2nd Edition

Physical Metallurgy




ISBN 9781439813607
Published April 5, 2010 by CRC Press
442 Pages - 494 B/W Illustrations

USD $150.00

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Book Description

For students ready to advance in their study of metals, Physical Metallurgy, Second Edition uses engaging historical and contemporary examples that relate to the applications of concepts in each chapter.

This book combines theoretical concepts, real alloy systems, processing procedures, and examples of real-world applications. The author uses his experience in teaching physical metallurgy at the University of Michigan to convey this topic with greater depth and detail than most introductory materials courses offer.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Chapter on crystallographic textures and their influence on microstructure and properties
  • Expanded section on aluminum-lithium alloys
  • Information on copper and nickel
  • Rewritten chapters on other non-ferrous metals and low carbon steels
  • Discussions of compact graphite and austempered ductile iron
  • Expanded discussions of cemented carbide tools
  • Updated table on metal prices

Following an introduction to metals, the author covers topics that are common to all metals, including solidification, diffusion, surfaces, solid solutions, intermediate phases, dislocations, annealing, and phase transformations. He also focuses on specific nonferrous alloy systems and their significant metallurgical properties and applications, the treatment of steels (including iron-carbon alloys), hardening, tempering and surface treatment, special steels, low carbon sheet steel, and cast irons. The book also covers powder metallurgy, corrosion, welding, and magnetic alloys. There are appendices on microstructural analysis, stereographic projection, and the Miller-Bravais system for hexagonal crystals. These chapters address ternary phase diagrams, diffusion in multiphase systems, the thermodynamic basis for phase diagrams, stacking faults and hydrogen embrittlement.

With ample references and sample problems throughout, this text is a superb tool for any advanced materials science course.

Table of Contents

Preface

INTRODUCTION


Metallic Elements
Price and Abundance
Miscellany and Problems

FREEZING


Introduction
Liquid Metals
Nucleation
Growth
Ingot Structure
Segregation During Freezing
Zone Refining
Steady State
Dendritic
Growth
Length and Spacing of Dendrite Arms
Consequences of Dendritic Growth
Gas Solubility and Gas Porosity
Growth of Single Crystals
Eutectic Solidification
Peritectic Freezing
Metal glasses
Miscellany, References, and Problems

DIFFUSION         


Fick’s1ST Law 
Fick’s 2nd Law
Solutions to Fick’s 2nd Law
Mechanisms of Diffusion
Kirkendall Effect
Special Diffusion Paths
Darken's Equation
Diffusion in Systems with More Than ONE phase
Miscellany, References, and Problems
SURFACES
Direct Measurements of Surface Energy
Measurements of Relative Surface Energies
Wetting Angles of Surface Energy to Bonding
Anisotropy of Surface Energy
Segregation to Surfaces
Data on Various Systems
Miscellany, References, and Problems
SOLID SOLUTIONS
Types of Solid Solutions
Electron-to-Atom Ratio
Entropy of Mixing
Enthalpy of Mixing
Free Energy Change on Mixing
Equilibrium Vacancy and Interstitial Concentrations
Ordered vs. Random Solid Solutions
Miscellany, References, and Problems

INTERMEDIATE PHASES


Hume-Rothery or Electron Phases
Covalent Compounds
Ionic Compounds
Interstitial Compounds
Laves Compounds
Miscellany, References, and Problems

PHASE DIAGRAMS


Review of Binary Phase Diagrams
Invariant Reactions
Lever Law
The Gibb’s Phase Rule
Ternary Phase Diagrams
Miscellany, References, and Problems

DISLOCATIONS


The Nature of Dislocations
Energy of a Screw Dislocation
Burgers Vector Notation
Reactions Between Parallel Dislocations and Frank's Rule
Stress Fields Around Dislocations
Forces on Dislocations
Partial Dislocations in Fcc Crystals
Stacking Faults
Cross Slip
Miscellany, References, and Problems

ANNEALING


General
Recovery
Recrystallization
Avrami Kinetics
Analysis of Grain Shape
Grain Growth
Limiting Grain Size
Summary of Grain Growth
Summary for the Chapter
Miscellany, References, and Problems

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS


Classification of Phase Changes
Martensitic Transformations
Spinodal Decomposition
Nucleation
Growth
Overall Kinetics
Precipitation from Supersaturated Solid Solution
Precipitation Hardening Kinetics
Growth of Precipitates
Precipitation Kinetics
Hardening Mechanism
Ostwald Ripening
Practical Age-Hardening Treatments
Additional Comments
Aluminum – Copper Alloys
Habit
Miscellany, References, and Problems

ALUMINUM ALLOYS


Uses
Alloys
Wrought Alloys
Casting Alloys
Powder-Processing
Corrosion Resistance
Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
Miscellany, References, and Problems

COPPER AND NICKEL ALLOYS


Commercially Pure Copper
Copper-Zinc Alloys
Bronzes
Lead Additions
Copper-Nickel Alloys
Beryllium cOpper
Corrosion
Nickel-Base Alloys
Miscellany, References, and Problems

HEXAGONAL METALS


General 
Zinc
Magnesium
Titanium
Zirconium
Beryllium
Miscellany, References, and Problems

OTHER NONFERROUS ALLOYS


Lead
Tin
Gold
Silver
Platinum Metals
Group VA and VIA Metals
Alloys with Special Physical Properties
Metals and Alloys with Low Melting Points
Miscellaneous Metals
Miscellany, References, and Problems

STEELS


Microstructures of Carbon Steels
Kinetics of Pearlite Formation
Alloying Elements in Steel
Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 
Continuous Cooling Diagrams
Martensite
Special Heat Treatments
Miscellany, References, and Problems

HARDENING OF STEELS


Hardenability: Jominey End-Quench Test
Ideal Diameter Calculations
Boron
Martensite and Retained Austenite
Miscellany, References, and Problems

TEMPERING AND SURFACE HARDENING


Tempering
Secondary Hardening
Temper Embrittlement
Carburizing
Nitriding
Carbonitriding
Case Hardening without Composition Change
Furnace Atmospheres
Miscellany, References, and Problems

LOW CARBON STEELS


Sheet Steels
Special Grades
Coatings
Special Concerns
Miscellany, References, and Problems

SPECIAL STEELS


Stainless Steels
Hadfield Austenitic Manganese Steel
Maraging Steels
Trip Steels
Tool Steels
Silicon Steels
Miscellany, References, and Problems

CAST IRONS


General
White Iron
Gray Irons
Ductile Irons
Malleable Iron
Matrices
Miscellany, References, and Problems

WELDING


Welding without Melting
Resistance Welding
Arc Welding
Heat Distribution
Torch Welding
Metallurgy of Welding
Residual Stresses and Distortion
Braze-Welding of Cast Iron
Brazing and Soldering
Joint Design
Hard Facing
Miscellany, References, and Problems

POWDER PROCESSING


Powders 
Powder Pressing
Sintering
Sintering – Later Stage
Liquid Phase Sintering
Activated Sintering
Hot Pressing
Strength and Ductility
Miscellany, References, and Problems                     

CORROSION


Corrosion Cells 
Current Density
Polarization
Passivation
Corrosion Control
Rust
Direct Oxidation
Hydrogen Embrittlement
Hydride Formation
Miscellany, References, and Problems

MAGNETIC MATERIALS


General
Magnetostatic Energy
Magnetocrystalline Energy
Magnetostriction
Physical Units
B-H Curve
Curie Temperature
Bloch walls
Soft vs. Hard Magnetic Materials
Soft Magnetic Materials
Hard Magnetic Materials
Summary
Miscellany, References, and Problems

APPENDIX A: MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


ASTM Grain Size Number
Linear Intercept Grain Size
Relation of Grain Boundary Area Per Volume to Linear Intercept
Relation of the Number of Intersections Per Area to the Length of Line Per Volume
Dihedral Angles
Microstructural Relationships
References
Problems

APPENDIX B: STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION


The Stereographic Projection
Locating the Hkı Pole in the Standard Projection of a Cubic Crystal
Problems

APPENDIX C: MILLER-BRAVAIS INDICES FOR HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS


Miller-Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Crystals
Planar Indices
Direction Indices
Problems

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Author(s)

Biography

William F. Hosford is a Professor Emeriti s of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. He holds degreeE in Metallurgy and Metallurgical Engineering
from Lehigh, Yale and Ml:T. He is the author of several books including Metal Forming:
Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd edition (with R. M. Caddell) Mechanics of Crystals and
Textured Polycrystals, Physical Metallurgy, Materials Science, Materials for Engineers,
Reporting Results: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists,

Reviews

“The book covers all the major topics in metallurgy as well as some additional subjects such as welding and corrosion. …Many of the chapters contain example problems that are quite useful for understanding the subject matter. Additionally, each chapter contains a section titles ‘Miscellany’ that presents certain interesting historical information about the subject matter of that chapter. …This book, unlike many metallurgy books, presents a generous number of phase diagrams that are useful in describing the behavior of many of the alloys systems presented.”
—The Journal of Science and Engineering Corrosion, Vol. 62, No. 1, Jan. 2006

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