Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Four Volume Set: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Four Volume Set

1st Edition

Edited by Sven Erik Jorgensen

CRC Press

3,512 pages

Choice Award Winner
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pub: 2012-12-13
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Winner of an Outstanding Academic Title Award from CHOICE Magazine

Encyclopedia of Environmental Management gives a comprehensive overview of environmental problems, their sources, their assessment, and their solutions. Through in-depth entries and a topical table of contents, readers will quickly find answers to questions about specific pollution and management issues. Edited by the esteemed Sven Erik Jørgensen and an advisory board of renowned specialists, this four-volume set shares insights from more than 500 contributors—all experts in their fields.

The encyclopedia provides basic knowledge for an integrated and ecologically sound management system. Nearly 400 alphabetical entries cover everything from air, soil, and water pollution to agriculture, energy, global pollution, toxic substances, and general pollution problems. Using a topical table of contents, readers can also search for entries according to the type of problem and the methodology. This allows readers to see the overall picture at a glance and find answers to the core questions:

  • What is the pollution problem, and what are its sources?
  • What is the "big picture," or what background knowledge do we need?
  • How can we diagnose the problem, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using monitoring and ecological models, indicators, and services?
  • How can we solve the problem with environmental technology, ecotechnology, cleaner technology, and environmental legislation?
  • How do we address the problem as part of an integrated management strategy?

This accessible encyclopedia examines the entire spectrum of tools available for environmental management. An indispensable resource, it guides environmental managers to find the best possible solutions to the myriad pollution problems they face.

Also Available Online

This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

  • Citation tracking and alerts
  • Active reference linking
  • Saved searches and marked lists
  • HTML and PDF format options

Contact us to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.

US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367 / (email) [email protected]

International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062 / (email) [email protected]


"… environmental management is maturing into a truly comprehensive interdisciplinary activity including natural, medical, technical, economic, and social sciences. Although some cases have considered (and implemented) almost all of these aspects, the majority of previous studies propose a specific solution, which would have been different if the missing disciplines had been included. This encyclopedia presents a unique collection of almost 400 issues, case studies, and practices. As such, it will be of critical importance for the sustainability of human development as examinations of current state-of-the-art techniques have at last been made available, thus making possible a much faster development towards more refined solutions in the future. Whether discussing the management of air, water, soil quality, or indeed any other issue, including those of global importance, this encyclopedia will be used frequently for years to come by all who hold a stake in the environment, including educational programs related to environmental management, industry, environmental regulatory bodies, and non-governmental organizations."

—From the Foreword by Tarzan Legovic, Secretary General, International Society for Ecological Modelling; Professor and Chairman, Division of Marine and Environmental Research, R. Boškovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

"… an excellent resource for finding basic knowledge on environmental systems. Reviewed here in its online version, it is also available as a four-volume print set. Reflecting extensive coverage of the field, the highly informative entries are profusely illustrated with graphs and charts. The editors claim to have included 90-95 percent of the most important problems and solutions facing environmental management today. Entries range from "Acaricides" and "Acid Rain" to "Wind Farms: Noise" and "Yellow River." The entries focus on definitions and on solutions to environmental problems. The solutions involve the use of environmental, ecological, and cleaner technologies as well as environmental legislation. Searching is easy and fast; articles load quickly. The bibliographies are extensive and cross-linked. This is especially helpful for libraries that subscribe to Web of Science <http://thomsonreuters.com/web-of-science/> (CH, Jan'11, 48-2436), since its link resolvers will connect directly to the citations. An extremely helpful Librarians' Area provides detailed information on how to set up link resolvers, use OpenURL linking in catalogs, create usage reports, and more. Pricing is based on a standard fee, based on FTE. This is a valuable resource for all libraries supporting programs in environment studies, earth science, and geography. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers."

J. C. Stachacz, Wilkes University in CHOICE Magazine

Table of Contents



Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Air Pollution Problems

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools

Environmental Technology

Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Energy Issues

Cleaner Technology: Alternative Energy

Cleaner Technology: Energy Conservation

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources

General Pollution Problems

Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews: Pollution and Contamination

Comparative Overviews: Processes, Environmental Quality and Conditions

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

Global Pollution Problems

Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Terrestrial Pollution Problems

Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources

Toxic Substances in the Environment

Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources

Water Pollution Problems

Cleaner Technology

Comparative Overviews

Diagnostic Tools


Environmental Legislation and Policy

Environmental Technology

Integrated and Holistic Management

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Point Sources

Pollution Problems and Their Sources: Generally Non-Point and Diffuse Sources


Volume I


Acid Rain

Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition

Acid Sulfate Soils

Acid Sulfate Soils: Formation

Acid Sulfate Soils: Identification, Assessment, and Management

Acid Sulfate Soils: Management


Agricultural Runoff

Agricultural Soils: Ammonia Volatilization

Agricultural Soils: Carbon and Nitrogen Biological Cycling

Agricultural Soils: Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Agricultural Soils: Phosphorus

Agricultural Water Quantity Management

Agriculture: Energy Use and Conservation

Agriculture: Organic

Agroforestry: Water Use Efficiency

Air Pollution: Monitoring

Air Pollution: Technology

Alexandria Lake Maryut: Integrated Environmental Management


Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy: Hydropower

Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Modules and Systems

Alternative Energy: Photovoltaic Solar Cells

Alternative Energy: Solar Thermal Energy

Alternative Energy: Wind Power Technology and Economy


Animals: Sterility from Pesticides

Animals: Toxicological Evaluation

Antagonistic Plants

Aquatic Communities: Pesticide Impacts

Aral Sea Disaster

Arthropod Host-Plant Resistant Crops

Bacillus thuringiensis: Transgenic Crops

Bacterial Pest Control



Biodiversity and Sustainability

Bioenergy Crops: Carbon Balance Assessment


Bioindicators: Farming Practices and Sustainability

Biological Controls

Biological Controls: Conservation




Bioremediation: Contaminated Soil Restoration

Biotechnology: Pest Management

Birds: Chemical Control

Birds: Pesticide Use Impacts

Boron and Molybdenum: Deficiencies and Toxicities

Boron: Soil Contaminant

Buildings: Climate Change

Cabbage Diseases: Ecology and Control

Cadmium and Lead: Contamination

Cadmium: Toxicology

Carbon Sequestration

Carbon: Soil Inorganic


Chesapeake Bay


Climate Policy: International

Coastal Water: Pollution

Cobalt and Iodine

Community-Based Monitoring: Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania


Composting: Organic Farming


Cyanobacteria: Eutrophic Freshwater Systems


Desertification: Extent of

Desertification: Greenhouse Effect

Desertification: Impact

Desertification: Prevention and Restoration


Developing Countries: Pesticide Health Impacts

Distributed Generation: Combined Heat and Power

Drainage: Hydrological Impacts Downstream

Drainage: Soil Salinity Management

Ecological Indicators: Eco-Exergy to Emergy Flow

Ecological Indicators: Ecosystem Health

Economic Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster

Ecosystems: Large-Scale Restoration Governance

Ecosystems: Planning

Endocrine Disruptors

Energy Commissioning: Existing Buildings

Energy Commissioning: New Buildings

Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation: Benefits

Energy Conservation: Industrial Processes

Energy Conservation: Lean Manufacturing

Energy Conversion: Coal, Animal Waste, and Biomass Fuel

Volume II

Energy Efficiency: Low-Cost Improvements

Energy Efficiency: New and Emerging Technology

Energy Efficiency: Strategic Facility Guidelines

Energy Master Planning

Energy Sources: Natural versus Additional

Energy Use: Exergy and Eco-Exergy

Energy Use: U.S.

Energy: Environmental Security

Energy: Physics

Energy: Renewable

Energy: Solid Waste Advanced Thermal Technology

Energy: Storage

Energy: Walls and Windows

Energy: Waste Heat Recovery

Environmental Legislation: Asia

Environmental Legislation: EU Countries Solid Waste Management

Environmental Policy

Environmental Policy: Innovations


Erosion and Carbon Dioxide

Erosion and Global Change

Erosion and Precipitation

Erosion and Sediment Control: Vegetative Techniques

Erosion by Water: Accelerated

Erosion by Water: Amendment Techniques

Erosion by Water: Assessment and Control

Erosion by Water: Empirical Methods

Erosion by Water: Erosivity and Erodibility

Erosion by Water: Process-Based Modeling

Erosion by Water: Vegetative Control

Erosion by Wind: Climate Change

Erosion by Wind: Global Hot Spots

Erosion by Wind: Principles

Erosion by Wind: Source, Measurement, Prediction, and Control

Erosion by Wind-Driven Rain

Erosion Control: Soil Conservation

Erosion Control: Tillage and Residue Methods

Erosion: Accelerated

Erosion: History

Erosion: Irrigation-Induced

Erosion: Snowmelt

Erosion: Soil Quality




Exergy: Analysis

Exergy: Environmental Impact Assessment

Farming: Non-Chemical and Pesticide-Free (European Council Regulations [EED/209/91])

Farming: Organic

Farming: Organic Pest Management

Food Quality Protection Act

Food: Cosmetic Standards

Food: Pesticide Contamination

Fossil Fuel Combustion: Air Pollution and Global Warming

Fuel Cells: Intermediate and High Temperature

Fuel Cells: Low Temperature

Genotoxicity and Air Pollution

Geographic Information System (GIS): Land Use Planning

Geothermal Energy Resources

Giant Reed (Arundo donax): Streams and Water Resources

Global Climate Change: Carbon Sequestration

Global Climate Change: Earth System Response

Global Climate Change: Gas Fluxes

Global Climate Change: Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric and Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles

Global Climate Change: World Soils


Green Energy

Green Processes and Projects: Systems Analysis

Green Products: Production

Groundwater: Arsenic Contamination

Groundwater: Contamination

Groundwater: Mining

Groundwater: Mining Pollution

Groundwater: Modeling

Groundwater: Nitrogen Fertilizer Contamination

Groundwater: Numerical Method Modeling

Groundwater: Pesticide Contamination

Groundwater: Saltwater Intrusion

Groundwater: Treatment with Biobarrier Systems

Heat Pumps

Heat Pumps: Absorption

Heat Pumps: Geothermal

Heavy Metals

Heavy Metals: Organic Fertilization Uptake


Herbicides: Non-Target Species Effects

Human Health: Cancer from Pesticides

Human Health: Chronic Pesticide Poisonings

Human Health: Consumer Concerns of Pesticides

Human Health: Hormonal Disruption

Human Health: Pesticide Poisonings

Human Health: Pesticide Sensitivities

Human Health: Pesticides

Hydroelectricity: Pumped Storage

Industrial Waste: Soil Pollution

Industries: Network of

Inland Seas and Lakes: Central Asia Case Study

Inorganic Carbon: Composition and Formation

Inorganic Carbon: Global Carbon Cycle

Inorganic Carbon: Modeling

Inorganic Compounds: Eco-Toxicity

Insect Growth Regulators

Insecticides: Aerial Ultra-Low-Volume Application

Insects and Mites: Biological Control

Insulation: Facilities

Integrated Energy Systems

Integrated Farming Systems

Integrated Nutrient Management

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Weed Management

Volume III

Invasion Biology

Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface Drip Design

Irrigation Systems: Sub-Surface History

Irrigation Systems: Water Conservation

Irrigation: Efficiency

Irrigation: Erosion

Irrigation: Return Flow and Quality

Irrigation: River Flow Impact

Irrigation: Saline Water

Irrigation: Sewage Effluent Use

Irrigation: Soil Salinity

Lakes and Reservoirs: Pollution

Lakes: Restoration

Land Restoration

Laws and Regulations: Food

Laws and Regulations: Pesticides

Laws and Regulations: Rotterdam Convention

Laws and Regulations: Soil


Leaching and Illuviation

Lead: Ecotoxicology

Lead: Regulations

LEED-EB: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Existing Buildings

LEED-NC: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction

Manure Management: Compost and Biosolids

Manure Management: Dairy

Manure Management: Phosphorus

Manure Management: Poultry


Methane Emissions: Rice

Minerals Processing Residue (Tailings): Rehabilitation

Mines: Acidic Drainage Water

Mines: Rehabilitation of Open Cut


Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment


Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis

Nanotechnology: Environmental Abatement

Natural Enemies and Biocontrol: Artificial Diets

Natural Enemies: Conservation

Nematodes: Biological Control

Neurotoxicants: Developmental Experimental Testing

Nitrate Leaching Index


Nitrogen Trading Tool

Nitrogen: Biological Fixation

Nuclear Energy: Economics

Nutrients: Best Management Practices

Nutrients: Bioavailability and Plant Uptake

NutrientWater Interactions

Oil Pollution: Baltic Sea

Organic Compounds: Halogenated

Organic Matter: Global Distribution in World Ecosystems

Organic Matter: Management

Organic Matter: Modeling

Organic Matter: Turnover

Organic Soil Amendments

Ozone Layer


Persistent Organic Compounds: Wet Oxidation Removal

Persistent Organic Pesticides

Pest Management

Pest Management: Crop Diversity

Pest Management: Ecological Agriculture

Pest Management: Ecological Aspects

Pest Management: Intercropping

Pest Management: Legal Aspects

Pest Management: Modeling

Pesticide Translocation Control: Soil Erosion


Pesticides: Banding

Pesticides: Chemical and Biological

Pesticides: Damage Avoidance

Pesticides: Effects

Pesticides: History

Pesticides: Measurement and Mitigation

Pesticides: Natural

Pesticides: Reducing Use

Pesticides: Regulating

Pests: Landscape Patterns

Petroleum: Hydrocarbon Contamination

Pharmaceuticals: Treatment


Phosphorus: Agricultural Nutrient

Phosphorus: Riverine System Transport

Plant Pathogens (Fungi): Biological Control

Plant Pathogens (Viruses): Biological Control

Pollutants: Organic and Inorganic

Pollution: Genotoxicity of Agrotoxic Compounds

Pollution: Non-Point Source

Pollution: Pesticides in Agro-Horticultural Ecosystems

Pollution: Pesticides in Natural Ecosystems

Pollution: Point and Non-Point Source Low Cost Treatment

Pollution: Point Sources

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Sediments and

Water Analysis


Precision Agriculture: Engineering Aspects

Precision Agriculture: Water and Nutrient Management

Radio Frequency Towers: Public School Placement



Rain Water: Atmospheric Deposition

Rain Water: Harvesting

Rare Earth Elements

Volume IV

Remote Sensing and GIS Integration

Remote Sensing: Pollution

Rivers and Lakes: Acidification

Rivers: Pollution

Rivers: Restoration

Runoff Water

Salt-Affected Soils: Physical Properties and Behavior

Salt-Affected Soils: Plant Response

Salt-Affected Soils: Sustainable Agriculture

Sea: Pollution

Sodic Soils: Irrigation Farming

Sodic Soils: Properties

Sodic Soils: Reclamation

Soil Degradation: Global Assessment

Soil Quality: Carbon and Nitrogen Gases

Soil Quality: Indicators

Soil Rehabilitation

Solid Waste Management: Life Cycle Assessment

Solid Waste: Municipal

Stored-Product Pests: Biological Control



Sulfur Dioxide

Sustainability and Planning

Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Quality

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development: Ecological Footprint in Accounting

Sustainable Development: Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and Wastes

Thermal Energy: Solar Technologies

Thermal Energy: Storage


Tillage Erosion: Terrace Formation

Toxic Substances

Toxic Substances: Photochemistry

Toxicity Prediction of Chemical Mixtures

Vanadium and Chromium Groups

Vertebrates: Biological Control

Waste Gas Treatment: Bioreactors

Waste: Stabilization Ponds

Wastewater and Water Utilities

Wastewater Treatment: Biological

Wastewater Treatment: Conventional Methods

Wastewater Treatment: Wetlands Use in Arctic Regions

Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Policy Issues

Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Public Health Considerations

Wastewater: Municipal

Water and Wastewater: Filters

Water and Wastewater: Ion Exchange Application

Water Harvesting

Water Quality and Quantity: Globalization

Water Quality: Modeling

Water Quality: Range and Pasture Land

Water Quality: Soil Erosion

Water Quality: Timber Harvesting

Water Supplies: Pharmaceuticals

Water: Cost

Water: Drinking

Water: Surface

Water: Total Maximum Daily Load

Watershed Management: Remote Sensing and GIS

Weeds (Insects and Mites): Biological Control


Wetlands: Biodiversity

Wetlands: Carbon Sequestration

Wetlands: Conservation Policy

Wetlands: Constructed Subsurface

Wetlands: Methane Emission

Wetlands: Petroleum

Wetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological Engineering

Wetlands: Treatment System Use

Wind Farms: Noise

Yellow River


About the Editor

Dr. Sven Erik Jørgensen is a professor of environmental chemistry at Copenhagen University. He received a doctorate of engineering in environmental technology and a doctorate of science in ecological modeling. He is an honorable doctor of science at Coimbra University, Portugal, and at Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania. He was editor in chief of Ecological Modelling from the journal’s inception in 1975 to 2009. He has also been the editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology. He is the president of ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling) and was chairman of ILEC (International Lake Environment Committee) from 1994 to 2006. In 2004 Dr. Jørgensen was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize and the Prigogine Prize. He was awarded the Einstein Professorship by the Chinese Academy of Science in 2005. In 2007 he received the Pascal medal and was elected a member of the European Academy of Science. He has written more than 360 papers, most of which have been published in international peer-reviewed journals. He has edited or written 70 books. Dr. Jørgensen has given lectures and courses in ecological modeling, ecosystem theory, and ecological engineering worldwide.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General