2nd Edition

Dielectrics in Electric Fields
Tables, Atoms, and Molecules




ISBN 9781482231137
Published May 12, 2016 by CRC Press
776 Pages 467 B/W Illustrations

USD $245.00

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Book Description

Dielectrics in Electric Fields explores the influence of electric fields on dielectric—i.e., non-conducting or insulating—materials, examining the distinctive behaviors of these materials through well-established principles of physics and engineering.

Featuring five new chapters, nearly 200 new figures, and more than 800 new citations, this fully updated and significantly expanded Second Edition:

  • Analyzes inorganic substances with real-life applications in harsh working conditions such as outdoor, nuclear, and space environments
  • Introduces methods for measuring dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, presenting results obtained for specific materials
  • Discusses the application of dielectric theory in allied fields such as corrosion studies, civil engineering, and health sciences
  • Combines in one chapter coverage of electrical breakdown in gases with breakdown in micrometric gaps
  • Offers extensive coverage of electron energy distribution—essential knowledge required for the application of plasma sciences in medical science
  • Delivers a detailed review of breakdown in liquids, along with an overview of electron mobility, providing a clear understanding of breakdown phenomena
  • Explains breakdown in solid dielectrics such as single crystals, polycrystalline and amorphous states, thin films, and powders compressed to form pellets
  • Addresses the latest advances in dielectric theory and research, including cutting-edge nanodielectric materials and their practical applications
  • Blends early classical papers that laid the foundation for much of the dielectric theory with more recent work

The author has drawn from more than 55 years of research studies and experience in the areas of high-voltage engineering, power systems, and dielectric materials and systems to supply both aspiring and practicing engineers with a comprehensive, authoritative source for up-to-date information on dielectrics in electric fields.

Table of Contents

Introductory Concepts
A Dipole
The Potential Due to a Dipole
Dipole Moment of a Spherical Charge
The Laplace Equation
The Tunneling Phenomenon
Band Theory of Solids
Energy Distribution Function
The Boltzmann Factor
A Comparison of Distribution Functions
Concluding Remarks
References

Polarization and Static Dielectric Constant
Polarization and Dielectric Constant
Electronic Polarization
The Internal Field
Orientational Polarization
Debye Equations
Experimental Verification of Debye Equation
Spontaneous Polarization
Onsager Theory
Theory of Kirkwood
Dielectric Constant of Two Media
The Dissipation Factor
Dielectric Constant of Liquid Mixtures
Effect of High Electric Fields
Atomic Polarizability
Additional Comments on Static Dielectric Constant
Concluding Remarks
References

Dielectric Loss and Relaxation—I
Complex Permittivity
Polarization Buildup
Debye Equations
Bistable Model of a Dipole
Complex Plane Diagram
Cole–Cole Relaxation
Dielectric Properties of Water
Davidson–Cole Equation
Macroscopic Relaxation Time
Molecular Relaxation Time
Straight-Line Relationships
Fröhlich’s Analysis
Fuoss–Kirkwood Equation
Havriliak and Negami Dispersion
Dielectric Susceptibility
Distribution of Relaxation Times
Kramers–Kronig Relations
Loss Index and Conductivity
Additional Comments
Concluding Remarks
References

Dielectric Loss and Relaxation—II
Jonscher’s Universal Law
Cluster Approach of Dissado and Hill
Equivalent Circuits
Interfacial Polarization
The Absorption Phenomenon
Frequency Dependence of ε*
Dielectric Spectra of Engineering Importance
Concluding Remarks
References

Experimental Data (Frequency Domain)
Introduction to Polymer Science
Nomenclature of Relaxation Processes
Nonpolar Polymers
Polar Polymers
Scaling Methods
Concluding Remarks
References

Absorption and Desorption Currents
Absorption Current in a Dielectric
Hamon’s Approximation
Distribution of Relaxation Time and Dielectric Function
The Williams–Watts Function
The G (τ) Function for Williams–Watts Current Decay
Experimental Measurements
Commercial Dielectrics
Miscellaneous Polymers
Concluding Remarks
References

Inorganic Dielectrics
Alumina (Al2O3)
Barium Titanate (BaTiO3)
Barium–Strontium–Titanate (BST)
Carborundum (SiC)
Microwave Ceramics
Glass
Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)
High-ε and Low-ε Materials
Concluding Remarks
References

Microwave Measurement Methods
Microwave Measurements
Resonance and Standing Wave Techniques
Transmission/Reflection Techniques
Broadband Measurements
Concluding Remarks
References

Dielectrics in Allied Disciplines
Alternative Representation of Dielectric Parameters
Impedance Spectroscopy of Fuel Cells
Impedance Spectra in Medical Science
Impedance Spectroscopy for Corrosion Studies
Dielectric Measurements in Agricultural Sciences
Applications in Electrorheology
Applications in Civil Engineering
Concluding Remarks
References

Field-Enhanced Conduction
Some General Comments
Motion of Charge Carriers in Dielectrics
Ionic Conduction
Charge Injection into Dielectrics
Space Charge Phenomenon in Nonuniform Fields
Conduction in Selected Polymers
Numerical Computation
More Recent Publications
Closing Remarks
References

