Challenging and complex questions around inequality and power have been persistent within modern systems of education since their inception. But in the last four or five decades the vibrant field of critical education has developed and grown in response to such issues. Specifically, education scholars adopting a critical approach seek to interrogate how social, economic, cultural, linguistic, racial, sexual, and other forms of difference intersect and play out within school policy and classroom practices. Additionally, such scholars have shed light on the ways in which education can transform schools and society to be more just and radically democratic.
The learned editors of this landmark Routledge Major Work collection argue that the field of critical education has become central within educational research. Most teacher-training programmes include courses that examine both the problems of inequality in education, and also how teachers and scholars can work to ameliorate those same problems. Moreover, the reach of critical educational research, policy, and practice is now truly international. The influence of these perspectives in Brazil and throughout Latin America, in part due to the work of Paulo Freire, is particularly striking. Powerful currents of critical education can also be found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. For example, entire states within India have based their efforts in school reform and the interruption of educationally driven inequalities around the principles of critical pedagogic and curricular traditions, arguments, and practices that have been enunciated in the literature. Another example can be found in China, where Beijing Normal University—which has the most influential school of education in China—has established a research centre in the name of the lead editor of this collection to document and spread the national and international influences of critical education.
With the established and growing potency and influence of critical education across national borders, this new Routledge title answers the need for an authoritative reference work to enable users to map and make sense of critical approaches to education. The volumes focus on both historical antecedents in the field (including key works produced before the term ‘critical education’ gained wide currency but which anticipate approaches now included under that rubric), as well as what might be considered foundational or guiding texts that broke new theoretical or political ground in their time. They also address crucial controversies and contradictions, while bringing together some of the sharpest and most insightful pieces of contemporary critical education scholarship and points towards significant new directions in the field.
Supplemented with a full index, and general and volume introductions, newly written by the editors, which situate the collected materials in their historical and intellectual context, Critical Education is certain to be appreciated by scholars, students, and researchers as a vital reference and pedagogic resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Historical Roots and Antecedents
1. R. Johnson, ‘"Really Useful Knowledge": Radical Education and Working-Class Culture, 1790–1848’, in J. Clarke, C. Critcher, and R. Johnson (eds.), Working-Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory (Hutchinson of London, 1979), pp. 77–102.
2. K. Teitelbaum, Restoring Collective Memory: The Pasts of Critical Education, in M. Apple, W. Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009), pp. 312–25.
3. W. Au, ‘Vygotsky and Lenin on Learning: The Parallel Structures of Individual and Social Development’, Science & Society, 2007, 71, 3, 273–98.
4. C. J. Karier, ‘Testing for Order and Control in the Corporate Liberal State’, Educational Theory, 1972, 22, 159–80.
5. A. Stoskopf, ‘An Untold Story of Resistance: African American Educators and IQ Testing in the 1920s and 1930s’, in W. Au and M. Bollow-Tempel (eds.), Pencils Down: Rethinking High-Stakes Testing and Accountability in Public Schools (Rethinking Schools Ltd, 2012), pp. 175–82.
6. W. H. Watkins, ‘Black Curriculum Orientations: A Preliminary Inquiry’, Harvard Educational Review, 1993, 63, 3, 321–38.
7. E. C. Lagemann, ‘Prophecy or Profession? George S. Counts and the Social Study of Education’, American Journal of Education, 1992, 100, 2, 137–65.
8. K. Riley, ‘The Triumph of Americanism: The American Legion and Harold Rugg’, in K. Riley (ed.), Social Reconstruction: People Politics Perspectives (Information Age Publishing, 2006), pp. 111–26.
9. Daniel Perlstein, ‘Minds Stayed on Freedom: Politics and Pedagogy in the African-American Freedom Struggle’, American Educational Research Journal, 2002, 39, 2, 249–77.
10. M. Horton and C. Lewis, ‘Highlander’, in R. Dropkin and A. Tobier (eds.), Roots of Open Education in America (The City College Workshop Center for Open Education, 1976), pp. 73–90.
11. S. M. Lipsit and P. G. Altbach, ‘Student Politics and Higher Education in the United States’, Comparative Education Review, 1966, 10, 2, 320–49.
12. D. D. Bernal, ‘Rethinking Grassroots Activism: Chicana Resistance in the 1968 East Los Angeles Blowouts’, in M. Apple and K. Buras (eds.), The Subaltern Speak: Curriculum, Power, and Educational Struggles (Routledge, 2006), pp. 141–62.
13. Tom Woodin, ‘Working-Class Education and Social Change in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Britain’, History of Education, 2007, 36, 4–5, 483–96.
14. M. Nash, ‘The Historiography of Education for Girls and Women in the United States’, in W. Reese and J. Rury (eds.), Rethinking the History of American Education (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 143–60.
15. Jessica Gerrard, ‘Tracing Radical Working-Class Education: Praxis and Historical Representation’, History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society, 2012, 41, 4, 537–58.
Volume II: The Debate Over Reproduction
16. P. Freire, ‘Cultural Action and Conscientization’, Harvard Educational Review, 1970, 40, 3, 452–77.
17. Ray Rist, ‘Social Class and Teacher Expectations: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education’, Harvard Education Review, 1970, 70, 3, 257–301.
18. S. Bowles and H. Gintis, ‘Capitalism and Education in the United States’, in M. Young and G. Whitty (eds.), Society, State and Schooling (Falmer Press, 1977), pp. 172–91.
19. M. Carnoy, ‘Education, Economy, and the State’, in M. W. Apple (ed.), Cultural and Economic Reproduction in Education: Essays on Class, Ideology and the State (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982), pp. 79–126.
20. J. Oakes, ‘The Reproduction of Inequity: The Content of Secondary School Tracking’, The Urban Review, 1982, 14, 2, 107–20.
21. G. P. Kelly and A. S. Nihlen, ‘Schooling and the Reproduction of Patriarchy: Unequal Workloads, Unequal Rewards’, in M. W. Apple (ed.), Cultural and Economic Reproduction in Education: Essays on Class, Ideology and the State (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982), pp. 162–80.
22. M. Arnot, ‘Male Hegemony, Social Class and Women’s Education’, in L. Stone (ed.), The Education Feminism Reader (Routledge, 1982).
23. P. Bourdieu, ‘Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction’, in Richard Brown (ed.), Knowledge, Education, and Cultural Change (Tavistock, 1973), pp. 71–112.
24. B. Bernstein, ‘On the Classification and Framing of Educational Knowledge’, Class, Codes, and Control, 2nd edn., Vol. 3 (Routledge, 1977), pp. 85–115.
25. G. Whitty, ‘Sociology and the Problems of Radical Educational Change: Notes Towards a Reconceptualisation of the ‘New Sociology of Education’, in M. Flude and J. Ahier (eds.), Educability, Schools and Ideology (Halsted Press, 1974), pp. 112–37.
26. M. W. Apple and N. R. King, ‘What Do Schools Teach?’, Curriculum Inquiry, 1977, 6, 4, 341–58.
27. J. Anyon, ‘Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work’, Journal of Education, 1980, 162, 1, 67–92.
28. M. W. Apple, ‘The Other Side of the Hidden Curriculum: Correspondence Theories and the Labor Process’, Interchange, 1980–1, 11, 3, 5–22.
29. Willis, ‘The Class Significance of School Counter-Culture’, in R. Dale, G. Esland, R. Ferguson, and M. MacDonald (eds.), Education and the State, Vol. 1 (Falmer Press, 1981), pp. 257–73.
30. A. McRobbie, ‘Working-Class Girls and the Culture of Femininity’, in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies Women’s Studies Group (eds.), Women Take Issue (Hutchinson of London, 1978), pp. 96–108.
31. H. A. Giroux, ‘Theories of Reproduction and Resistance in the New Sociology of Education: A Critical Analysis’, Harvard Educational Review, 1983, 53, 3, 257–93.
Volume III: Expanding the Analyses of Power
32. M. W. Apple and L. Weis, ‘Seeing Education Relationally: The Stratification of Culture and People and the Sociology of School Knowledge’, Journal of Education, 1986, 168, 1, 7–34.
33. M. W. Apple, ‘Standing on the Shoulders of Bowles and Gintis: Class Formation and Capitalist Schools’, History of Education Quarterly, 1988, 28, 2, 231–41.
34. S. Bowles and H. Gintis, ‘Schooling in Capitalist America: Reply to Our Critics’, in M. Cole (ed.), Bowles and Gintis Revisited: Correspondence and Contradiction in Educational Theory (Falmer Press, 1988), pp. 235–45.
35. E. Ellsworth, ‘Why Doesn’t This Feel Empowering? Working Through the Repressive Myths of Critical Pedagogy’, Harvard Educational Review, 1989, 59, 3, 297–324.
36. C. Luke, ‘Feminist Politics in Radical Pedagogy’, in C. Luke and J. Gore (eds.), Feminisms and Critical Pedagogy (Routledge, 1992), pp. 25–53.
37. J. Gore, ‘On the Limits to Empowerment Through Critical and Feminist Pedagogies’, in D. Carlson and M. W. Apple (eds.), Power/Knowledge/Pedagogy: The Meaning of Democratic Education in Unsettling Times (Westview Press, 1988), pp. 271–88.
38. W. Au, ‘Fighting with the Text: Critical Issues in the Development of Freirian Pedagogy’, in M. W. Apple, W Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009), pp. 221–31.
39. P. Freire and D. Macedo, ‘A Dialogue: Culture, Language, and Race’, Harvard Educational Review, 1995, 65, 3, 377–402.
40. G. Ladson-Billings and W. F. Tate IV, ‘Towards a Critical Race Theory of Education’, Teachers College Record, 1995, 97, 1, 47–68.
