Physical Metallurgy: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physical Metallurgy

2nd Edition

By William F. Hosford

CRC Press

442 pages | 494 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-04-05
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Description

For students ready to advance in their study of metals, Physical Metallurgy, Second Edition uses engaging historical and contemporary examples that relate to the applications of concepts in each chapter.

This book combines theoretical concepts, real alloy systems, processing procedures, and examples of real-world applications. The author uses his experience in teaching physical metallurgy at the University of Michigan to convey this topic with greater depth and detail than most introductory materials courses offer.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Chapter on crystallographic textures and their influence on microstructure and properties
  • Expanded section on aluminum-lithium alloys
  • Information on copper and nickel
  • Rewritten chapters on other non-ferrous metals and low carbon steels
  • Discussions of compact graphite and austempered ductile iron
  • Expanded discussions of cemented carbide tools
  • Updated table on metal prices

Following an introduction to metals, the author covers topics that are common to all metals, including solidification, diffusion, surfaces, solid solutions, intermediate phases, dislocations, annealing, and phase transformations. He also focuses on specific nonferrous alloy systems and their significant metallurgical properties and applications, the treatment of steels (including iron-carbon alloys), hardening, tempering and surface treatment, special steels, low carbon sheet steel, and cast irons. The book also covers powder metallurgy, corrosion, welding, and magnetic alloys. There are appendices on microstructural analysis, stereographic projection, and the Miller-Bravais system for hexagonal crystals. These chapters address ternary phase diagrams, diffusion in multiphase systems, the thermodynamic basis for phase diagrams, stacking faults and hydrogen embrittlement.

With ample references and sample problems throughout, this text is a superb tool for any advanced materials science course.

Reviews

“The book covers all the major topics in metallurgy as well as some additional subjects such as welding and corrosion. …Many of the chapters contain example problems that are quite useful for understanding the subject matter. Additionally, each chapter contains a section titles ‘Miscellany’ that presents certain interesting historical information about the subject matter of that chapter. …This book, unlike many metallurgy books, presents a generous number of phase diagrams that are useful in describing the behavior of many of the alloys systems presented.”

—The Journal of Science and Engineering Corrosion, Vol. 62, No. 1, Jan. 2006

Table of Contents

Preface

INTRODUCTION

Metallic Elements

Price and Abundance

Miscellany and Problems

FREEZING

Introduction

Liquid Metals

Nucleation

Growth

Ingot Structure

Segregation During Freezing

Zone Refining

Steady State

Dendritic

Growth

Length and Spacing of Dendrite Arms

Consequences of Dendritic Growth

Gas Solubility and Gas Porosity

Growth of Single Crystals

Eutectic Solidification

Peritectic Freezing

Metal glasses

Miscellany, References, and Problems

DIFFUSION         

Fick’s1ST Law 

Fick’s 2nd Law

Solutions to Fick’s 2nd Law

Mechanisms of Diffusion

Kirkendall Effect

Special Diffusion Paths

Darken's Equation

Diffusion in Systems with More Than ONE phase

Miscellany, References, and Problems

SURFACES

Direct Measurements of Surface Energy

Measurements of Relative Surface Energies

Wetting Angles of Surface Energy to Bonding

Anisotropy of Surface Energy

Segregation to Surfaces

Data on Various Systems

Miscellany, References, and Problems

SOLID SOLUTIONS

Types of Solid Solutions

Electron-to-Atom Ratio

Entropy of Mixing

Enthalpy of Mixing

Free Energy Change on Mixing

Equilibrium Vacancy and Interstitial Concentrations

Ordered vs. Random Solid Solutions

Miscellany, References, and Problems

INTERMEDIATE PHASES

Hume-Rothery or Electron Phases

Covalent Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Interstitial Compounds

Laves Compounds

Miscellany, References, and Problems

PHASE DIAGRAMS

Review of Binary Phase Diagrams

Invariant Reactions

Lever Law

The Gibb’s Phase Rule

Ternary Phase Diagrams

Miscellany, References, and Problems

DISLOCATIONS

The Nature of Dislocations

Energy of a Screw Dislocation

Burgers Vector Notation

Reactions Between Parallel Dislocations and Frank's Rule

Stress Fields Around Dislocations

Forces on Dislocations

Partial Dislocations in Fcc Crystals

Stacking Faults

Cross Slip

Miscellany, References, and Problems

ANNEALING

General

Recovery

Recrystallization

Avrami Kinetics

Analysis of Grain Shape

Grain Growth

Limiting Grain Size

Summary of Grain Growth

Summary for the Chapter

Miscellany, References, and Problems

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

Classification of Phase Changes

Martensitic Transformations

Spinodal Decomposition

Nucleation

Growth

Overall Kinetics

Precipitation from Supersaturated Solid Solution

Precipitation Hardening Kinetics

Growth of Precipitates

Precipitation Kinetics

Hardening Mechanism

Ostwald Ripening

Practical Age-Hardening Treatments

Additional Comments

Aluminum – Copper Alloys

Habit

Miscellany, References, and Problems

ALUMINUM ALLOYS

Uses

Alloys

Wrought Alloys

Casting Alloys

Powder-Processing

Corrosion Resistance

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys

Miscellany, References, and Problems

COPPER AND NICKEL ALLOYS

Commercially Pure Copper

Copper-Zinc Alloys

Bronzes

Lead Additions

Copper-Nickel Alloys

Beryllium cOpper

Corrosion

Nickel-Base Alloys

Miscellany, References, and Problems

HEXAGONAL METALS

General 

Zinc

Magnesium

Titanium

Zirconium

Beryllium

Miscellany, References, and Problems

OTHER NONFERROUS ALLOYS

Lead

Tin

Gold

Silver

Platinum Metals

Group VA and VIA Metals

Alloys with Special Physical Properties

Metals and Alloys with Low Melting Points

Miscellaneous Metals

Miscellany, References, and Problems

STEELS

Microstructures of Carbon Steels

Kinetics of Pearlite Formation

Alloying Elements in Steel

Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 

Continuous Cooling Diagrams

Martensite

Special Heat Treatments

Miscellany, References, and Problems

HARDENING OF STEELS

Hardenability: Jominey End-Quench Test

Ideal Diameter Calculations

Boron

Martensite and Retained Austenite

Miscellany, References, and Problems

TEMPERING AND SURFACE HARDENING

Tempering

Secondary Hardening

Temper Embrittlement

Carburizing

Nitriding

Carbonitriding

Case Hardening without Composition Change

Furnace Atmospheres

Miscellany, References, and Problems

LOW CARBON STEELS

Sheet Steels

Special Grades

Coatings

Special Concerns

Miscellany, References, and Problems

SPECIAL STEELS

Stainless Steels

Hadfield Austenitic Manganese Steel

Maraging Steels

Trip Steels

Tool Steels

Silicon Steels

Miscellany, References, and Problems

CAST IRONS

General

White Iron

Gray Irons

Ductile Irons

Malleable Iron

Matrices

Miscellany, References, and Problems

WELDING

Welding without Melting

Resistance Welding

Arc Welding

Heat Distribution

Torch Welding

Metallurgy of Welding

Residual Stresses and Distortion

Braze-Welding of Cast Iron

Brazing and Soldering

Joint Design

Hard Facing

Miscellany, References, and Problems

POWDER PROCESSING

Powders 

Powder Pressing

Sintering

Sintering – Later Stage

Liquid Phase Sintering

Activated Sintering

Hot Pressing

Strength and Ductility

Miscellany, References, and Problems                     

CORROSION

Corrosion Cells 

Current Density

Polarization

Passivation

Corrosion Control

Rust

Direct Oxidation

Hydrogen Embrittlement

Hydride Formation

Miscellany, References, and Problems

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

General

Magnetostatic Energy

Magnetocrystalline Energy

Magnetostriction

Physical Units

B-H Curve

Curie Temperature

Bloch walls

Soft vs. Hard Magnetic Materials

Soft Magnetic Materials

Hard Magnetic Materials

Summary

Miscellany, References, and Problems

APPENDIX A: MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

ASTM Grain Size Number

Linear Intercept Grain Size

Relation of Grain Boundary Area Per Volume to Linear Intercept

Relation of the Number of Intersections Per Area to the Length of Line Per Volume

Dihedral Angles

Microstructural Relationships

References

Problems

APPENDIX B: STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

The Stereographic Projection

Locating the Hkı Pole in the Standard Projection of a Cubic Crystal

Problems

APPENDIX C: MILLER-BRAVAIS INDICES FOR HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS

Miller-Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Crystals

Planar Indices

Direction Indices

Problems

About the Author

William F. Hosford is a Professor Emeriti s of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. He holds degreeE in Metallurgy and Metallurgical Engineering

from Lehigh, Yale and Ml:T. He is the author of several books including Metal Forming:

Mechanics and Metallurgy, 3rd edition (with R. M. Caddell) Mechanics of Crystals and

Textured Polycrystals, Physical Metallurgy, Materials Science, Materials for Engineers,

Reporting Results: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists,

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI041000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science