Selected Aspects of Gaseous Breakdown
Collision Phenomena
Electron Growth in an Avalanche
Criteria for Breakdown
Paschen’s Law
Breakdown Time Lags
The Streamer Mechanism
Field Distortion Due to Space Charge
Sparkover Characteristics of Uniform Field Gaps in SF6
Sparkover Characteristics of Long Gaps
Breakdown Voltages in Air with Alternating Voltages
Modeling of Discharge Phenomena
Streamer Formation in Uniform Fields
The Corona Discharge
Basic Mechanisms: Negative Corona
Basic Mechanisms: Positive Corona
Modeling of Corona Discharge: Continuity Equations
Nonequilibrium Considerations
Monte Carlo Simulation: Negative Corona in SF6
Monte Carlo Simulation: Positive Corona in SF6
Breakdown in Microscale Gaps
Concluding Remarks
References

High-Field Conduction and Breakdown in Liquids
High-Field Conduction
Breakdown Mechanisms
Partial Discharges
Crossed Magnetic Field Effects
Concluding Remarks
References

Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics
Electrons in Solids
Electronic Theory of Breakdown
Theory of Von Hippel
Boggs’ Computations
Thermal Breakdown
Water Treeing
Breakdown in Commercial Polymers
The Weibull Distribution
Area Effects in High-Temperature Polymers
Breakdown Studies in Selected Materials
Miscellaneous Materials
Electroluminescence
References

Thermally Stimulated Processes
Traps in Insulators
Current Due to Thermally Stimulated Depolarization (TSD)
TSDC for Distribution of Activation Energy
TSDCs for Universal Relaxation Mechanism
TSDCs with Ionic Space Charge
TSDCs with Electronic Conduction
TSDCs with Corona Charging
Compensation Temperature
Methods and Analyses
TSD and Alternating Current Dielectric Properties
Concluding Remarks
References

Space Charge in Solid Dielectrics
The Meaning of Space Charge
Polarons and Traps
A Conceptual Approach
The Thermal Pulse Method of Collins
DeReggi’s Analysis
Laser Intensity Modulation Method (LIMM)
Pressure Pulse Method
Experimental Results
More Recent Literature
Closing Remarks
References

Nanodielectrics
Materials: General Comments
Polythene and Selected Nanomaterials
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanocomposites
Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Nanocomposites
Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites
Polyamide and Polyimide Nanocomposites
Selected Polymer Nanocomposites
Nanodielectrics in the Power Industry
Space Charge Phenomena in Nanocomposites
Breakdown in Nanodielectrics
Concluding Remarks
References

Appendices

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Author(s)

Biography

Gorur Govinda Raju holds a B.Eng from the University of Bangalore (India) and a Ph.D from the University of Liverpool (UK). He joined the University of Windsor (Ontario, Canada) in 1980 and became professor and head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department during 1989–97 and 2000–2002. He has been on the board and program committee of the IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena for many years, and is currently a lifetime emeritus professor at the University of Windsor. Professor Raju has been an electrical power and dielectric phenomena consultant to the government of India, Detroit Edison Co., and several other organizations. He has published four engineering books, a novel, and more than 150 papers in international journals and conference proceedings. His experimental and theoretical contributions to gaseous electronics and dielectric phenomena continue to be cited in numerous research papers.

Reviews

"An impressive monograph that can also serve as a textbook. For students in physics or materials science, it brings fundamental knowledge required by the curricula. For electrical engineers, it provides useful information on the practical applications of dielectrics. For scientists, it suggests directions for further research. … The approach and the selection of the topics that compose this book are those of a professor who is eager to give to his students or younger coworkers a condensed knowledge of the field, but also to incite them for further reading. … I would like to have this book on my shelf, as it contains the answers to questions that our research group may have on the characteristics of dielectric materials that we use to build our devices or are the object of the electrostatic processes that we study. … Recognized as a top scientist in the field of dielectrics, Professor Raju turns out to be an excellent teacher too. He has the talent to explain why each new element of knowledge he introduces in his book might be of interest not only to the researcher, but also to the electrical engineer."
—Lucian Dascalescu, University of Poitiers, France

"… provides an excellent digest of dielectrics in electric fields. The study of dielectrics is rather multidisciplinary—their response requires a good understanding of physics, the materials are often complicated and require an understanding of chemistry and materials science, and the applications and the development of the testing techniques lie in the hands of engineers. The book crosses these discipline areas with ease, taking the reader from first principles to the present in a coherent and comprehensive way. The coverage is wide without being at the expense of the necessary detail and clarity. I would certainly recommend this book both for graduate classes and, indeed, for researchers at all levels in this field."
—John Fothergill, City University London, UK

"… describes the huge variety of processes and fundamental phenomena in the domain of dielectrics in electric fields in a well-structured and systematic way."
—Sergey Pancheshnyi, ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland

"… well thought out and prepared similarly to its earlier edition, with the inclusion of some new material. The order of the chapters is quite logical and makes the reader comprehend the rather complex dielectric phenomena easier. There are not many books on dielectric materials, and clearly Professor Raju’s book is one of the better ones."
—Huseyin R. Hiziroglu, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan, USA

"... provides an extensive review of the seminal literature in this area. The author brings his deep understanding of the physics of dielectrics to provide a cohesive narrative to the findings. ... This book is a useful addition for my own perusal as well as for reference for my students in this area of study."
—Dr. Nandini Gupta, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

"… a good overview and introduction to dielectrics, … not restricted to solids. It is generally written well and fundamental relationships are derived in a way that can be easily understood by a beginner. It also focuses more on specific material examples."
—Thomas Christen, ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland