Electromagnetic Waves: 2nd Edition (e-Book) book cover

Electromagnetic Waves

2nd Edition

By Carlo G. Someda

CRC Press

600 pages | 184 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-01-13
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Description

Adapted from a successful and thoroughly field-tested Italian text, the first edition of Electromagnetic Waves was very well received. Its broad, integrated coverage of electromagnetic waves and their applications forms the cornerstone on which the author based this second edition. Working from Maxwell's equations to applications in optical communications and photonics, Electromagnetic Waves, Second Edition forges a link between basic physics and real-life problems in wave propagation and radiation.

Accomplished researcher and educator Carlo G. Someda uses a modern approach to the subject. Unlike other books in the field, it surveys all major areas of electromagnetic waves in a single treatment. The book begins with a detailed treatment of the mathematics of Maxwell's equations. It follows with a discussion of polarization, delves into propagation in various media, devotes four chapters to guided propagation, links the concepts to practical applications, and concludes with radiation, diffraction, coherence, and radiation statistics. This edition features many new and reworked problems, updated references and suggestions for further reading, a completely revised appendix on Bessel functions, and new definitions such as antenna effective height.

Illustrating the concepts with examples in every chapter, Electromagnetic Waves, Second Edition is an ideal introduction for those new to the field as well as a convenient reference for seasoned professionals.

Table of Contents

BASIC EQUATIONS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Introduction: Experimental Laws

Maxwell's Equations and the Charge Continuity Equation

Constitutive Relations

Imposed Currents

Divergence Equations

Continuity Conditions

The Wave Equation. The Helmholtz Equation

Magnetic Vector Potential

Fitzgerald Electric Vector Potential

Hertz Vector Potential

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

POLARIZATION

Introduction

Steinmetz Representation of Time-Harmonic Vectors

Parallel and Orthogonal Complex Vectors

Properties of Time-Harmonic Vectors

Properties of the Complex Vectors

Linear Polarization Ratio

Circular Polarization Ratio

Stokes Parameters

The Poincaré Sphere

Evolution of Polarization in a Linear Medium: Jones Matrix

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

GENERAL THEOREMS

Introduction

Poynting's Theorem. Wave Impedance

Uniqueness Theorem

Reciprocity Theorem

Equivalence Theorem

Induction Theorem

Duality Theorem

TE-TM Field Decomposition Theorem

Spatial Symmetries. Reflection Operators

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

PLANE WAVES IN ISOTROPIC MEDIA

Separability of Variables in the Homogeneous Helmholtz Equation

Solution of the Homogeneous Helmholtz Equation in Cartesian Coordinates

Plane Waves: Terminology and Classification

Traveling Waves. Phase Velocity

Standing Waves

Poynting Vector and Wave Impedance

Completeness of Plane Waves

Reflection and Refraction of Plane Waves

Fresnel Formulas

Reflection in Multilayer Structures

Total Reflection

Reflection on the Surface of a Good Conductor

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

PLANE WAVE PACKETS AND BEAMS

Modulated Waves. Group Velocity

Dispersion

The Scalar Approximation

The Equations of Geometrical Optics

Geometrical Optics: Electromagnetic Implications

Examples of Ray Tracing in Radio Propagation and in Optics

The WKBJ Method

Further Comments on the WKBJ Method

Gaussian Beams

Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss Modes

Reflection and Refraction of Gaussian Beams

On the Completeness of a Series

Further Comments on Rays and Beams

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

PLANE WAVES IN ANISOTROPIC MEDIA

General Properties of Anisotropic Media

Wave Equations and Potentials in Anisotropic Media

Birefringent Media

Fresnel's Equation of Wave Normals

An Application: Phase Matching of Two Waves

Gyrotropic Media

The Appleton-Hartree Formula

An Example of Permittivity Dyadic

Second Example of Permeability Dyadic

Faraday Rotation

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

WAVEGUIDES WITH CONDUCTING WALLS

Introduction

Homogeneously Filled Cylindrical Structures: Simplified Proof of the TE-TM Decomposition Theorem

Waveguides with Ideal Conducting Walls

Transmission Modes of Lossless Cylindrical Structures

Mode Orthogonality

Some Remarks on Completeness

Rectangular Waveguides

Circular Waveguides and Coaxial Cables

Waveguides with Nonideal Walls

On Wall Impedances

Hybrid Modes

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

WAVES ON TRANSMISSION LINES

Introduction

Uniform Transmission Lines

Impedance Transformation Along a Transmission Line

Lossless Transmission Lines

Low-Loss Transmission Lines

Partially Standing Waves

The Smith Chart

Remote Measurement of the Load Impedance

Impedance Matching

Transmission-Line Equations: An Alternative Derivation

TEM and Quasi-TEM Propagation in Planar Lines

The Coupled-Mode Equations

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

RESONANT CAVITIES

Introduction

Separable Coordinate Systems in Three Dimensions

Completeness of Resonator Modes

Mode Orthogonality in a Perfect Resonator

Lossless Cylindrical Cavities

Simple Examples

Lossy Resonators: Perturbation Analysis. Intrinsic Q-Factor

Resonators Coupled to External Loads. Loaded Q-Factor

Open Resonators

Stability of Open Resonators

Q-Factor of an Open Resonator

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

DIELECTRIC WAVEGUIDES

Introduction

Waves Guided by a Surface of Discontinuity: The Characteristic Equation

Guided Modes of a Slab Waveguide

Radiation Modes of a Slab Waveguide

The Cylindrical Rod: Exact Modes

Modal Cut-Off in the Cylindrical Rod

Weakly Guiding Rods: The LP Modes

Dispersion in Dielectric Waveguides

Graded-Index Waveguides

The Alpha Profiles: An Important Class of Multimode Graded-Index Fibers

Attenuation in Optical Fibers

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

RETARDED POTENTIALS

Introduction

Green's Functions for the Scalar Helmholtz Equation

Lorentz-Gauge Vector Potentials in a Homogeneous Medium

Field Vectors in Terms of Dyadic Green's Functions

Inhomogeneous Media: Polarization Currents

Time-Domain Interpretation of Green's Functions

Green's Function Expansion Into Orthogonal Eigenfunctions

An Example: Field in a Rectangular Box

Spherical Harmonics

Multipole Expansion

An Introduction to Cylindrical Harmonics

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

FUNDAMENTALS OF ANTENNA THEORY

Introduction

Equivalent Dipole Moment of an Extended Source

Far-Field Approximations

First Example: Short Electric-Current Element

Characterization of Antennas

Behavior of Receiving Antennas. Reciprocity

Examples

Antenna Arrays

Broad-Side and End-Fire Arrays

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

DIFFRACTION

Introduction

The Diffraction Integral: The Vector Formulation

Illumination Conditions. Babinet's Principle

The Scalar Theory of Diffraction

Diffraction Formulas and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld

The Fresnel Diffraction Region

The Fraunhofer Diffraction Region

Examples

The Field Near a Focus: First Example of Fresnel Diffraction

Diffraction from a Straight Edge: Second Example of Fresnel Diffraction

A Short Note on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COHERENCE

Background and Purpose of the Chapter

The Analytical Signal

Complex Degree of Coherence

Temporal Coherence of a Source

Spatial Coherence of a Source

Higher-Order Coherence: An Introduction

An Introduction to Photocount Distributions

Modal Noise in Optical-Fiber Transmission Systems: A Short Outline

Further Applications and Suggested Reading

References

APPENDIX A: VECTOR CALCULUS: DEFINITIONS AND FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS

APPENDIX B: VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN FREQUENTLY USED REFERENCE SYSTEMS

APPENDIX C: VECTOR IDENTITIES

APPENDIX D: FUNDAMENTALS ON BESSEL FUNCTIONS

Bessel, Neumann and Hankel Functions

Modified Bessel Functions

Bessel Function Formulas

REFERENCES

FURTHER SUGGESTED READING

INDEX

About the Author

Carlo G. Someda (retired) received the E.E., M.S.E.E. and Libera Docenza (Ph.D.) degrees, respectively from the University of Padova, Italy, in 1964, Stanford University, in 1966, and the Italian Ministry of Education, in 1971. While at Stanford he was a recipient of the Volta Fellowship of the IEEE. In 1972 he worked as a post-doc at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J., within a NATO scientific exchange program. He has also been a Visiting Scholar at the University of Arizona and Stanford University. Most of his research activity was done in Italy, at the Universities of Trieste, Bologna (where he became a Full Professor in 1976, and Head of the Electronics Department in 1978-81), and Padova, where he joined the Faculty of Engineering in 1982, and in 1999 he became the Director of an intensively industry-supported interdisciplinary Master program in Information and Communication Technology and Economics. His main field of technical interest since 1972 was optical communications and photonics; he also became involved in antennas and metamaterials. He has authored or co-authored about 175 research papers, and 5 textbooks, in Italian and English. Dr. Someda is on the Editorial Board of the series Optical and Fiber Communications Reports, Springer, New York. He is on the European Management Committee of the European Conference on Optical Communications, and was General Co-chair of ECOC03. He is a Distinguished Member of the Italian Electrical and Electronic Association, Vice-Chairman of Accademia Galileiana di Scienze Lettere ed Arti (a four-century old cultural institution founded by Galileo Galilei in Padova, Italy), a Member of the Istituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Venice, Italy (a two-century old cultural institution founded by Napoleon Bonaparte - http://www.istitutoveneto.it/), and a Senior Member of IEEE, New York.

About the Series

Optoelectronics, Imaging and Sensing

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI053000
SCIENCE / Optics
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC024000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Microwaves
TEC041000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications