Dielectrics in Electric Fields: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Dielectrics in Electric Fields

Tables, Atoms, and Molecules, 2nd Edition

By Gorur Govinda Raju

CRC Press

776 pages | 467 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781482231137
pub: 2016-05-12
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pub: 2017-07-28
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Dielectrics in Electric Fields explores the influence of electric fields on dielectric—i.e., non-conducting or insulating—materials, examining the distinctive behaviors of these materials through well-established principles of physics and engineering.

Featuring five new chapters, nearly 200 new figures, and more than 800 new citations, this fully updated and significantly expanded Second Edition:

  • Analyzes inorganic substances with real-life applications in harsh working conditions such as outdoor, nuclear, and space environments
  • Introduces methods for measuring dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, presenting results obtained for specific materials
  • Discusses the application of dielectric theory in allied fields such as corrosion studies, civil engineering, and health sciences
  • Combines in one chapter coverage of electrical breakdown in gases with breakdown in micrometric gaps
  • Offers extensive coverage of electron energy distribution—essential knowledge required for the application of plasma sciences in medical science
  • Delivers a detailed review of breakdown in liquids, along with an overview of electron mobility, providing a clear understanding of breakdown phenomena
  • Explains breakdown in solid dielectrics such as single crystals, polycrystalline and amorphous states, thin films, and powders compressed to form pellets
  • Addresses the latest advances in dielectric theory and research, including cutting-edge nanodielectric materials and their practical applications
  • Blends early classical papers that laid the foundation for much of the dielectric theory with more recent work

The author has drawn from more than 55 years of research studies and experience in the areas of high-voltage engineering, power systems, and dielectric materials and systems to supply both aspiring and practicing engineers with a comprehensive, authoritative source for up-to-date information on dielectrics in electric fields.


"An impressive monograph that can also serve as a textbook. For students in physics or materials science, it brings fundamental knowledge required by the curricula. For electrical engineers, it provides useful information on the practical applications of dielectrics. For scientists, it suggests directions for further research. … The approach and the selection of the topics that compose this book are those of a professor who is eager to give to his students or younger coworkers a condensed knowledge of the field, but also to incite them for further reading. … I would like to have this book on my shelf, as it contains the answers to questions that our research group may have on the characteristics of dielectric materials that we use to build our devices or are the object of the electrostatic processes that we study. … Recognized as a top scientist in the field of dielectrics, Professor Raju turns out to be an excellent teacher too. He has the talent to explain why each new element of knowledge he introduces in his book might be of interest not only to the researcher, but also to the electrical engineer."

—Lucian Dascalescu, University of Poitiers, France

"… provides an excellent digest of dielectrics in electric fields. The study of dielectrics is rather multidisciplinary—their response requires a good understanding of physics, the materials are often complicated and require an understanding of chemistry and materials science, and the applications and the development of the testing techniques lie in the hands of engineers. The book crosses these discipline areas with ease, taking the reader from first principles to the present in a coherent and comprehensive way. The coverage is wide without being at the expense of the necessary detail and clarity. I would certainly recommend this book both for graduate classes and, indeed, for researchers at all levels in this field."

—John Fothergill, City University London, UK

"… describes the huge variety of processes and fundamental phenomena in the domain of dielectrics in electric fields in a well-structured and systematic way."

—Sergey Pancheshnyi, ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland

"… well thought out and prepared similarly to its earlier edition, with the inclusion of some new material. The order of the chapters is quite logical and makes the reader comprehend the rather complex dielectric phenomena easier. There are not many books on dielectric materials, and clearly Professor Raju’s book is one of the better ones."

—Huseyin R. Hiziroglu, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan, USA

"… provides an extensive review of the seminal literature in this area. The author brings his deep understanding of the physics of dielectrics to provide a cohesive narrative to the findings. … This book is a useful addition for my own perusal as well as for reference for my students in this area of study."

—Dr. Nandini Gupta, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

"… a good overview and introduction to dielectrics, … not restricted to solids. It is generally written well and fundamental relationships are derived in a way that can be easily understood by a beginner. It also focuses more on specific material examples."

—Thomas Christen, ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland

Table of Contents

Introductory Concepts

A Dipole

The Potential Due to a Dipole

Dipole Moment of a Spherical Charge

The Laplace Equation

The Tunneling Phenomenon

Band Theory of Solids

Energy Distribution Function

The Boltzmann Factor

A Comparison of Distribution Functions

Concluding Remarks


Polarization and Static Dielectric Constant

Polarization and Dielectric Constant

Electronic Polarization

The Internal Field

Orientational Polarization

Debye Equations

Experimental Verification of Debye Equation

Spontaneous Polarization

Onsager Theory

Theory of Kirkwood

Dielectric Constant of Two Media

The Dissipation Factor

Dielectric Constant of Liquid Mixtures

Effect of High Electric Fields

Atomic Polarizability

Additional Comments on Static Dielectric Constant

Concluding Remarks


Dielectric Loss and Relaxation—I

Complex Permittivity

Polarization Buildup

Debye Equations

Bistable Model of a Dipole

Complex Plane Diagram

Cole–Cole Relaxation

Dielectric Properties of Water

Davidson–Cole Equation

Macroscopic Relaxation Time

Molecular Relaxation Time

Straight-Line Relationships

Fröhlich’s Analysis

Fuoss–Kirkwood Equation

Havriliak and Negami Dispersion

Dielectric Susceptibility

Distribution of Relaxation Times

Kramers–Kronig Relations

Loss Index and Conductivity

Additional Comments

Concluding Remarks


Dielectric Loss and Relaxation—II

Jonscher’s Universal Law

Cluster Approach of Dissado and Hill

Equivalent Circuits

Interfacial Polarization

The Absorption Phenomenon

Frequency Dependence of ε*

Dielectric Spectra of Engineering Importance

Concluding Remarks


Experimental Data (Frequency Domain)

