1st Edition

Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, Five-Volume Set (Print)

    4238 Pages 500 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The first of many important works featured in CRC Press’ Metals and Alloys Encyclopedia Collection, the Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys covers all the fundamental, theoretical, and application-related aspects of the metallurgical science, engineering, and technology of iron, steel, and their alloys. This Five-Volume Set addresses topics such as extractive metallurgy, powder metallurgy and processing, physical metallurgy, production engineering, corrosion engineering, thermal processing, metalworking, welding, iron- and steelmaking, heat treating, rolling, casting, hot and cold forming, surface finishing and coating, crystallography, metallography, computational metallurgy, metal-matrix composites, intermetallics, nano- and micro-structured metals and alloys, nano- and micro-alloying effects, special steels, and mining.

    A valuable reference for materials scientists and engineers, chemists, manufacturers, miners, researchers, and students, this must-have encyclopedia:

    Provides extensive coverage of properties and recommended practices
    Includes a wealth of helpful charts, nomograms, and figures
    Contains cross referencing for quick and easy search

    Each entry is written by a subject-matter expert and reviewed by an international panel of renowned researchers from academia, government, and industry.

    Also Available Online
    This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

    Citation tracking and alerts
    Active reference linking
    Saved searches and marked lists
    HTML and PDF format options

    Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages.
    US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) [email protected]
    International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) [email protected]

    Activities, Potentials, and Partial Pressures
    Karl-Michael Winter

    Advanced High-Strength Steels: Bake Hardening
    Mehdi Asadi, Mohamed Soliman, and Heinz Palkowski

    Advanced High-Strength Steels: Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)
    Roumen H. Petrov and Leo A.I. Kestens

    Advanced High-Strength Steels: Microstructure and Texture Evolution
    Roumen H. Petrov, Jurij Sidor, and Leo A.I. Kestens

    Advanced Ultra-High Strength Steel (A-UHSS): Boron-Containing
    I. Mejía and J.M. Cabrera

    Ram Pravesh Bhagat

    Aging: Dynamic Strain, Neutron Irradiation Effect on
    C. Gupta and K.L. Murty

    Aging: Static Strain
    Siamak Serajzadeh

    Alloyed Steels: Mechanically
    C. Suryanarayana and Ahmed Al-Joubori

    Alexey Sverdlin

    Austempered Ductile Cast Iron
    Menachem Bamberger

    Austempered Ductile Cast Iron: Bainitic Transformation in
    M. Nili-Ahmadabadi and H. Shirazi

    Austenitic Alloys: Non-Metallic Inclusions
    Adam Grajcar

    Austenitic Stainless Steel: Microstructural Evolution
    Andrey Belyakov, Zhanna Yanushkevich, Iaroslava Shakhova, and Rustam Kaibyshev

    Austenitic Steels: Dynamic Strain Aging
    Soon-Bok Lee and Seong-Gu Hong

    Bainitic Steel: Microstructures and Tribological Properties
    Esa Vuorinen

    Bainitic Steel: Nanostructured
    Carlos Garcia-Mateo, Thomas Sourmail, and Francisca G. Caballero

    Bainitic Steel: Transformation Mechanisms and Properties

    Bake Hardening
    Sourav Das, Shiv Brat Singh, and Omkar Nath Mohanty

    Banding: Microsegregation-Induced
    John Verhoeven

    Boride Layers: Growth Kinetics and Mechanical Characterization
    I. Campos-Silva, R. Tadeo-Rosas, H.D. Santos-Medina, and C. López-García

    Boroaluminized Carbon Steel
    Igor Sizov, Undrakh Mishigdorzhiyn, and Ivan Polyansky

    Boron-Added Low Carbon Unalloyed Steel
    Anjana Deva and Bimal Jha

    Boronizing of Iron-Based Alloys
    D.N. Tsipas and S.A. Tsipas

    Bulk Forming: Design
    Chester J. Van Tyne

    Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction
    Stuart Licht

    Carbon-, Low-, and Medium-Alloy Steels: Design with
    Guoxun Liu

    Carbon--Iron Alloys: Alloying Elements' Effect on Tempering
    Alexey Sverdlin

    Carbon--Iron Alloys: Austenite Transformations and Heat Treatment Processing

    Carbon--Iron Alloys: Hardening and Hardenability

    Carbonitriding: Plasma
    Pedro A.P. Nascente, Romulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa, and Leonardo C. Gontijo

    Carburized Steel: Quenching Effects, Jominy Test Results
    Mihai Ovidiu Cojocaru, Niculae Popescu, and Leontin Drugă

    Carburizing and Heat Treatment: Ancient Development
    Carlo Mapelli, Andrea Gruttadauria, and Silvia Barella

    Carburizing Process: Effects on Sintering Process
    Jordan Georgiev, Lubomir Anestiev, and Marcela Selecká

    Carburizing: Deep, Case Structure and Process Technology
    Piotr Kula, Emilia Wołowiec, Konrad Dybowski, Robert Pietrasik, Radomir Atraszkiewicz, and Sylwester Pawęta

    Carburizing: Laser Beam
    Gregory Haidemenopoulos and Antonis Katsamas

    Carburizing: Pack
    G.S. Gupta, S.S. Hosmani, and Sabita Sarkar

    Case Depth: Ultrasonic Measurement
    Farhang Honarvar and Reza Bagheri Borouji

    Cast Iron and Steels: Metallography
    George F. Vander Voort

    Cast Iron Design: Processes, Alloys and Properties
    George E. Totten

    Cast Iron: Compacted Graphite
    Marcin Górny

    Cast Iron: Produced from Steel Scrap
    Krzysztof Janerka, Jan Jezierski, Jan Szajnar, and Dariusz Bartocha

    Chromium--Iron Steel: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Electrolyte Cells
    Jan Froitzheim

    Luiz Castelleti, Amadeu Neto Lombardi, and George E. Totten

    Continuous Casting Processes
    Roderick I.L. Guthrie and Mihaiela Isac

    Controlled Atmospheres and Metallic Surfaces: Interaction during Heating
    Leontin Drugă and Mihai Ovidiu Cojocaru

    Cooling: Accelerated
    Satyam S. Sahay and Goutam Mohapatra

    Cooling: Curve Analysis
    Bernardo Hernández-Morales

    Copper-Rich Nanoclusters: Ferritic Steels Strengthened by
    C.T. Liu, Z.B. Jiao, and J.H. Luan

    Corrosion Inhibitors: Computational Design of Steel in Aqueous Media
    Ime Bassey Obot

    Corrosion: Coatings to Prevent
    Alexandre Ferreira Galio, Luciano Vieceli Taveira, and Sabrina Neves da Silva

    Corrosion: Rust Protection
    Hiroki Tamura

    Corrosion: Structural Characterization of Products
    Yoshio Waseda and Shigeru Suzuki

    Corrosion-Resistant Alloys: Case Hardening
    Arthur Heuer, Frank Ernst, Sunniva Collins, Paul Natishan, and Harold Kahn

    Crucible Steel Making: Persian Manuscripts and Archeometallurgical Analysis
    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    Cryogenic Treatment
    Debdulal Das and Kalyan Kumar Ray

    Cryogenic Treatment: Shallow and Deep
    D. Senthilkumar

    Current Nitriding
    David Pye

    Cutting Tool Applications: Tribology and Design of Surface-Engineered Materials
    German Fox-Rabinovich, George C. Weatherly, and Anatoli Kovalev

    Delta Ferrite: Cracking of Steel Fasteners
    Robson Bussoloti, George E. Totten, Luigi L.M. Albano, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

    Direct Reduced Iron: Production
    Sujay Kumar Dutta and Rameshwar Sah

    Direct-Quenched Structural Steels
    Jukka Kömi, Pentti Karjalainen, and David Porter

    Ductile Irons: Ferritic—Pearlitic
    Francesco Iacoviello and Vittorio Di Cocco

    Ductile Irons: Friction Welding
    Radosław Winiczenko and Mieczysław Kaczorowski

    Electroless Nickel-Boron Coatings
    Fabienne Delaunois and Véronique Vitry

    Fastening Systems: Designing
    Christoph Friedrich

    Ferritic--Martensitic Steels: Cyclic-Softening Behavior
    Iris Alvarez-Armas, María Natalia Batista, and Alberto F. Armas

    Flotation of Iron Ore
    José Aurélio Medeiros da Luz

    Forging Tribology
    Niels Bay and Tamotsu Nakamura

    Galvanized Coatings: Defects
    D.D.N. Singh

    Gas and Plasma Nitriding versus Nitrocarburizing Processes
    Clodomiro Alves Jr., Francisco Odolberto de Araújo, and Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa

    Gas Quenching: High-Pressure Process and Equipment Design
    Gabriela Belinato, Lauralice C.F. Canale, and George E. Totten

    Grain Boundaries in Iron
    Pavel Lejček and Václav Paidar

    Božidar Liščić

    Hardenability: Blanter Nomogram
    M.S. Blanter

    Hardening: Flame
    Barbara Rivolta and Mark M. Sirrine

    Hardening: Practical Aspects
    Lauralice C.F. Canale, Lemmy Meekisho, and George E. Totten

    Ana Sofia Climaco Monteiro D'Oliveira

    Heat Treatment: Fundamentals
    Alexey Sverdlin

    Heat Treatment: Post-Weld
    I.S. El-Mahallawi, M. Abd El-Rahman Abd El-Salam, M.A. Elsaady, N.A. Abdel Raheem, and M.R. El-Koussy

    Heat Treatment: Regenerative
    Grzegorz Golański

    Heat Treatment: Special Steels
    Alexey Sverdlin

    Heat Treatment: Steel
    Božidar Liščić

    Heat Treatment: Transformation-Induced Plasticity Aide Bainitic Steels
    A. Grajcar

    Heat-Treated Components: Distortion
    George E. Totten and Michiharu Narazaki

    High-Carbon Steel Wire: Patenting in Lead Bath
    Xinmin Luo and George E. Totten

    High-Melting-Point Materials: Semi-Solid Processing
    Platon Kapranos

    High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Designing with
    Lin Li and Luoping Xu

    High-Temperature Oxidation
    N.F. Garza-Montes-de-Oca

    History: Discovery and Production of Iron and Steel
    John Verhoeven

    Hot-Rolled Steels: Microstructural Evolution Prediction
    Masayoshi Suehiro

    Hydrogen Embrittlement: Mechanisms
    Akihide Nagao, Mohsen Dadfarnia, Petros Sofronis, and Ian Robertson

    Hydrogen Embrittlement: Theories
    Michihiko Nagumo

    Hypoeutectoid Steels: Critical Points
    Bogdan Pawlowski

    Induction Hardening
    Valery Rudnev

    Induction Heating and Heat Treating: Computer Modeling
    Valery Rudnev

    Internal Friction
    Michail Blanter and I.S. Golovin

    Investment Casting
    D. Benny Karunakar

    Iron Meteorites: Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties
    M. Kotsugi

    Iron Ore Direct Reduction: Simulation of
    André Carlos Silva and Américo Tristão Bernardes

    Large Steel Ingots: Microstructure Mathematical Modeling
    Waldemar Wołczyński

    Laser Physical Vapor Deposition (LPVD) and Laser Modification Processes
    Barbara Rivolta

    Laser Transformation Hardening and Remelting
    Janez Grum

    Low Carbon Steel: Welding Effects on Microstructure and Properties
    Zakaria Boumerzoug and Khaled Khelil

    Machining Design
    I.S. Jawahir

    Machining: Die and Tool Steel
    Hamed Hoseiny

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Emission: Surface Integrity
    Janez Grum

    Magnetic Fields: Effect on Heat Treatment and Properties of Steel
    Izabel Fernanda Machado

    Manganese: High Content in Steels
    I. Gutierrez-Urrutia

    Maraging Steels
    Nageswara Rao Muktinutalapati

    Maraging Steels: Microstructure during Thermal Processing
    Wei Sha

    Martensite--Ferrite Microalloyed Steels
    N. Anand, R. Madhavan, K. Mahesh, S. Suwas, and S. Sankaran

    Martensitic Stainless Steel: Direct Current Low-Temperature Plasma Carburizing
    Silvio Francisco Brunatto, Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, and Cristiano José Scheuer

    Martensitic Steels: Epsilon Carbides in Tempered
    Stéphane A.J. Forsik and Pedro E.J. Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo

    Martensitic Structure
    George Krauss

    Mechanical Behavior: Modeling and Simulation
    Essam El-Magd

    Metallurgical Coke
    María A. Diez

    Microwave Plasma Carburizing
    Isabelle Jauberteau and Jean Louis Jauberteau

    Mild Steel Plates: Aluminizing
    Udaya Bhat K.

    Molten Salt Baths: Electrochemical Boriding
    Guldem Kartal Sireli

    Nanofluids: Alternate Coolants
    K. Narayan Prabhu

    Nitrided and Nitrocarburized Materials: Design
    Michel J. Korwin, Christopher D. Morawski, George J. Tymowski, and Witold K. Liliental

    Nitriding and Austenitic and Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
    David Pye

    Nitriding: Gas
    Ewa Kasprzycka and Jan Tacikowski

    Nitriding: Interstitial Free Steel
    Dong Nyung Lee

    Nitriding: Lehrer Diagrams
    Rick Sisson and Mei Yang

    Nomenclature: Steel
    Anil Kumar Sinha, Chengjian Wu, and Guoquan Liu

    Pack Cyaniding: Cassava Leaves
    Kunle Akinluwade, Adelana Adetunji, and Olusegun Adewoye

    Pearlitic Steels: Wire Drawing
    Satyam S. Sahay and B.P. Gautham

    Peening: Laser
    Lloyd A. Hackel

    Pickling: Electrochemical
    Michael Vynnycky

    Pipeline Steel Corrosion
    A.S. Khanna

    Pipeline Steels: Hydrogen Diffusion and Environmentally-Assisted Cracking
    Marina Cabrini and Sergio Lorenzi

    Plasma Electrolytic Surface Carburizing of Pure Iron
    Metin Usta and Fatih Çavuşlu

    Plasma Nitrided Steel: Corrosion Resistance by Plasma Post-Oxidation
    J.C. Díaz-Guillén, E.E. Granda-Gutiérrez, A. Garza, J. Acevedo, and J.A. Díaz-Guillén

    Plasma Nitriding: Workpiece Emittance Effect on Heating in
    Edward Roliński and Jeffrey J. Machcinski

    Powder Injection Molding: Sinter-Hardening
    Leszek A. Dobrzański and G. Matula

    Powder Metallurgy Alloys: Designing with
    Joseph W. Newkirk and Ronald A. Kohser

    Powder Metallurgy Steel Components: Heat Treatment
    Joseph W. Newkirk and Sanjay N. Thakur

    Precipitate Formation in Iron Alloys: Transmission Electron Microscopy
    N.G. Chechenin and J.Th.M. De Hosson

    Quench Factor Analysis
    Rosa Simencio Otero, Walker Otero, George E. Totten, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

    Quench Processing: Multiple
    B. Smoljan

    Quench System Design: Induction Hardening
    Rosa Simencio Otero, Luigi L.M. Albano, George E. Totten, Lemmy Meekisho, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

