Essential Oils: Contact Allergy and Chemical Composition, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Essential Oils

Contact Allergy and Chemical Composition, 1st Edition

By Anton C. de Groot, Erich Schmidt

CRC Press

1,058 pages | 2 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781482246407
pub: 2016-05-23

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Essential Oils: Contact Allergy and Chemical Composition provides a full review of contact allergy to essential oils along with detailed analyses of the chemical composition of essential oils known to cause contact allergy. In addition to literature data, this book presents the results of nearly 6,400 previously unpublished sample analyses, by far the largest set of essential oils analyses ever reported in a single source of scientific literature.

Covering 91 essential oils and two absolutes, the book presents an alphabetical list of all 4,350 ingredients that have been identified in them, a list of chemicals known to cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis, and tabular indications of the ingredients that can be found in each essential oil.

The book discusses contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis for each of the oils and absolutes, sometimes able to provide only one or two reports but drawing upon considerable amounts of literature in other cases, such as with tea tree oil, ylang-ylang oil, lavender oil, rose oil, turpentine oil, jasmine absolute, and sandalwood oil.

While limited information on the main components and their concentrations would be enough for most dermatologists, this book gives extensive coverage not only to improve levels of medical knowledge and quality of patient care, but also for the benefit of professionals beyond clinical study and practice, such as chemists in the perfume and cosmetics industries, perfumers, academic scientists working with essential oils and fragrances, aromatherapists, legislators, and those involved in the production, sale, and acquisition of essential oils.


" 'Essential Oils – contact allergy and chemical composition'… can be very helpful not only to dermatologists, but also for other professionals, such as chemists working in the perfumery and cosmetic industry, academic scientists working with essential oils and fragrances, aromatherapists, legislators, and those involved in the production, sale, and acquisition of essential oils.

Unique features of the book are included in the final chapters:

A table of all chemicals which can be found in each essential oil with concentrations.

An alphabetical list of 4,350 ingredients identified in the oils and absolutes, with their synonyms and CAS numbers, specifying in which oils each chemical can be present.

A book that represents a 'must to have' for all of us involved in the fascinating world of essential oils."

Luigi Mondello, for the Journal of Essential Oil Research, November 2016,

‘Every dermatologist who patch tests his or her dermatitis patients with more than only the European baseline series, should have, according to the reviewer, a copy of this book. It will be the standard for this subject for a very long time. The book should also be useful to academic scientists working in the field of essential oils and fragrances, cosmetic chemists, analytical chemists, perfumers, aromatherapists, and legislators.’

T.L. Diepgen, Heidelberg,for Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt, 2017;65(1):41.

‘This interesting book, written by two well-known scientists, results a fundamental tool to be kept in the library as consultant mean useful not only for all students of the chemical and medical community, but also for dermatologists and cosmetic chemists, who wish to know the chemical composition of the more known essential oils and understand their capacity to cause possible contact allergy. … I think that also this book will represent a milestone for Dermatologists and Cosmetic Chemists. This is my hope.’

P. Morganti, J. Appl. Cosmetol., 34. 158-160 (July / December 2016).

Table of Contents


Why a Book on Contact Allergy to and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils?

Contact Allergy to Essential Oils: A Survey of Oils and Plants

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils: Data Provided

Essential Oils: General Aspects


What Are Essential Oils?

Products Obtained from Plants Which Are Not Essential Oils


What Are Essential Oils Used For?

Production of Essential Oils

Chemistry of Essential Oils

Factors Influencing the Composition of Essential Oils

Analysis of Essential Oils

Quality, Purity and Adulteration of Essential Oils

Contact Allergy to Essential Oils: General Aspects

Essential Oils Which Have Caused Contact Allergy

Frequency of Contact Allergy to Essential Oils

Clinical Relevance of Positive Patch Test Reactions to Essential Oils

Reports of Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils

Clinical Picture of Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils

Products Responsible for Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils

Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Essential Oils

Co-Reactivity to Other Test Substances in Patients Reacting to Essential Oils

Analytical Investigation of the Components of Essential Oils Which Have Caused Allergic Contact Dermatitis

