Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, Five-Volume Set (Print): 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, Five-Volume Set (Print)

1st Edition

Edited by Rafael Colás, George E. Totten

CRC Press

4,038 pages | 500 B/W Illus.

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The first of many important works featured in CRC Press’ Metals and Alloys Encyclopedia Collection, the Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys covers all the fundamental, theoretical, and application-related aspects of the metallurgical science, engineering, and technology of iron, steel, and their alloys. This Five-Volume Set addresses topics such as extractive metallurgy, powder metallurgy and processing, physical metallurgy, production engineering, corrosion engineering, thermal processing, metalworking, welding, iron- and steelmaking, heat treating, rolling, casting, hot and cold forming, surface finishing and coating, crystallography, metallography, computational metallurgy, metal-matrix composites, intermetallics, nano- and micro-structured metals and alloys, nano- and micro-alloying effects, special steels, and mining.

A valuable reference for materials scientists and engineers, chemists, manufacturers, miners, researchers, and students, this must-have encyclopedia:

Provides extensive coverage of properties and recommended practices

Includes a wealth of helpful charts, nomograms, and figures

Contains cross referencing for quick and easy search

Each entry is written by a subject-matter expert and reviewed by an international panel of renowned researchers from academia, government, and industry.

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"… a major work, with an impressive list of relevant contributors on topics ranging from the basics to the latest developments, and from mineral processing to steel performance in service. … an invaluable resource for companies and research centers concerned with steels."

—Dr. Andy Howe, Editor, Materials Science & Technology, and Consultant, Beta Technology Ltd., Doncaster, UK

"There is a great amount of knowledge available in the industrial world; however, to obtain updated and reliable knowledge in the field of metallurgical science and engineering becomes more complex. The Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys represents a remarkable effort to provide to engineers and metallurgists a single, comprehensive and practical reference work that brings together the science, engineering, and technological aspects."

— Dr. – Ing. Mario Solari, Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires, Argentina

"Steel and cast iron—due to the extreme variety in their compositions, manufacturing processes, microstructures, and properties—are the most important materials in engineering. Usually, their state of the art is presented in several individual references. The new Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys is a unique reference covering the whole subject area of steel and cast iron from ore to application. Well-known international experts explain the basics and technologies. … I will use the encyclopedia as my favorite reference of iron, steel, and their alloys."

—Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Olaf Kessler, Chair of Materials Science, University of Rostock, Germany

Table of Contents

Activities, Potentials, and Partial Pressures

Karl-Michael Winter

Advanced High-Strength Steels: Bake Hardening

Mehdi Asadi, Mohamed Soliman, and Heinz Palkowski

Advanced High-Strength Steels: Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)

