1st Edition

Emerging Englishes China English in Academic Writing

By Alex Baratta, Rui He, Paul Smith Copyright 2025
    172 Pages 7 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book encourages further conversation on the expanding circle in World Englishes, offering a detailed look at “China English” through the academic writing of Chinese students at a British university.

    The volume seeks to blur the simplistic binary of “Chinglish,” a broad term often understood to encompass grammatical or lexical errors or seemingly “unnatural” expressions, and “China English,” which the authors articulate here as its own variety, as evidenced in language use marked by predictability. The research framework begins with analyzing student essays in one program at the University of Manchester, predominantly made up of Chinese students. In highlighting recurring features and supported by online surveys of the students, the authors demonstrate how “China English” displays the systematicity in grammar and lexis observed in varieties of English. In focusing on academic writing, a genre which bears prominence in assessment, the book raises key questions about implications for teaching, what is considered appropriate language, and whether, rather than seeking to replace “standard English,” the notion of what is “standard” might be broadened to encompass other varieties. The book further promotes implications beyond pedagogies, to include learning more broadly, marking, curriculum/policy, training and identity negotiation.

    This book will be of interest to students and scholars in language and education, World Englishes, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics.

    List of Tables and Figures


    Chapter One: The Exportation of the English Language

    Background to the spread, and variety, of English

    Lexical change

    Grammatical change

    Is China English a reality?


    Chapter Two: Internationalisation and Academic Writing

    Higher Education Internationalisation – Is it on the right track?

    What should successful HE internationalisation be like?

    Academic writing within HE internationalisation




    Statement of aims


    Chapter Three: Chinglish, Chinese English and China English


    Chinese English

    China English


    Chapter Four: Chinese MA students’ attitudes toward China English

    Introduction and background

    Existing research on the features of China English

    Aims and design of the research

    The Text Analysis stage

    The questionnaire stage

    The Focus Group stage


    Chapter Five: What does it take to see an emerging language?

    Suggested features of China English

    Errors versus Innovations

    Linguistic equality, diversity, and inclusion in HE internationalisation

    A ‘bottom-up’ approach in teaching and research

    Some final notes on the emerging China English




    Alex Baratta is Senior Lecturer in Language, Linguistics and Communication at the Manchester Institute of Education at the University of Manchester, UK.


    Rui He is Lecturer in Education at the Manchester Institute of Education at the University of Manchester, UK.


    Paul Smith is Lecturer in Education at the Manchester Institute of Education at the University of Manchester, UK.