The Allergens in Essential Oils

Patch Testing with Essential Oils and Their Ingredients

Chemicals Identified in Essential Oils Which Have Caused Contact Allergy

Chemical Composition of and Contact Allergy to Essential Oils

Introduction to the Oil Chapters

Angelica Fruit Oil

Angelica Root Oil

Aniseed Oil

Basil Oil, Sweet

Bay Oil

Bergamot Oil

Black Cumin Oil

Black Pepper Oil

Cajeput Oil

Calamus Oil

Cananga Oil

Carrot Seed Oil

Cassia Bark Oil

Cassia Leaf Oil

Cedarwood Oil, Atlas

Cedarwood Oil, China

Cedarwood Oil, Texas

Cedarwood Oil, Virginia

Chamomile Oil, German

Chamomile Oil, Roman

Cinnamon Bark Oil, Sri Lanka

Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Sri Lanka

Citronella Oil, Java

Citronella Oil, Sri Lanka

Clary Sage Oil

Clove Bud Oil

Clove Leaf Oil

Clove Stem Oil

Coriander Fruit Oil

Costus Root Oil

Cypress Oil

Dwarf Pine Oil

Elemi Oil

Eucalyptus Citriodora Oil

Eucalyptus Globulus Oil

Galbanum Resin Oil

Geranium Oil

Ginger Oil

Grapefruit Oil

Guaiacwood Oil

Hyssop Oil

Jasminum Grandiflorum Absolute

Jasminum Sambac Absolute

Juniper Berry Oil

Laurel Leaf Oil

Lavandin Abrial Oil

Lavandin Grosso Oil

Lavandin Oil (Other Cultivars and Cultivar Not Specified)

Lavender Oil

Lemon Oil

Lemongrass Oil, East Indian

Lemongrass Oil, West Indian

Litsea Cubeba Oil

Lovage Oil

Mandarin Oil

Marjoram Oil (Sweet)

Melissa Oil (Lemon Balm)

Myrrh Oil

Neem Oil

Neroli Oil

Niaouli Oil

Nutmeg Oil

Olibanum Oil (Frankincense Oil)

Orange Oil, Bitter

Orange Oil, Sweet

Palmarosa Oil

Patchouli Oil

Peppermint Oil

Petitgrain Bigarade Oil

Pine Needle Oil (Scots Pine Oil)

Ravensara Oil

Rosemary Oil

Rose Oil

Rosewood Oil

Sage Oil, Dalmatian

Sage Oil, Spanish

Sandalwood Oil

Silver Fir Oil

Spearmint Oil

Spike Lavender Oil

Star Anise Oil

Tangerine Oil

Tea Tree Oil

Thuja Oil

Thyme Oil

Thyme Oil, Spanish

Turpentine Oil

Valerian Oil

Vetiver Oil

Ylang-Ylang Oil

Zdravetz Oil

Cardamom Oil

Himalayan Cedarwood Oil

Chemicals in Essential Oils: Alphabetical List and Oils in Which They Have Been Identified

List of Synonyms

About the Authors

Anton C. de Groot received his medical and dermatology specialist training at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands. He took an early interest in contact allergies and the side effects of drugs. He is a former chair of the Contact Dermatitis Group, part of the Dutch Society for Dermatology and Venerology. He was also a cofounder of the Dutch Journal of Dermatology and Venerology and served as an editor for 20 years, including 10 years as its editor in chief. He has served as a board member on several other journals and is currently a member of the editorial advisory board of Dermatitis. He has authored 12 books, as well as more than 60 book chapters and over 300 articles in Dutch and international journals.

Erich Schmidt completed his studies in business economics at the Landshut University of Applied Sciences, Bavaria, Germany. Since he first began working with essential oils in a middle-sized German company that designed and produced perfume compositions, his interest in analyzing the compositions of essential oils increased. He eventually established an analytical laboratory and as the use of aromatherapy grew in Germany, he provided information about risks, safety evaluation, and genuineness of essential oils. In 1995 he was chosen as the German responsible representative of the International Organization for Standardization’s Technical Committee 54, Essential Oils. Since 2005, he has authored or coauthored more than 90 publications in numerous journals, and contributed two chapters to the Handbook of Essential Oils.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Dermatology
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic