Cross-Cultural Analysis: Methods and Applications, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Cross-Cultural Analysis

Methods and Applications, Second Edition

Edited by Eldad Davidov, Peter Schmidt, Jaak Billiet, Bart Meuleman

© 2018 – Routledge

648 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138690271
pub: 2018-02-09
Hardback: 9781138670648
pub: 2018-02-07
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315537078
pub: 2018-01-31
from $54.95

FREE Standard Shipping!
e–Inspection Copy


Intended to bridge the gap between the latest methodological developments and cross-cultural research, this interdisciplinary resource presents the latest strategies for analyzing cross-cultural data. Techniques are demonstrated through the use of applications that employ cross-national data sets such as the latest European Social Survey. With an emphasis on the generalized latent variable approach, internationally prominent researchers from a variety of fields explain how the methods work, how to apply them, and how they relate to other methods presented in the book. Syntax and graphical and verbal explanations of the techniques are included. Online resources, available at, include some of the data sets and syntax commands used in the book.

Applications from the behavioral and social sciences that use real data-sets demonstrate:

  • The use of samples from 17 countries to validate the resistance to change scale across these nations
  • How to test the cross-national invariance properties of social trust
  • The interplay between social structure, religiosity, values, and social attitudes
  • A comparison of anti-immigrant attitudes and patterns of religious orientations across European countries.

The second edition includes six new chapters and two revised ones presenting exciting developments in the literature of cross-cultural analysis including topics such as approximate measurement invariance, alignment optimization, sensitivity analyses, a mixed-methods approach to test for measurement invariance, and a multilevel structural equation modeling approach to explain noninvariance. 

This book is intended for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in cross-cultural research. Because the applications span a variety of disciplines, the book will appeal to researchers and students in: psychology, political science, sociology, education, marketing and economics, geography, criminology, psychometrics, epidemiology, and public health, as well as those interested in methodology. It is also appropriate for an advanced methods course in cross-cultural analysis.


"As was the case with the original volume, this updated volume fills an enormous need in the cross-cultural research literature. It provides a single go-to source of chapters on the methodological and statistical analysis challenges unique to cross-cultural research—or, for that matter, any research project in which group comparisons across levels and time are proposed. Each chapter clearly presents a unique challenge, why it is important, and how it may be addressed. This volume is a valuable contribution not only to cross-cultural researchers but to any researcher examining the similarities and differences between entities (people, groups, teams, organizations, etc.). It can be used as a reference book or as a supplemental textbook in advanced courses on cross-cultural research." Robert J. Vandenberg, University of Georgia, USA

"This is a must-have book for anyone doing quantitative cross-cultural research in any discipline of social and behavioral sciences. Readers will appreciate book chapters prepared by prominent researchers for their practical and approachable presentations of core methods with examples that address major analytical issues and challenges." -Young Ik Cho, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA

Table of Contents

Preface Peter Schmidt, Eldad Davidov, Jaak Billiet, and Bart Meuleman

Section I: MGCFA and MGSEM Techniques

1. Capturing Bias in Structural Equation Modeling Fons J.R. van de Vijver

2. Evaluating Change in Social and Political Trust in Europe Nick Allum, Sanna Read, and Patrick Sturgis

3. Methodological Issues in Using Structural Equation Models for Testing Differential Item Functioning Jaehoon Lee, Todd D. Little, and Kristopher J. Preacher

4. Estimation and Comparison of Latent Means Across Cultures Holger Steinmetz

5. Biased Latent Variable Mean Comparisons due to Measurement Non-Invariance: A Simulation Study Alain de Beuckelaer and Gilbert Swinnen

6. Testing the Invariance of Values in the Benelux Countries with the European Social Survey: Accounting for Ordinality Eldad Davidov, Georg Datler, Peter Schmidt, and Shalom Schwartz

7. Religious Involvement: Its Relation to Values and Social Attitudes. A Simultaneous Test of Measurement and Structural Models Across European Countries Bart Meuleman and Jaak Billiet

8. Measurement Equivalence of the Dispositional Resistance to Change Scale Shaul Oreg et al.

9. Measurement Equivalence Testing 2.0 William M. van der Veld and Willem E. Saris

Section II: Multilevel Analysis

10. Perceived Economic Threat and Anti-Immigration Attitudes: Effects of Immigrant Group Size and Economic Conditions Revisited Bart Meuleman

11. A Multilevel Regression Analysis on Work Ethic Hermann Dülmer

12. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling for Cross-cultural Research: Exploring Resampling Methods to Overcome Small Sample Size Problems Remco Feskens and Joop Hox

13. Explaining Cross-National Measurement Inequivalence: A Bayesian Multilevel CFA with Random Loadings Bart Meuleman and Elmar Schlüter

Section III: Latent Class Analysis (LCA)

14. Testing for Measurement Invariance with Latent Class Analysis Miloš Kankaraš, Guy Moors, and Jeroen K. Vermunt

15. A Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis of Religious Orientations in Europe Pascal Siegers

16. Testing for Invariance of Latent Classes: Group-as-Covariate Approach Maksim Rudnev

Section IV: Item Response Theory

17. Using a Differential Item Functioning Approach to Investigate Measurement Invariance Rianne Janssen

18. Using the Mixed Rasch Model in the Comparative Analysis of Attitudes Markus Quandt

19. Random Item Effects Modeling for Cross-National Survey Data Jean-Paul Fox and A. Josine Verhagen

Section V: New and Emerging Topics in Cross-Cultural Analysis

20. Exact and Bayesian Approximate Measurement Invariance Daniel Seddig and Heinz Leitgöb

21. Alignment Optimization: Estimation of the Most Trustworthy Means in Cross-Cultural Studies even in the Presence of Noninvariance Jan Cieciuch, Eldad Davidov, and Peter Schmidt

22. Sensitivity Analysis Daniel L. Oberski

23. How Should Immigrants Adapt to Their Country of Residence? A Mixed Methods Approach to Evaluate the International Applicability of a Question from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) Michael Braun and Timothy P. Johnson

About the Editors

Eldad Davidov is Professor of Sociology at the University of Cologne, Germany and the University of Zurich, Switzerland

Peter Schmidt is Professor Emeritus of Methodology of Social Research at the University of Giessen and Humboldt Research Fellow of the Polish Foundation for Basic Research

Jaak Billiet is Professor Emeritus at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Bart Meuleman is Associate Professor and head of department at the Centre for Sociological Research (CeSO) at the University of Leuven (Belgium)

About the Series

European Association of Methodology Series

The purpose of the European Association of Methodology book series is to advance the development and application of methodological and statistical research techniques in social and behavioral research. Each volume in the series presents cutting-edge methodological developments in a way that is accessible to a broad audience. Such books can be authored books, monographs, or edited volumes. Sponsored by the European Association of Methodology, the European Association of Methodology book series is open to contributions from the Behavioral, Social, Educational, Health and Economic Sciences. Proposals for volumes in the European Association of Methodology series should include the following:

  1. Title;
  2. authors/editors;
  3. a brief description of the volume's focus and intended audience;
  4. a table of contents;
  5. a timeline including planned completion date and projected length of the manuscript.

Proposals are invited from all interested authors and editors. Feel free to submit a proposal to series editor, Eldad Davidov (University of Cologne, Germany, and University of Zurich, Switzerland,,or by visiting the European Association of Methodology website at

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
EDUCATION / Experimental Methods
PSYCHOLOGY / Research & Methodology


Datasets (ZIP 2.04MB)