Roumen H. Petrov and Leo A.I. Kestens

Advanced High-Strength Steels: Microstructure and Texture Evolution

Roumen H. Petrov, Jurij Sidor, and Leo A.I. Kestens

Advanced Ultra-High Strength Steel (A-UHSS): Boron-Containing

I. Mejía and J.M. Cabrera


Ram Pravesh Bhagat

Aging: Dynamic Strain, Neutron Irradiation Effect on

C. Gupta and K.L. Murty

Aging: Static Strain

Siamak Serajzadeh

Alloyed Steels: Mechanically

C. Suryanarayana and Ahmed Al-Joubori


Alexey Sverdlin

Austempered Ductile Cast Iron

Menachem Bamberger

Austempered Ductile Cast Iron: Bainitic Transformation in

M. Nili-Ahmadabadi and H. Shirazi

Austenitic Alloys: Non-Metallic Inclusions

Adam Grajcar

Austenitic Stainless Steel: Microstructural Evolution

Andrey Belyakov, Zhanna Yanushkevich, Iaroslava Shakhova, and Rustam Kaibyshev

Austenitic Steels: Dynamic Strain Aging

Soon-Bok Lee and Seong-Gu Hong

Bainitic Steel: Microstructures and Tribological Properties

Esa Vuorinen

Bainitic Steel: Nanostructured

Carlos Garcia-Mateo, Thomas Sourmail, and Francisca G. Caballero

Bainitic Steel: Transformation Mechanisms and Properties

Bake Hardening

Sourav Das, Shiv Brat Singh, and Omkar Nath Mohanty

Banding: Microsegregation-Induced

John Verhoeven

Boride Layers: Growth Kinetics and Mechanical Characterization

I. Campos-Silva, R. Tadeo-Rosas, H.D. Santos-Medina, and C. López-García

Boroaluminized Carbon Steel

Igor Sizov, Undrakh Mishigdorzhiyn, and Ivan Polyansky

Boron-Added Low Carbon Unalloyed Steel

Anjana Deva and Bimal Jha

Boronizing of Iron-Based Alloys

D.N. Tsipas and S.A. Tsipas

Bulk Forming: Design

Chester J. Van Tyne

Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction

Stuart Licht

Carbon-, Low-, and Medium-Alloy Steels: Design with

Guoxun Liu

Carbon--Iron Alloys: Alloying Elements' Effect on Tempering

Alexey Sverdlin

Carbon--Iron Alloys: Austenite Transformations and Heat Treatment Processing

Carbon--Iron Alloys: Hardening and Hardenability

Carbonitriding: Plasma

Pedro A.P. Nascente, Romulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa, and Leonardo C. Gontijo

Carburized Steel: Quenching Effects, Jominy Test Results

Mihai Ovidiu Cojocaru, Niculae Popescu, and Leontin Drugă

Carburizing and Heat Treatment: Ancient Development

Carlo Mapelli, Andrea Gruttadauria, and Silvia Barella

Carburizing Process: Effects on Sintering Process

Jordan Georgiev, Lubomir Anestiev, and Marcela Selecká

Carburizing: Deep, Case Structure and Process Technology

Piotr Kula, Emilia Wołowiec, Konrad Dybowski, Robert Pietrasik, Radomir Atraszkiewicz, and Sylwester Pawęta

Carburizing: Laser Beam

Gregory Haidemenopoulos and Antonis Katsamas

Carburizing: Pack

G.S. Gupta, S.S. Hosmani, and Sabita Sarkar

Case Depth: Ultrasonic Measurement

Farhang Honarvar and Reza Bagheri Borouji

Cast Iron and Steels: Metallography

George F. Vander Voort

Cast Iron Design: Processes, Alloys and Properties

George E. Totten

Cast Iron: Compacted Graphite

Marcin Górny

Cast Iron: Produced from Steel Scrap

Krzysztof Janerka, Jan Jezierski, Jan Szajnar, and Dariusz Bartocha

Chromium--Iron Steel: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Electrolyte Cells

Jan Froitzheim


Luiz Castelleti, Amadeu Neto Lombardi, and George E. Totten

Continuous Casting Processes

Roderick I.L. Guthrie and Mihaiela Isac

Controlled Atmospheres and Metallic Surfaces: Interaction during Heating

Leontin Drugă and Mihai Ovidiu Cojocaru

Cooling: Accelerated

Satyam S. Sahay and Goutam Mohapatra

Cooling: Curve Analysis

Bernardo Hernández-Morales

Copper-Rich Nanoclusters: Ferritic Steels Strengthened by

C.T. Liu, Z.B. Jiao, and J.H. Luan

Corrosion Inhibitors: Computational Design of Steel in Aqueous Media

Ime Bassey Obot

Corrosion: Coatings to Prevent

Alexandre Ferreira Galio, Luciano Vieceli Taveira, and Sabrina Neves da Silva

Corrosion: Rust Protection

Hiroki Tamura

Corrosion: Structural Characterization of Products

Yoshio Waseda and Shigeru Suzuki

Corrosion-Resistant Alloys: Case Hardening

Arthur Heuer, Frank Ernst, Sunniva Collins, Paul Natishan, and Harold Kahn

Crucible Steel Making: Persian Manuscripts and Archeometallurgical Analysis

Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

Cryogenic Treatment

Debdulal Das and Kalyan Kumar Ray

Cryogenic Treatment: Shallow and Deep

D. Senthilkumar

Current Nitriding

David Pye

Cutting Tool Applications: Tribology and Design of Surface-Engineered Materials

German Fox-Rabinovich, George C. Weatherly, and Anatoli Kovalev

Delta Ferrite: Cracking of Steel Fasteners

Robson Bussoloti, George E. Totten, Luigi L.M. Albano, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

Direct Reduced Iron: Production

Sujay Kumar Dutta and Rameshwar Sah

Direct-Quenched Structural Steels

Jukka Kömi, Pentti Karjalainen, and David Porter

Ductile Irons: Ferritic—Pearlitic

Francesco Iacoviello and Vittorio Di Cocco

Ductile Irons: Friction Welding

Radosław Winiczenko and Mieczysław Kaczorowski

Electroless Nickel-Boron Coatings

Fabienne Delaunois and Véronique Vitry

Fastening Systems: Designing

Christoph Friedrich

Ferritic--Martensitic Steels: Cyclic-Softening Behavior

Iris Alvarez-Armas, María Natalia Batista, and Alberto F. Armas

Flotation of Iron Ore

José Aurélio Medeiros da Luz

Forging Tribology

Niels Bay and Tamotsu Nakamura

Galvanized Coatings: Defects

D.D.N. Singh

Gas and Plasma Nitriding versus Nitrocarburizing Processes

Clodomiro Alves Jr., Francisco Odolberto de Araújo, and Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa

Gas Quenching: High-Pressure Process and Equipment Design

Gabriela Belinato, Lauralice C.F. Canale, and George E. Totten

Grain Boundaries in Iron

Pavel Lejček and Václav Paidar


Božidar Liščić

Hardenability: Blanter Nomogram

M.S. Blanter

Hardening: Flame

Barbara Rivolta and Mark M. Sirrine

Hardening: Practical Aspects

Lauralice C.F. Canale, Lemmy Meekisho, and George E. Totten


Ana Sofia Climaco Monteiro D'Oliveira

Heat Treatment: Fundamentals

Alexey Sverdlin

Heat Treatment: Post-Weld

I.S. El-Mahallawi, M. Abd El-Rahman Abd El-Salam, M.A. Elsaady, N.A. Abdel Raheem, and M.R. El-Koussy

Heat Treatment: Regenerative

Grzegorz Golański

Heat Treatment: Special Steels

Alexey Sverdlin

Heat Treatment: Steel

Božidar Liščić

Heat Treatment: Transformation-Induced Plasticity Aide Bainitic Steels

A. Grajcar

Heat-Treated Components: Distortion

George E. Totten and Michiharu Narazaki

High-Carbon Steel Wire: Patenting in Lead Bath

Xinmin Luo and George E. Totten

High-Melting-Point Materials: Semi-Solid Processing

Platon Kapranos

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels: Designing with

Lin Li and Luoping Xu

High-Temperature Oxidation

N.F. Garza-Montes-de-Oca

History: Discovery and Production of Iron and Steel

John Verhoeven

Hot-Rolled Steels: Microstructural Evolution Prediction

Masayoshi Suehiro

Hydrogen Embrittlement: Mechanisms

Akihide Nagao, Mohsen Dadfarnia, Petros Sofronis, and Ian Robertson

Hydrogen Embrittlement: Theories

Michihiko Nagumo

Hypoeutectoid Steels: Critical Points

Bogdan Pawlowski

Induction Hardening

Valery Rudnev

Induction Heating and Heat Treating: Computer Modeling

Valery Rudnev

Internal Friction

Michail Blanter and I.S. Golovin

Investment Casting

D. Benny Karunakar

Iron Meteorites: Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties

M. Kotsugi

Iron Ore Direct Reduction: Simulation of

André Carlos Silva and Américo Tristão Bernardes

Large Steel Ingots: Microstructure Mathematical Modeling

Waldemar Wołczyński

Laser Physical Vapor Deposition (LPVD) and Laser Modification Processes

Barbara Rivolta

Laser Transformation Hardening and Remelting

Janez Grum

Low Carbon Steel: Welding Effects on Microstructure and Properties

Zakaria Boumerzoug and Khaled Khelil

Machining Design

I.S. Jawahir

Machining: Die and Tool Steel

Hamed Hoseiny

Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Emission: Surface Integrity

Janez Grum

Magnetic Fields: Effect on Heat Treatment and Properties of Steel

Izabel Fernanda Machado

Manganese: High Content in Steels

I. Gutierrez-Urrutia

Maraging Steels

Nageswara Rao Muktinutalapati

Maraging Steels: Microstructure during Thermal Processing

Wei Sha

Martensite--Ferrite Microalloyed Steels

N. Anand, R. Madhavan, K. Mahesh, S. Suwas, and S. Sankaran

Martensitic Stainless Steel: Direct Current Low-Temperature Plasma Carburizing

Silvio Francisco Brunatto, Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, and Cristiano José Scheuer

Martensitic Steels: Epsilon Carbides in Tempered

Stéphane A.J. Forsik and Pedro E.J. Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo

Martensitic Structure

George Krauss

Mechanical Behavior: Modeling and Simulation

Essam El-Magd

Metallurgical Coke

María A. Diez

Microwave Plasma Carburizing

Isabelle Jauberteau and Jean Louis Jauberteau

Mild Steel Plates: Aluminizing

Udaya Bhat K.

Molten Salt Baths: Electrochemical Boriding

Guldem Kartal Sireli

Nanofluids: Alternate Coolants

K. Narayan Prabhu

Nitrided and Nitrocarburized Materials: Design

Michel J. Korwin, Christopher D. Morawski, George J. Tymowski, and Witold K. Liliental

Nitriding and Austenitic and Ferritic Nitrocarburizing

David Pye

Nitriding: Gas

Ewa Kasprzycka and Jan Tacikowski

Nitriding: Interstitial Free Steel

Dong Nyung Lee

Nitriding: Lehrer Diagrams

Rick Sisson and Mei Yang

Nomenclature: Steel

Anil Kumar Sinha, Chengjian Wu, and Guoquan Liu

Pack Cyaniding: Cassava Leaves

Kunle Akinluwade, Adelana Adetunji, and Olusegun Adewoye

Pearlitic Steels: Wire Drawing

Satyam S. Sahay and B.P. Gautham

Peening: Laser

Lloyd A. Hackel

Pickling: Electrochemical

Michael Vynnycky

Pipeline Steel Corrosion

A.S. Khanna

Pipeline Steels: Hydrogen Diffusion and Environmentally-Assisted Cracking

Marina Cabrini and Sergio Lorenzi

Plasma Electrolytic Surface Carburizing of Pure Iron

Metin Usta and Fatih Çavuşlu

Plasma Nitrided Steel: Corrosion Resistance by Plasma Post-Oxidation

J.C. Díaz-Guillén, E.E. Granda-Gutiérrez, A. Garza, J. Acevedo, and J.A. Díaz-Guillén

Plasma Nitriding: Workpiece Emittance Effect on Heating in

Edward Roliński and Jeffrey J. Machcinski

Powder Injection Molding: Sinter-Hardening

Leszek A. Dobrzański and G. Matula

Powder Metallurgy Alloys: Designing with

Joseph W. Newkirk and Ronald A. Kohser

Powder Metallurgy Steel Components: Heat Treatment

Joseph W. Newkirk and Sanjay N. Thakur

Precipitate Formation in Iron Alloys: Transmission Electron Microscopy

N.G. Chechenin and J.Th.M. De Hosson

Quench Factor Analysis

Rosa Simencio Otero, Walker Otero, George E. Totten, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

Quench Processing: Multiple

B. Smoljan

Quench System Design: Induction Hardening

Rosa Simencio Otero, Luigi L.M. Albano, George E. Totten, Lemmy Meekisho, and Lauralice C.F. Canale

Quenchants: Polymer

K. Narayan Prabhu

Quenching and Partitioning Heat Treatment: High-Strength, Low-Alloy

Xuejun Jin

Quenching and Partitioning Steel

David V. Edmonds, Emmanuel de Moor, David K. Matlock, and John G. Speer

Quenching and Tempering: Multicomponent Grain Boundary Segregations Design Simulation

Anatoli Kovalev and Dmitry L. Wainstein

Quenching: Brine and Caustic

Diego Lozano

Quenching: Gas

Volker Heuer

Quenching: Intensive Steel

Nikolai I. Kobasko

Quenching: Interrupted

Satyam S. Sahay

Quenching: Simulation

Caner Şimşir and C. Hakan Gür

Quenching: Techniques

Howard E. Boyer, Pierre Archambault, and F. Moreaux

Residual Stress and Distortion: Designing for Control of

Dong-Ying Ju

Residual Stress: Minimization in Steel Castings

Janez Grum

Residual Stresses

Berthold Scholtes

Residual Stresses: Quenching, After

V. Schulze and O. Vöhringer

Residual Stresses: Welding-Induced

Sara Y. Kenno and Sreekanta Das

Retained Austenite: Stability in a Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

Lucia Morales-Rivas, Francisca G. Caballero, and Carlos Garcia-Mateo

Retained Austenite: Transformation-Induced Plasticity

Elena Pereloma, Azdiar Gazder, and Ilana Timokhina

Rolling: Skin-Pass

Hideo Kijima and Niels Bay

Roman Iron Artifacts: Metallographic Characterization

Janet Lang

Schaeffler Diagrams

Marco Boniardi, Andrea Casaroli, and Barbara Rivolta

Sheet Metal Forming: Design

T. Wanheim

Shropshire Iron Industry

Richard Hayman


Gianfilippo Bocchini

Sintering and Surface Texturing: Direct Current-Coupled Plasma-Assisted Parts Manufacturing

Silvio Francisco Brunatto, Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, Aloísio Nelmo Klein, and Joel Louis Rene Muzart

Smelting Reduction Processes

Sujay Kumar Dutta and Rameshwar Sah

Spheroidal Graphite Iron

Benjamin Iyalekhuosa Imasogie

Stainless Steel: Heat Treatment

Angelo Fernando Padilha, Ronald Lesley Plaut, and Paulo Rangel Rios

Stainless Steel: Low-Temperature Nitriding Kinetics

Rodrigo Perito Cardoso, Cristiano José Scheuer, and Silvio Fransisco Brunatto

Stainless Steels, Superplastic: Carburizing and Boronizing of

Masafumi Matsushita

Steam Environments: Oxidation of Ferrous Alloys in

A.T. Fry

Steel Casting Tomography: Contactless Inductive Flow and Mutual Inductance

Thomas Wondrak and Anthony Peyton

Steel Rolling: Chatter

Vladimir Panjkovic

Steel Transformation: Classification and Mechanisms

S.S. Babu

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

K. Sridhar, U.K. Chatterjee, I. Chattoraj, and V.S. Raja

Structural Steels

Carlos García de Andrés, Carlos Capdevila, and David San Martín


Nikolai I. Kobasko

Surface Hardening: Laser

Janez Grum

Surface Hardening: Low-Temperature

Federico A.P. Fernandes, Thomas L. Christiansen, and Marcel A.J. Somers

Surface Modification Processes: Cavitation Erosion Resistance

Ana Sofia Climaco Monteiro D'Oliveira and Juliane Ribeiro da Cruz

Surface Roughness: Effect of Nitriding

Edward Roliński

Tempering Parameter Development

Lauralice C.F. Canale, Luigi L.M. Albano, Lemmy Meekisho, George E. Totten, and Kristina Rodgers

Testing Methods: Mechanical Properties

D. Scott MacKenzie

Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants: Steels in Water Coolants of

Anatoly A. Efimov, Oleg Yu. Pykhteev, and Leonid N. Moskvin

Thermally-Processed Steels: Residual Stresses and Distortion

Kyozo Arimoto


Platon Kapranos

Tool Steels

Elhachmi Essadiqi

Tool Steels: Cryogenic Treatment

Petra Salabova Priknerová, Peter Jurči, Jana Sobotová, and Otakar Prikner

Tool Steels: Fracture Toughness

Vojteh Leskovšek and Bojan Podgornik

Tool Steels: Physical Metallurgy

V.G. Gavrilchuk, A.I. Tyshchenko, and V.A. Sirosh

Vacuum Heat Processing

Bernd Edenhofer, Jan W. Bouwman, and Daniel H. Herring

Welding: Metallography

George Vander Voort

Welding: Residual Stresses

Majid Farajian and Dieter Siegele

Wetting Kinematics

Hans M. Tensi

About the Editors

Rafael Colás has a B.Eng. (Met.) from Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico, and a M.Met. and Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield, UK. He held the post of Professor in the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (1984-87) and as Research Manager at Hylsa, S.A. de C.V., a major integrated steelworks in Monterrey, Mexico (1987-92). He was appointed as Professor in the Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León in 1992. He has carried out research stays at universities in the UK and Canada. He spent a sabbatical leave as a Professor at the University of Ghent, Belgium from 2001-02. He was President of the Monterrey Chapter of the Mexican Foudrymen’s Society from 2002-03. He was appointed Director of the Centre for Innovation, Research, and Development in Engineering and Technology of Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León from 2010-13. He is President of the Mexican Chapter of the Association for Iron and Steel Technology until 2016. He was admitted to the Mexican Academy of Engineering in 1987 and to the Mexican Academy of Sciences in 2000. He was recognized as a Fellow of ASM International in 2004. He is the author of more than 180 papers published in journals indexed within the Journal Citation Report, and of more than 370 papers published in non-indexed journals and in the proceedings of national and international events. He has supervised the research work of more than 120 students who have obtained their under- and postgraduate degrees. He has been invited as an external examiner of Ph.D. theses of students from American, Australian, Belgian, Canadian, and Chilean universities.

George E. Totten, Ph.D, FASM, is the President and Founder of G.E. Totten & Associates, LLC, Seattle, Washington, USA. He has more than 31 years of experience in the heat treating and fluids/lubricants industry. His most recent work has focused on metalworking quenchants (heat treating), hydraulic fluids technology, and lubricant formulation and testing. Widely published, Dr. Totten has worked extensively within SAE International, ASM International, and ASTM International committees. He is also past president of the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering (IFHTSE).

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BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical