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Electronics

Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice

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## Book Description

**Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice** does more than just make unsubstantiated assertions about electronics. Compared to most current textbooks on the subject, it pays significantly more attention to essential basic electronics and the underlying theory of semiconductors.

In discussing electrical conduction in semiconductors, the author addresses the important but often ignored fundamental and unifying concept of electrochemical potential of current carriers, which is also an instructive link between semiconductor and ionic systems at a time when electrical engineering students are increasingly being exposed to biological systems.

The text presents the background and tools necessary for at least a qualitative understanding of new and projected advances in microelectronics. The author provides helpful PSpice simulations and associated procedures (based on schematic capture, and using OrCAD® 16.0 Demo software), which are available for download. These simulations are explained in considerable detail and integrated throughout the book. The book also includes practical, real-world examples, problems, and other supplementary material, which helps to demystify concepts and relations that many books usually state as facts without offering at least some plausible explanation.

With its focus on fundamental physical concepts and thorough exploration of the behavior of semiconductors, this book enables readers to better understand how electronic devices function and how they are used. The book’s foreword briefly reviews the history of electronics and its impact in today’s world.

***Classroom Presentations are provided on the CRC Press website. Their inclusion eliminates the need for instructors to prepare lecture notes. The files can be modified as may be desired, projected in the classroom or lecture hall, and used as a basis for discussing the course material.***

## Table of Contents

Preface

Foreword: Brief History and Impact of Electronics Convention for Symbols **Basic Diode Circuits **Overview

Learning Objectives

*Ideal and Practical Diodes*

Ideal Diode

Ideal Si pn Junction Diode

Practical Diodes

Incremental Diode Resistance

*Basic Analysis of Diode Circuits*

Piecewise Linear Approximation

Bias Point

Small-Signal Model

*Rectifier Circuits*

Half-Wave Rectifier

Full-Wave Rectifier

Smoothing of Output

Capacitor-Input Filter

Approximate Analysis of Capacitor-Input Filter

*Zener Voltage Regulator*

Voltage-Current Characteristic

Analysis of Zener Regulator

Load regulation and Line Regulation

*Diode Voltage Limiters*

Surge Protection

*Diode-Capacitor Circuits*

dc Restorer

Voltage Multiplication

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Basic Principles of Semiconductors**

*Excerpts from Wave Mechanics*

Some Basic Ideas

Schrödinger’s Equation

Wave Packets

Free Atoms

Energy Band Structure

*Electric Conduction in Semiconductors*

Electrons in a Periodic Potential

Effective Mass

Hole Conduction

Density of Electron States

Fermi-Dirac Distribution

*Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors*

Crystal Structure

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Extrinsic Semiconductors

*Electrochemical Potential*

Expression for Chemical Potential

Expression for Electrochemical Potential

Generalized Ohm’s Law

State of Equilibrium

Fermi Level and Electrochemical Potential

*Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors*

Carrier Generation and Recombination

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Position of Fermi Level

n-type Semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

*Carrier Mobility*

Variation with Dopant Concentration

Variation with Temperature

*Carrier Recombination*

Minority Carrier Lifetime

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**pn Junction and Semiconductor Diodes**