Introduction to Polymer Science

Nomenclature of Relaxation Processes

Nonpolar Polymers

Polar Polymers

Scaling Methods

Concluding Remarks


Absorption and Desorption Currents

Absorption Current in a Dielectric

Hamon’s Approximation

Distribution of Relaxation Time and Dielectric Function

The Williams–Watts Function

The G (τ) Function for Williams–Watts Current Decay

Experimental Measurements

Commercial Dielectrics

Miscellaneous Polymers

Concluding Remarks


Inorganic Dielectrics

Alumina (Al2O3)

Barium Titanate (BaTiO3)

Barium–Strontium–Titanate (BST)

Carborundum (SiC)

Microwave Ceramics


Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)

High-ε and Low-ε Materials

Concluding Remarks


Microwave Measurement Methods

Microwave Measurements

Resonance and Standing Wave Techniques

Transmission/Reflection Techniques

Broadband Measurements

Concluding Remarks


Dielectrics in Allied Disciplines

Alternative Representation of Dielectric Parameters

Impedance Spectroscopy of Fuel Cells

Impedance Spectra in Medical Science

Impedance Spectroscopy for Corrosion Studies

Dielectric Measurements in Agricultural Sciences

Applications in Electrorheology

Applications in Civil Engineering

Concluding Remarks


Field-Enhanced Conduction

Some General Comments

Motion of Charge Carriers in Dielectrics

Ionic Conduction

Charge Injection into Dielectrics

Space Charge Phenomenon in Nonuniform Fields

Conduction in Selected Polymers

Numerical Computation

More Recent Publications

Closing Remarks


Selected Aspects of Gaseous Breakdown

Collision Phenomena

Electron Growth in an Avalanche

Criteria for Breakdown

Paschen’s Law

Breakdown Time Lags

The Streamer Mechanism

Field Distortion Due to Space Charge

Sparkover Characteristics of Uniform Field Gaps in SF6

Sparkover Characteristics of Long Gaps

Breakdown Voltages in Air with Alternating Voltages

Modeling of Discharge Phenomena

Streamer Formation in Uniform Fields

The Corona Discharge

Basic Mechanisms: Negative Corona

Basic Mechanisms: Positive Corona

Modeling of Corona Discharge: Continuity Equations

Nonequilibrium Considerations

Monte Carlo Simulation: Negative Corona in SF6

Monte Carlo Simulation: Positive Corona in SF6

Breakdown in Microscale Gaps

Concluding Remarks


High-Field Conduction and Breakdown in Liquids

High-Field Conduction

Breakdown Mechanisms

Partial Discharges

Crossed Magnetic Field Effects

Concluding Remarks


Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics

Electrons in Solids

Electronic Theory of Breakdown

Theory of Von Hippel

Boggs’ Computations

Thermal Breakdown

Water Treeing

Breakdown in Commercial Polymers

The Weibull Distribution

Area Effects in High-Temperature Polymers

Breakdown Studies in Selected Materials

Miscellaneous Materials



Thermally Stimulated Processes

Traps in Insulators

Current Due to Thermally Stimulated Depolarization (TSD)

TSDC for Distribution of Activation Energy

TSDCs for Universal Relaxation Mechanism

TSDCs with Ionic Space Charge

TSDCs with Electronic Conduction

TSDCs with Corona Charging

Compensation Temperature

Methods and Analyses

TSD and Alternating Current Dielectric Properties

Concluding Remarks


Space Charge in Solid Dielectrics

The Meaning of Space Charge

Polarons and Traps

A Conceptual Approach

The Thermal Pulse Method of Collins

DeReggi’s Analysis

Laser Intensity Modulation Method (LIMM)

Pressure Pulse Method

Experimental Results

More Recent Literature

Closing Remarks



Materials: General Comments

Polythene and Selected Nanomaterials

Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanocomposites

Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Nanocomposites

Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites

Polyamide and Polyimide Nanocomposites

Selected Polymer Nanocomposites

Nanodielectrics in the Power Industry

Space Charge Phenomena in Nanocomposites

Breakdown in Nanodielectrics

Concluding Remarks



About the Author

Gorur Govinda Raju holds a B.Eng from the University of Bangalore (India) and a Ph.D from the University of Liverpool (UK). He joined the University of Windsor (Ontario, Canada) in 1980 and became professor and head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department during 1989–97 and 2000–2002. He has been on the board and program committee of the IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena for many years, and is currently a lifetime emeritus professor at the University of Windsor. Professor Raju has been an electrical power and dielectric phenomena consultant to the government of India, Detroit Edison Co., and several other organizations. He has published four engineering books, a novel, and more than 150 papers in international journals and conference proceedings. His experimental and theoretical contributions to gaseous electronics and dielectric phenomena continue to be cited in numerous research papers.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics