Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Electronics

Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice, 1st Edition

By Nassir H. Sabah

CRC Press

764 pages | 768 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2009-12-21
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Description

Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice does more than just make unsubstantiated assertions about electronics. Compared to most current textbooks on the subject, it pays significantly more attention to essential basic electronics and the underlying theory of semiconductors.

In discussing electrical conduction in semiconductors, the author addresses the important but often ignored fundamental and unifying concept of electrochemical potential of current carriers, which is also an instructive link between semiconductor and ionic systems at a time when electrical engineering students are increasingly being exposed to biological systems.

The text presents the background and tools necessary for at least a qualitative understanding of new and projected advances in microelectronics. The author provides helpful PSpice simulations and associated procedures (based on schematic capture, and using OrCAD® 16.0 Demo software), which are available for download. These simulations are explained in considerable detail and integrated throughout the book. The book also includes practical, real-world examples, problems, and other supplementary material, which helps to demystify concepts and relations that many books usually state as facts without offering at least some plausible explanation.

With its focus on fundamental physical concepts and thorough exploration of the behavior of semiconductors, this book enables readers to better understand how electronic devices function and how they are used. The book’s foreword briefly reviews the history of electronics and its impact in today’s world.

***Classroom Presentations are provided on the CRC Press website. Their inclusion eliminates the need for instructors to prepare lecture notes. The files can be modified as may be desired, projected in the classroom or lecture hall, and used as a basis for discussing the course material.***

Table of Contents

Preface

Foreword: Brief History and Impact of Electronics Convention for Symbols

Basic Diode Circuits

Overview

Learning Objectives

Ideal and Practical Diodes

Ideal Diode

Ideal Si pn Junction Diode

Practical Diodes

Incremental Diode Resistance

Basic Analysis of Diode Circuits

Piecewise Linear Approximation

Bias Point

Small-Signal Model

Rectifier Circuits

Half-Wave Rectifier

Full-Wave Rectifier

Smoothing of Output

Capacitor-Input Filter

Approximate Analysis of Capacitor-Input Filter

Zener Voltage Regulator

Voltage-Current Characteristic

Analysis of Zener Regulator

Load regulation and Line Regulation

Diode Voltage Limiters

Surge Protection

Diode-Capacitor Circuits

dc Restorer

Voltage Multiplication

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Basic Principles of Semiconductors

Excerpts from Wave Mechanics

Some Basic Ideas

Schrödinger’s Equation

Wave Packets

Free Atoms

Energy Band Structure

Electric Conduction in Semiconductors

Electrons in a Periodic Potential

Effective Mass

Hole Conduction

Density of Electron States

Fermi-Dirac Distribution

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

Crystal Structure

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Electrochemical Potential

Expression for Chemical Potential

Expression for Electrochemical Potential

Generalized Ohm’s Law

State of Equilibrium

Fermi Level and Electrochemical Potential

Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors

Carrier Generation and Recombination

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Position of Fermi Level

n-type Semiconductor

p-type semiconductor

Carrier Mobility

Variation with Dopant Concentration

Variation with Temperature

Carrier Recombination

Minority Carrier Lifetime

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

pn Junction and Semiconductor Diodes

The pn Junction at Equilibrium

Junction Potential

Depletion Approximation

The Biased pn Junction

The pn Junction as a Rectifier

Width of Depletion Region

Charge Distributions and Currents under Bias

Current-Voltage relation

Charge-Current Relation

pn Junction Capacitances

Temperature Effects

Junction Breakdown

Semiconductor Photoelectric Devices

Photoconductive Cell

Photodiode

Photocell

Light-Emitting Diodes

Tunnel Diode

Contacts between Dissimilar Materials

Metal-Metal Contacts

Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

Schottky Diode

Heterojunction

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Semiconductor Fabrication

Preparation of Silicon Wafer

High-Purity Silicon

Crystal Growth

Wafer Production

Oxidation

Patterning Processes

Preparation of Masks

Lithography

Etching

Deposition Processes

Ion Implantation

Diffusion

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Metallization

Clean Room Environment

Packaging

Types of Packages

Fabrication of Simple Devices

Resistors

pn Junction Diodes

Capacitors

CMOS Fabrication

Transistor Isolation

Transistor Formation

Silicon-on Insulator Technology

Fabrication of Bipolar Junction Transistors

Basic BJT Structure

Modified BJT Structures

BiCMOS

Miscellaneous Topics

SiGe Technology

Crystal Defects

Si-SiO2 Interface

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Field Effect Transistors

Amplifiers

Hypothetical Amplifying Device

Basic Operation of the MOSFET

Structure

Operation of Enhancement-type MOSFET

Current-Voltage Relations

p-Channel MOS Transistor

Small-Signal Operation

Secondary Effects in MOSFETs

Channel-Length Modulation

Transconductance

Overdrive Voltage

Temperature Effects

Breakdown

Body Effect

Capacitances

Unity-Gain Bandwidth

Short-Channel Effects

Carrier Velocity Saturation and Hot Carriers

Reduced Output Resistance and Threshold

Other Effects

Improved Performance

Depletion-Type MOSFETs

Diode Connection

Complementary MOSFETs

CMOS Amplifier

CMOS Transmission Gate

CMOS Inverter

Junction Field Effect Transistor

Structure

Operation

Current-Voltage Relation

Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor

Structure

Operation

High-Mobility Devices

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Bipolar Junction Transistor

Basic Operation of the BJT

Common-Base dc Current Gains

Typical Structure

Common-Emitter Configuration

Small-Signal Current Gains

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits

Secondary Effects in BJTs

Base-Width Modulation

Hybrid-p Equivalent Circuit

Variation of iC with vbe

h-Parameter Equivalent Circuit

Temperature Effects

Breakdown

Punchthrough

BJT Capacitances

Unity-Gain Bandwidth

BJT Large-Signal Models

Ebers-Moll Model

Saturation Mode

The BJT as a Switch

Diode Connection

Regenerative Pair

Augmented Models

Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

Noise in Semiconductors

Comparison of BJTs and FETs

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Two-Port Circuits, Amplifiers, and Feedback

Two-Port Circuits

Equivalent Circuits

Ideal Amplifiers

Negative Feedback

Feedback Amplifiers

Ideal Operational Amplifier

Noninverting Configuration

Unity-Gain amplifier

Signal-Flow Diagrams

Inverting Configuration

Integrator

Differentiator

Extraneous Signals

Gain-Bandwidth Product

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Single-Stage Transistor Amplifiers

Transistor Biasing

Biasing of Discrete Transistors

Current Mirror

BJT Current Mirror

MOSFET Current Mirror

Basic Amplifier Configurations

General Considerations

Common-Emitter Amplifier

Common-Source Amplifier

Common-Drain Amplifier

Common-Collector Amplifier

Common-Source Amplifier with Source Resistor

Common-Emitter Amplifier with Emitter Resistor

Common-Gate Amplifier

Common-Base Amplifier

High-Frequency Response

Miller’s Theorem

Poles and Zeros of Transfer Function

Common Emitter/Source Amplifier

Common Collector/Drain Amplifier

Common-Emitter/Source Amplifier with Feedback Resistor

Common-Base/Gate Amplifier

Composite Transistor Connections

Darlington Pair

Common Collector-Common Emitter Cascade

Cascode Amplifier

MOSFET Cascode

BJT Cascode

BiCMOS Cascode

Cascode Current Sources and Mirrors

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Multistage and Feedback Amplifiers

Cascaded Amplifiers

dc Level Shifting

RC-Coupled Amplifiers

Common-Source Amplifier

Common-Emitter Amplifier

Feedback Amplifiers

Series-Shunt Feedback

Series-Series Feedback

Shunt-Series Feedback

Shunt-Shunt Feedback

Closed-Loop Stability

Stability from Bode Magnitude Plots

Frequency Compensation

Feedback Oscillators

Wien-Bridge Oscillator

High-Q Oscillator

Tuned Amplifiers

LC Oscillators

Crystal Oscillators

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Differential and Operational Amplifiers

Differential Pair

Basic Operation

Transfer Characteristic

Small-signal Differential Operation

High-Frequency Response

Small-signal Common-Mode Response

High-Frequency Response

Input Bias Currents

Input Offset Voltage

Current-Mirror Load

MOSFET Differential Pair

Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp

Input Offset Voltage

Voltage Gain and Output Swing

Common Mode Response

Frequency Response

Slew Rate

Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp

Common-Mode Input Range

Output Voltage Swing

Voltage Gain

Frequency Response

Slew Rate

CMOS Current and Voltage Biasing

Self Biasing

BJT Op Amps

Input Resistance and Bias Current

Input Offset Voltage

Some Basic Practical Op Amp Circuits

Inverting and Noninverting Op Amp Circuits

Integrator

Difference amplifier

Instrumentation Amplifier

Switched-Capacitor Circuits

Digital-Analog Conversion

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Power Amplifiers and Switches

General Considerations

Safe Operating Limits

Thermal Resistance

Thermal Stability

Nonlinear Distortion

Power-Conversion Efficiency

Class A Operation

Transformer Coupling

Emitter Follower

Class B Operation

Class AB Operation

Class C Operation

Power Operational Amplifiers

Power Switching

Class D Amplifier

Switched Regulated Supplies

dc-to-ac Converters

Power Diodes

Power Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistors

MOSFETs

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

Power Latches

Thyristor

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Basic Elements of Digital Circuits

Digital Signals and Processing

Digital Signals

Boolean Algebra

Logic Gates

Gate Types

CMOS Gate Examples

Gate Performance

Flip-Flops

Basic Latch

SR Latch

JK Flip-Flop

D Flip-Flop

Digital System Memories

Classification of Semiconductor Memories

Organization of Random-Access Memory

Read/Write Memory

Static Memory Cell

Dynamic Memory Cell

Sense Amplifier and Precharge Circuit

Row Decoder

Column Decoder

Read Only Memory

Mask ROM

Programmable ROM

Erasable Programmable ROM

Flash ROM

Ferroelectric RAM

Metallic Interconnect

Capacitance

Resistance

Distributed Models

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Digital Logic Circuit Families

CMOS

CMOS Inverter

Static Behavior

Noise Margins

Propagation Delay

Power Dissipation

CMOS Gates

NAND and NOR Gates

CMOS Gate Design

Effects of Sizing and Scaling

Low-Power CMOS

Summary

Pseudo NMOS

Static Operation

Dynamic Operation

Pass-Transistor Logic

Dynamic Logic

Basic Configuration

Limitations of Dynamic Logic

Domino Logic

Pipelined Single-Phase Clock Architecture

BiCMOS Logic

Basic Operation

Propagation Delay

BiCMOS Gates

Transistor-Transistor Logic

Basic TTL Inverter

Advanced Low-Power Schottky TTL

Emitter-Coupled Logic

Basic Circuit

ECL 100K

ECL Gates

Summary of Main Concepts and Results

Learning Outcomes

Supplementary Examples and Topics on CD

Problems and Exercises

Appendix A Reference Material

Physical Constants

Frequently Used Constants

Appendix B Basic PSpice Models

pn Junction Diode

MOSFET

BJT

References and Bibliography

About the Author

Nassir H. Sabah is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC008010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General