Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

1st Edition

By Ian D. Clark, Peter Fritz

CRC Press

342 pages

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pub: 1997-07-23
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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.


"…easily the best and most up-to-date book this reviewer has read on the subject… The first chapter provides an excellent introduction, while the final chapter offers a good practical discussion often missing in other books of a similar nature… Given the reasonable price for this book, the quality and quantity of information contained, and its timeliness, it is highly recommended."


Table of Contents

The Environmental Isotopes

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Stable Isotopes: Standards and Measurement

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry


Isotope Fractionation

Isotope Fractionation (a), Enrichment (e), and Separation (D)

Tracing the Hydrological Cycle

Craig's Meteoric Relationship in Global Fresh Waters

Partitioning of Isotopes Through the Hydrological Cycle

Condensation, Precipitation, and the Meteoric Water Line

A Closer Look at Rayleigh Distillation

Effects of Extreme Evaporation


The T - d18O Correlation in Precipitation

Local Effects on T - d18O

Ice Cores and Paleotemperature


Recharge in Temperate Climates

Recharge in Arid Regions

Recharge from River-Connected Aquifers

Hydrograph Separation in Catchment Studies

Groundwater Mixing

Tracing the Carbon Cycle

Evolution of Carbon in Groundwaters

Carbonate Geochemistry

Carbon-13 in the Carbonate System

Dissolved Organic Carbon

Methane in Groundwaters

Isotopic Composition of Carbonates

Chapter 6. Groundwater Quality

Sulphate, Sulphide and the Sulphur Cycle

Nitrogen Cycles in Rural Watersheds

The "Fuhrberger Feld" Study

Source of Chloride Salinity

Landfill Leachates

Degredation of Chloro-organics and Hydrocarbon

Sensitivity of Groundwater to Contamination

Summary of Isotopes in Contaminant Hydrology

Identifying and Dating Modern Groundwaters

The "Age" of Groundwater

Stable Isotopes

Tritium in Precipitation

Dating Groundwaters with Tritium

Groundwater Dating with 3H -3He

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Thermonuclear 36Cl

Detecting Modern Groundwaters with 85Kr

Submodern Groundwater

Age Dating Old Groundwaters

Stable Isotopes and Paleogroundwaters

Groundwater Dating with Radiocarbon

Correction for Carbonate Dissolution

Some Additional Complications to 14C Dating

14C Dating with Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)

Case Studies for 14C dating with DOC and DIC

Chlorine-36 and Very Old Groundwater

The Uranium Decay Series

Water-Rock Interaction

Mechanisms of Isotope Exchange

High Temperature Systems

Low Temperature Water-Rock Interaction

Strontium Isotopes in Water and Rock

Isotope Exchange in Gas-Water Reactions

High pH Groundwaters-The Effect of Cement Reactions

Field Methods for Sampling


Water in the Unsaturated Zone






Each chapter has Problems sections.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply