelling, hydrodynamic cavitation and MAGIC (modular, agile, intensified & continuous) processes to achieve this. Before moving to Queen’s, he led chemical engineering at CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India. Contributed significantly to chemical engineering science and practice. Developed performance enhancement solutions, software products and fluidic devices for variety of applications which are commercialized. Developed new insights and methodologies for process intensification. He is an Associate Editor of ‘Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research’ and serves on editorial boards of ‘Chemical Engineering Research & Design’ and ‘Indian Chemical Engineer’ journals. He is a recipient of numerous awards including highest Indian Scientific award Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar award for scientists under 45 years. He is a fellow of Institute of Chemical Engineers, UK; Indian National Academy Sciences; Indian National Academy of Engineering and Indian Academy of Sciences. Published more than 150 papers and 6 books (> 6500 citations, h index=45: from Google Scholar). Co-inventor of more than 20 patents. Co-founded two technology companies: Tridiagonal Solutions and VIVIRA Process Technologies.

    Prof. Sanjay Mahajani received his Bachelors and Ph. D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering from UDCT (now known as ICT), Mumbai in 1989 and 1996, respectively, and the Master’s degree from IIT Bombay in 1992. After completing his Ph.D., he worked in Monash University, Australia (1996-2000) as post-doctoral research fellow. He joined IIT-Bombay as Assistant Professor in 2000, and is presently a full professor (2008-date) in Department of Chemical engineering. He also holds a position of Professor-in-charge of the newly formed Tata Centre of Technology and Design at IIT Bombay. Prof. Mahajani’s research interests are: reaction engneering and applied catalysis, process intensification, and gasification of coal and biomass. He has worked on several industry sponsored projects that include, underground coal gasification, catalyst development, reactive distillation and its applications. He was part of the faculty team responsible for developing a laboratory facility and building a research group to conduct laboratory research on Underground Coal gasification for Indian coals. He has over 120 international research papers and notable awards in research and teaching to his credit.

    Ganesh Samdani is a chemical engineer by training and he received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay with a strong focus on computational modelling of underground coal gasification. He has published his work in peer-reviewed journals and he has provided several talks on the computational modelling UCG as well as other reactive flow processes. From last 4 years, he is with Honeywell India Technology center (HITC), Gurgaon, India where he leads the kinetic and CFD modelling team. He has received green belt in six-sigma for its application in process improvement. His work at Honeywell is related to application of multiphase and reactive flow modelling for process development and equipment design in the field of refinery and petrochemicals.Ho His current research interests are related to refinery-residue upgradation, novel reactors for petrochemicals, upscaling of industrial reactors, coal and biomass utilization and renewable feedstocks for standard refinery units. He has also received various Honeywell internal awards for his technical excellence and process development efforts.