41. C. Luke and A. Luke, ‘Just Naming? Educational Discourses and the Politics of Identity’, in W. Pink and G. W. Noblit (eds.), Continuity and Contradiction: The Futures of the Sociology of Education (Hampton Press, Inc., 1995), pp. 357–80).
42. Deborah P. Britzman, ‘Is There a Queer Pedagogy? Or, Stop Reading Straight’, Educational Theory, 1995, 45, 2, 151–65.
43. Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Makeba Jones, and Amanda Datnow, ‘Detracking: The Social Construction of Ability, Cultural Politics, and Resistance to Reform’, Teachers College Record, 1997, 98, 3, 482–510.
44. P. Carspecken and M. W. Apple, ‘Critical Qualitative Research: Theory, Methodology, Practice’, in M. D. LeCompte, W. L. Millroy, J. Preissle (eds.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education (Academic Press, 1993), pp. 507–54.
45. Allan Luke, ‘Text and Discourse in Education: An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis’, Review of Research in Education, 1995–6, 21, 3–48.
46. P. McLaren, ‘Revolutionary Pedagogy in Post-Revolutionary Times: Rethinking the Political Economy of Critical Education’, Educational Theory, 1998, 48, 4, 431–62.
47. K. Kumashiro, ‘Towards a Theory of Anti-Oppressive Education’, Review of Educational Research, 2000, 70, 1, 25–53.
Volume IV: Shifting Terrains and a Progressive Politics of Policy and Practice
48. M. W. Apple, ‘Doing Things the "Right" Way: Legitimating Educational Inequalities in Conservative Times’, Educational Review, 2005, 57, 3, 271–93.
49. K. L. Buras, ‘Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black Education)’, Harvard Educational Review, 2011, 81, 2, 1–36.
50. W. Au, ‘Teaching in the New Taylorism: High-Stakes Testing and Scientific Management in the 21st-Century Curriculum’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 2011, 43, 1, 25–45.
51. S. Ball, ‘Privatising Education, Privatising Policy, Privatising Educational Research’, Journal of Education Policy, 2009, 24. 1, 83–99.
52. F. Rizvi, ‘Postcolonialism and Globalization in Education’, Cultural Studies—Critical Methodologies, 2007, 7, 3, 256–63.
53. J. Sandler and E. Mein, ‘Popular Education Confronts Neoliberalism in the Public Sphere’, in M. W. Apple (ed.), Global Crises, Social Justice, and Education (Routledge, 2010), pp. 164–89.
54. L. Gandin, ‘The Citizen School Project: Implementing and Recreating Critical Education in Brazil’, in M. W. Apple, W Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009), pp. 341–53.
55. Keita Takayama, ‘Progressive Struggle and Critical Education Scholarship in Japan’, in M. W. Apple, W Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009).
56. Erica R. Meiners and Therese M. Quinn, ‘Doing and Feeling Research in Public: Queer Organizing for Public Education and Justice’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 2010, 23, 2, 147–64.
57. D. Gillbourn, ‘Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory, and Educational Reform’, Journal of Education Policy, 2005, 20, 4, 485–505.
58. D. G. Solorzarno and T. J. Yosso, ‘Critical Race Methodology: Counter-Storytelling as an Analytic Framework for Educational Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 2002, 8, 1, 23–44.
59. L. T. Smith, ‘On Tricky Ground: Researching the Native in an Age of Uncertainty’, in Denzin and Lincoln (eds.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. (Sage, 2007), pp. 113–44.
60. Zeus Leonardo, ‘The Race for Class: Reflections on a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education’, Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, 2012, 48, 5, 427–49.
61. A. Pheonix, ‘De-colonising Practices: Negotiating Narratives from Racialised and Gendered Experiences of Education’, Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 2009, 12, 1, 101–14.
62. D. Youdell, ‘Diversity, Inequality, and a Post-Structural Politics for Education’, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2006, 27, 1, 33–42.
63. McLeod, What was Poststructural Feminism in Education’, in M. W. Apple, W Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009).
64. Michelle Moore and Roger Slee, ‘Disability Studies, Inclusive Education, and Exclusion’, in N. Watson, A. Roulstone, and C. Thomas (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Disability Studies (Routlege, 2012), pp. 225–39.
65. W. Au, ‘The Long March Towards Revitalization: Developing Standpoint in Curriculum Studies’, Teachers College Record, 2011, 114, 5, 1–30.
66. G. Dimitriadis, ‘Popular Culture, De-centering Educators and Critical Dispositions’, Cultural Studies in Education, 2012, 53, 1, 19–27.
67. S. Alim, ‘Critical Hip-Hop Language Pedagogies: Combat, Consciousness, and the Cultural Politics of Communication’, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2007, 6, 2, 161–76.
68. K. Zeichner and R. Flessner, ‘Educating Teachers for Critical Education’, in M. W. Apple, W Au, and L. Gandin (eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Critical Education (Routledge, 2009).
Edited and with a new introduction by Michael W. Apple, University of Wisconsin, USA; and
Wayne Au, University of Washington, USA