    Quenchants: Polymer
    K. Narayan Prabhu

    Quenching and Partitioning Heat Treatment: High-Strength, Low-Alloy
    Xuejun Jin

    Quenching and Partitioning Steel
    David V. Edmonds, Emmanuel de Moor, David K. Matlock, and John G. Speer

    Quenching and Tempering: Multicomponent Grain Boundary Segregations Design Simulation
    Anatoli Kovalev and Dmitry L. Wainstein

    Quenching: Brine and Caustic
    Diego Lozano

    Quenching: Gas
    Volker Heuer

    Quenching: Intensive Steel
    Nikolai I. Kobasko

    Quenching: Interrupted
    Satyam S. Sahay

    Quenching: Simulation
    Caner Şimşir and C. Hakan Gür

    Quenching: Techniques
    Howard E. Boyer, Pierre Archambault, and F. Moreaux

    Residual Stress and Distortion: Designing for Control of
    Dong-Ying Ju

    Residual Stress: Minimization in Steel Castings
    Janez Grum

    Residual Stresses
    Berthold Scholtes

    Residual Stresses: Quenching, After
    V. Schulze and O. Vöhringer

    Residual Stresses: Welding-Induced
    Sara Y. Kenno and Sreekanta Das

    Retained Austenite: Stability in a Nanostructured Bainitic Steel
    Lucia Morales-Rivas, Francisca G. Caballero, and Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    Retained Austenite: Transformation-Induced Plasticity
    Elena Pereloma, Azdiar Gazder, and Ilana Timokhina

    Rolling: Skin-Pass
    Hideo Kijima and Niels Bay

    Roman Iron Artifacts: Metallographic Characterization
    Janet Lang

    Schaeffler Diagrams
    Marco Boniardi, Andrea Casaroli, and Barbara Rivolta

    Sheet Metal Forming: Design
    T. Wanheim

    Shropshire Iron Industry
    Richard Hayman

    Gianfilippo Bocchini

    Sintering and Surface Texturing: Direct Current-Coupled Plasma-Assisted Parts Manufacturing
    Silvio Francisco Brunatto, Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, Aloísio Nelmo Klein, and Joel Louis Rene Muzart

    Smelting Reduction Processes
    Sujay Kumar Dutta and Rameshwar Sah

    Spheroidal Graphite Iron
    Benjamin Iyalekhuosa Imasogie

    Stainless Steel: Heat Treatment
    Angelo Fernando Padilha, Ronald Lesley Plaut, and Paulo Rangel Rios

    Stainless Steel: Low-Temperature Nitriding Kinetics
    Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, Cristiano José Scheuer, and Silvio Fransisco Brunatto

    Stainless Steels, Superplastic: Carburizing and Boronizing of
    Masafumi Matsushita

    Steam Environments: Oxidation of Ferrous Alloys in
    A.T. Fry

    Steel Casting Tomography: Contactless Inductive Flow and Mutual Inductance
    Thomas Wondrak and Anthony Peyton

    Steel Rolling: Chatter
    Vladimir Panjkovic

    Steel Transformation: Classification and Mechanisms
    S.S. Babu

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
    K. Sridhar, U.K. Chatterjee, I. Chattoraj, and V.S. Raja

    Structural Steels
    Carlos García de Andrés, Carlos Capdevila, and David San Martín

    Nikolai I. Kobasko

    Surface Hardening: Laser
    Janez Grum

    Surface Hardening: Low-Temperature
    Federico A.P. Fernandes, Thomas L. Christiansen, and Marcel A.J. Somers

    Surface Modification Processes: Cavitation Erosion Resistance
    Ana Sofia Climaco Monteiro D'Oliveira and Juliane Ribeiro da Cruz

    Surface Roughness: Effect of Nitriding
    Edward Roliński

    Tempering Parameter Development
    Lauralice C.F. Canale, Luigi L.M. Albano, Lemmy Meekisho, George E. Totten, and Kristina Rodgers

