1st Edition

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

By Ian D. Clark, Peter Fritz Copyright 1997

    Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

    The Environmental Isotopes
    Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology
    Stable Isotopes: Standards and Measurement
    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
    Isotope Fractionation
    Isotope Fractionation (a), Enrichment (e), and Separation (D)
    Tracing the Hydrological Cycle
    Craig's Meteoric Relationship in Global Fresh Waters
    Partitioning of Isotopes Through the Hydrological Cycle
    Condensation, Precipitation, and the Meteoric Water Line
    A Closer Look at Rayleigh Distillation
    Effects of Extreme Evaporation
    The T - d18O Correlation in Precipitation
    Local Effects on T - d18O
    Ice Cores and Paleotemperature
    Recharge in Temperate Climates
    Recharge in Arid Regions
    Recharge from River-Connected Aquifers
    Hydrograph Separation in Catchment Studies
    Groundwater Mixing
    Tracing the Carbon Cycle
    Evolution of Carbon in Groundwaters
    Carbonate Geochemistry
    Carbon-13 in the Carbonate System
    Dissolved Organic Carbon
    Methane in Groundwaters
    Isotopic Composition of Carbonates
    Chapter 6. Groundwater Quality
    Sulphate, Sulphide and the Sulphur Cycle
    Nitrogen Cycles in Rural Watersheds
    The "Fuhrberger Feld" Study
    Source of Chloride Salinity
    Landfill Leachates
    Degredation of Chloro-organics and Hydrocarbon
    Sensitivity of Groundwater to Contamination
    Summary of Isotopes in Contaminant Hydrology
    Identifying and Dating Modern Groundwaters
    The "Age" of Groundwater
    Stable Isotopes
    Tritium in Precipitation
    Dating Groundwaters with Tritium
    Groundwater Dating with 3H -3He
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    Thermonuclear 36Cl
    Detecting Modern Groundwaters with 85Kr
    Submodern Groundwater
    Age Dating Old Groundwaters
    Stable Isotopes and Paleogroundwaters
    Groundwater Dating with Radiocarbon
    Correction for Carbonate Dissolution
    Some Additional Complications to 14C Dating
    14C Dating with Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)
    Case Studies for 14C dating with DOC and DIC
    Chlorine-36 and Very Old Groundwater
    The Uranium Decay Series
    Water-Rock Interaction
    Mechanisms of Isotope Exchange
    High Temperature Systems
    Low Temperature Water-Rock Interaction
    Strontium Isotopes in Water and Rock
    Isotope Exchange in Gas-Water Reactions
    High pH Groundwaters-The Effect of Cement Reactions
    Field Methods for Sampling
    Water in the Unsaturated Zone

    Each chapter has Problems sections.


    Ian D. Clark, Peter Fritz

    "...easily the best and most up-to-date book this reviewer has read on the subject... The first chapter provides an excellent introduction, while the final chapter offers a good practical discussion often missing in other books of a similar nature... Given the reasonable price for this book, the quality and quantity of information contained, and its timeliness, it is highly recommended."