Digital Integrated Circuits : Analysis and Design, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Digital Integrated Circuits
Analysis and Design, Second Edition

ISBN 9781420069877
Published October 5, 2009 by CRC Press
616 Pages 483 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Exponential improvement in functionality and performance of digital integrated circuits has revolutionized the way we live and work. The continued scaling down of MOS transistors has broadened the scope of use for circuit technology to the point that texts on the topic are generally lacking after a few years.

The second edition of Digital Integrated Circuits: Analysis and Design focuses on timeless principles with a modern interdisciplinary view that will serve integrated circuits engineers from all disciplines for years to come. Providing a revised instructional reference for engineers involved with Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit design and fabrication, this book delves into the dramatic advances in the field, including new applications and changes in the physics of operation made possible by relentless miniaturization.

This book was conceived in the versatile spirit of the field to bridge a void that had existed between books on transistor electronics and those covering VLSI design and fabrication as a separate topic. Like the first edition, this volume is a crucial link for integrated circuit engineers and those studying the field, supplying the cross-disciplinary connections they require for guidance in more advanced work.

For pedagogical reasons, the author uses SPICE level 1 computer simulation models but introduces BSIM models that are indispensable for VLSI design. This enables users to develop a strong and intuitive sense of device and circuit design by drawing direct connections between the hand analysis and the SPICE models.

With four new chapters, more than 200 new illustrations, numerous worked examples, case studies, and support provided on a dynamic website, this text significantly expands concepts presented in the first edition.

Table of Contents


Historical Perspective and Moore’s Law

Electrical Properties of Digital Integrated Circuits

Computer-Aided Design and Verification


Semiconductors and Junctions

The MOS Transistor

MOS Gate Circuits


Dynamic CMOS

Low-Power CMOS

Bistable Circuits


Input/Output and Interface Circuits



Basic CMOS Fabrication Sequence

Advanced Processing for High-Performance CMOS

Lithography and Masks

Layout and Design Rules

Testing and Yield


Burn-In and Accelerated Testing


Semiconductors and p-n Junctions

Crystal Structure of Silicon

Energy Bands

Carrier Concentrations

Current Transport

Carrier Continuity Equations

Poisson’s Equation

The p-n Junction

Metal-Semiconductor Junctions

SPICE Models


The MOS Transistor

The MOS Capacitor

Threshold Voltage

MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics

Short-Channel MOSFETs


MOSFET Capacitances

MOSFET Constant-Field Scaling


SPICE Demonstrations


MOS Gate Circuits

Inverter Static Characteristics

Critical Voltages


Propagation Delays


NOR Circuits

NAND Circuits

Exclusive OR (XOR) Circuit

General Logic Design

Pass Transistor Circuits

SPICE Demonstrations



Static CMOS

Voltage Transfer Characteristic

Load Surface Analysis

Critical Voltages

Crossover (Short-Circuit) Current

Propagation Delays

Inverter Rise and Fall Times

Propagation Delays in Short-Channel CMOS

Power Dissipation


Circuit Delays as Functions of Fan-Out

CMOS Ring Oscillator

CMOS Inverter Design

CMOS NAND Circuits

CMOS NOR Circuits

Other Logic Functions in CMOS

74HC Series CMOS

Pseudo NMOS Circuits

Scaling of CMOS

Latch-Up in CMOS

SPICE Demonstrations




Capacitance of Interconnect

Resistance of Interconnect

Inductance of Interconnect

Modeling Interconnect Delays


Polysilicon Interconnect

SPICE Demonstrations

Practical Perspective


Dynamic CMOS

Rise Time

Fall Time

Charge Sharing

Charge Retention

Logic Design

Alternative Form Using a p-MOS Pull-Up Network

Cascading of Dynamic Logic Circuits

Domino Logic

Multiple-Output Domino Logic

Zipper Logic

Dynamic Pass Transistor Circuits

CMOS Transmission Gate Circuits

SPICE Demonstrations

Practical Perspective


Low-Power CMOS

Low-Voltage CMOS

Multiple Voltage CMOS

Dynamic Voltage Scaling

Active Body Biasing

Multiple-Threshold CMOS

Adiabatic Logic


Practical Perspective


Bistable Circuits

Set-Reset Latch

SR Flip-flop

JK Flip-flops

Other Flip-flops

Schmitt Triggers

SPICE Demonstrations

Practical Perspective


Digital Memories

Static Random Access Memory

Dynamic Random Access Memory

Read-Only Memory

Programmable Read-Only Memory

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

Flash Memory

Other Nonvolatile Memories

Access Times in Digital Memories

Row and Column Decoder Design

Practical Perspective



Input/Output and Interface Circuits

Input Electrostatic Discharge Protection

Input Enable Circuits

CMOS Output Buffers

Tri-State Outputs

Interface Circuits

SPICE Demonstrations



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John E. Ayers grew up eight miles from an integrated circuit design and fabrication facility, where he worked as a technician and first developed his passionate interest in the topic. After earning a BSEE degree from the University of Maine (Orono, Maine) in 1984, he worked as an integrated circuit test engineer for National Semiconductor (South Portland, Maine). He worked for six years at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, New York) and Philips Laboratories (Briarcliff, New York) on semiconductor material growth and characterization, earning the MSEE in 1987 and the PhDEE in 1990, both from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Since then, he has been employed in academic research and teaching at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut), where he has taught the course on digital integrated circuits for a number of years. He has been honored with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Best Teacher Award (2003–2004 and 2004–2005) and the School of Engineering Outstanding Teaching Award (2000–2001) and is a University of Connecticut Teaching Fellow (1999–2000). Ayers has authored more than 60 journal and conference papers as well as three books. He is a member of Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, and Phi Kappa Phi and is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He lives in Ashford, Connecticut, and enjoys running, hiking, and bicycling with his wife and three children.