    Testing Methods: Mechanical Properties
    D. Scott MacKenzie

    Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants: Steels in Water Coolants of
    Anatoly A. Efimov, Oleg Yu. Pykhteev, and Leonid N. Moskvin

    Thermally-Processed Steels: Residual Stresses and Distortion
    Kyozo Arimoto

    Platon Kapranos

    Tool Steels
    Elhachmi Essadiqi

    Tool Steels: Cryogenic Treatment
    Petra Salabova Priknerová, Peter Jurči, Jana Sobotová, and Otakar Prikner

    Tool Steels: Fracture Toughness
    Vojteh Leskovšek and Bojan Podgornik

    Tool Steels: Physical Metallurgy
    V.G. Gavrilchuk, A.I. Tyshchenko, and V.A. Sirosh

    Vacuum Heat Processing
    Bernd Edenhofer, Jan W. Bouwman, and Daniel H. Herring

    Welding: Metallography
    George Vander Voort

    Welding: Residual Stresses
    Majid Farajian and Dieter Siegele

    Wetting Kinematics
    Hans M. Tensi


    Rafael Colás has a B.Eng. (Met.) from Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico, and a M.Met. and Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield, UK. He held the post of Professor in the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1984-87) and as Research Manager at Hylsa, S.A. de C.V., a major integrated steelworks in Monterrey, Mexico (1987-92). He was appointed as Professor in the Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León in 1992. He has carried out research stays at universities in the UK and Canada. He spent a sabbatical leave as a Professor at the University of Ghent, Belgium from 2001-02. He was President of the Monterrey Chapter of the Mexican Foudrymen’s Society from 2002-03. He was appointed Director of the Centre for Innovation, Research, and Development in Engineering and Technology of Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León from 2010-13. He is President of the Mexican Chapter of the Association for Iron and Steel Technology until 2016. He was admitted to the Mexican Academy of Engineering in 1987 and to the Mexican Academy of Sciences in 2000. He was recognized as a Fellow of ASM International in 2004. He is the author of more than 180 papers published in journals indexed within the Journal Citation Report, and of more than 370 papers published in non-indexed journals and in the proceedings of national and international events. He has supervised the research work of more than 120 students who have obtained their under- and postgraduate degrees. He has been invited as an external examiner of Ph.D. theses of students from American, Australian, Belgian, Canadian, and Chilean universities.

    George E. Totten, Ph.D, FASM, is the President and Founder of G.E. Totten & Associates, LLC, Seattle, Washington, USA. He has more than 31 years of experience in the heat treating and fluids/lubricants industry. His most recent work has focused on metalworking quenchants (heat treating), hydraulic fluids technology, and lubricant formulation and testing. Widely published, Dr. Totten has worked extensively within SAE International, ASM International, and ASTM International committees. He is also past president of the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering (IFHTSE).

    "… a major work, with an impressive list of relevant contributors on topics ranging from the basics to the latest developments, and from mineral processing to steel performance in service. … an invaluable resource for companies and research centers concerned with steels."
    —Dr. Andy Howe, Editor, Materials Science & Technology, and Consultant, Beta Technology Ltd., Doncaster, UK

    "There is a great amount of knowledge available in the industrial world; however, to obtain updated and reliable knowledge in the field of metallurgical science and engineering becomes more complex. The Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys represents a remarkable effort to provide to engineers and metallurgists a single, comprehensive and practical reference work that brings together the science, engineering, and technological aspects."
    — Dr. – Ing. Mario Solari, Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    "Steel and cast iron—due to the extreme variety in their compositions, manufacturing processes, microstructures, and properties—are the most important materials in engineering. Usually, their state of the art is presented in several individual references. The new Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys is a unique reference covering the whole subject area of steel and cast iron from ore to application. Well-known international experts explain the basics and technologies. … I will use the encyclopedia as my favorite reference of iron, steel, and their alloys."
    —Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Olaf Kessler, Chair of Materials Science, University of Rostock, Germany