*The pn Junction at Equilibrium*

Junction Potential

Depletion Approximation

*The Biased pn Junction*

The pn Junction as a Rectifier

Width of Depletion Region

Charge Distributions and Currents under Bias

Current-Voltage relation

Charge-Current Relation

pn Junction Capacitances

Temperature Effects

Junction Breakdown

*Semiconductor Photoelectric Devices*

Photoconductive Cell

Photodiode

Photocell

*Light-Emitting Diodes*

*Tunnel Diode*

*Contacts between Dissimilar Materials*

Metal-Metal Contacts

Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

Schottky Diode

*Heterojunction*

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Semiconductor Fabrication**

*Preparation of Silicon Wafer*

High-Purity Silicon

Crystal Growth

Wafer Production

Oxidation

*Patterning Processes*

Preparation of Masks

Lithography

Etching

*Deposition Processes*

Ion Implantation

Diffusion

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Metallization

Clean Room Environment

*Packaging*

Types of Packages

*Fabrication of Simple Devices*

Resistors

pn Junction Diodes

Capacitors

*CMOS Fabrication*

Transistor Isolation

Transistor Formation

Silicon-on Insulator Technology

*Fabrication of Bipolar Junction Transistors*

Basic BJT Structure

Modified BJT Structures

BiCMOS

*Miscellaneous Topics*

SiGe Technology

Crystal Defects

Si-SiO2 Interface

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Field Effect Transistors**

*Amplifiers*

Hypothetical Amplifying Device

*Basic Operation of the MOSFET*

Structure

Operation of Enhancement-type MOSFET

Current-Voltage Relations

p-Channel MOS Transistor

Small-Signal Operation

*Secondary Effects in MOSFETs*

Channel-Length Modulation

Transconductance

Overdrive Voltage

Temperature Effects

Breakdown

Body Effect

Capacitances

Unity-Gain Bandwidth

Short-Channel Effects

Carrier Velocity Saturation and Hot Carriers

Reduced Output Resistance and Threshold

Other Effects

Improved Performance

*Depletion-Type MOSFETs*

Diode Connection

*Complementary MOSFETs*

CMOS Amplifier

CMOS Transmission Gate

CMOS Inverter

*Junction Field Effect Transistor*

Structure

Operation

Current-Voltage Relation

*Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor*

Structure

Operation

High-Mobility Devices

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Bipolar Junction Transistor**

*Basic Operation of the BJT*

Common-Base dc Current Gains

Typical Structure

Common-Emitter Configuration

Small-Signal Current Gains

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits

*Secondary Effects in BJTs*

Base-Width Modulation

Hybrid-p Equivalent Circuit

Variation of iC with vbe

h-Parameter Equivalent Circuit

Temperature Effects

Breakdown

Punchthrough

BJT Capacitances

Unity-Gain Bandwidth

*BJT Large-Signal Models*

Ebers-Moll Model

Saturation Mode

The BJT as a Switch

Diode Connection

Regenerative Pair

Augmented Models

*Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor*

*Noise in Semiconductors*

*Comparison of BJTs and FETs*

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Two-Port Circuits, Amplifiers, and Feedback**

*Two-Port Circuits*

Equivalent Circuits

Ideal Amplifiers

*Negative Feedback*

Feedback Amplifiers

*Ideal Operational Amplifier*

Noninverting Configuration

Unity-Gain amplifier

Signal-Flow Diagrams

Inverting Configuration

Integrator

Differentiator

Extraneous Signals

Gain-Bandwidth Product

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Single-Stage Transistor Amplifiers**

*Transistor Biasing*

Biasing of Discrete Transistors

Current Mirror

BJT Current Mirror

MOSFET Current Mirror

*Basic Amplifier Configurations*

General Considerations

Common-Emitter Amplifier

Common-Source Amplifier

Common-Drain Amplifier

Common-Collector Amplifier

Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor

Common-Emitter Amplifier with Emitter Resistor

Common-Gate Amplifier

Common-Base Amplifier

*High-Frequency Response*

Miller’s Theorem

Poles and Zeros of Transfer Function

Common Emitter/Source Amplifier

Common Collector/Drain Amplifier

Common-Emitter/Source Amplifier with Feedback Resistor

Common-Base/Gate Amplifier

*Composite Transistor Connections*

Darlington Pair

Common Collector-Common Emitter Cascade

Cascode Amplifier

MOSFET Cascode

BJT Cascode

BiCMOS Cascode

*Cascode Current Sources and Mirrors*

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Multistage and Feedback Amplifiers**

*Cascaded Amplifiers*

dc Level Shifting

*RC-Coupled Amplifiers*

Common-Source Amplifier

Common-Emitter Amplifier

*Feedback Amplifiers*

Series-Shunt Feedback

Series-Series Feedback

Shunt-Series Feedback

Shunt-Shunt Feedback

*Closed-Loop Stability*

Stability from Bode Magnitude Plots

Frequency Compensation

Feedback Oscillators

Wien-Bridge Oscillator

High-Q Oscillator

*Tuned Amplifiers*

*LC Oscillators*

*Crystal Oscillators*

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Differential and Operational Amplifiers**

*Differential Pair*

Basic Operation

Transfer Characteristic

Small-signal Differential Operation

High-Frequency Response

Small-signal Common-Mode Response

High-Frequency Response

Input Bias Currents

Input Offset Voltage

Current-Mirror Load

MOSFET Differential Pair

*Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp*

Input Offset Voltage

Voltage Gain and Output Swing

Common Mode Response

Frequency Response

Slew Rate

*Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp*

Common-Mode Input Range

Output Voltage Swing

Voltage Gain

Frequency Response

Slew Rate

*CMOS Current and Voltage Biasing*

Self Biasing

*BJT Op Amps*

Input Resistance and Bias Current

Input Offset Voltage

*Some Basic Practical Op Amp Circuits*

Inverting and Noninverting Op Amp Circuits

Integrator

Difference amplifier

Instrumentation Amplifier

*Switched-Capacitor Circuits*

*Digital-Analog Conversion*

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Power Amplifiers and Switches**

*General Considerations*

Safe Operating Limits

Thermal Resistance

Thermal Stability

Nonlinear Distortion

Power-Conversion Efficiency

*Class A Operation*

Transformer Coupling

Emitter Follower

*Class B Operation*

*Class AB Operation*

*Class C Operation*

*Power Operational Amplifiers*

*Power Switching*

Class D Amplifier

Switched Regulated Supplies

dc-to-ac Converters

*Power Diodes*

*Power Transistors*

Bipolar Junction Transistors

MOSFETs

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

*Power Latches*

Thyristor

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Basic Elements of Digital Circuits**

*Digital Signals and Processing*

Digital Signals

Boolean Algebra

*Logic Gates*

Gate Types

CMOS Gate Examples

Gate Performance

*Flip-Flops*

Basic Latch

SR Latch

JK Flip-Flop

D Flip-Flop

*Digital System Memories*

Classification of Semiconductor Memories

Organization of Random-Access Memory

*Read/Write Memory*

Static Memory Cell

Dynamic Memory Cell

Sense Amplifier and Precharge Circuit

Row Decoder

Column Decoder

*Read Only Memory*

Mask ROM

Programmable ROM

Erasable Programmable ROM

Flash ROM

*Ferroelectric RAM*

*Metallic Interconnect*

Capacitance

Resistance

Distributed Models

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Digital Logic Circuit Families**

*CMOS*

CMOS Inverter

Static Behavior

Noise Margins

Propagation Delay

Power Dissipation

CMOS Gates

NAND and NOR Gates

CMOS Gate Design

Effects of Sizing and Scaling

Low-Power CMOS

Summary

*Pseudo NMOS*

Static Operation

Dynamic Operation

*Pass-Transistor Logic*

*Dynamic Logic*

Basic Configuration

Limitations of Dynamic Logic

Domino Logic

Pipelined Single-Phase Clock Architecture

*BiCMOS Logic*

Basic Operation

Propagation Delay

BiCMOS Gates

*Transistor-Transistor Logic*

Basic TTL Inverter

Advanced Low-Power Schottky TTL

*Emitter-Coupled Logic*

Basic Circuit

ECL 100K

ECL Gates

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

**Appendix A Reference Material**

Physical Constants

Frequently Used Constants

**Appendix B Basic PSpice Models**

pn Junction Diode

MOSFET

BJT

References and Bibliography

## Author(s)

### Biography

**Nassir H. Sabah** is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.