Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics

1st Edition

By C. Suryanarayana

CRC Press

468 pages | 229 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439819043
pub: 2011-06-27
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Experimental Techniques in Materials and Mechanics provides a detailed yet easy-to-follow treatment of various techniques useful for characterizing the structure and mechanical properties of materials. With an emphasis on techniques most commonly used in laboratories, the book enables students to understand practical aspects of the methods and derive the maximum possible information from the experimental results obtained.

The text focuses on crystal structure determination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, phase diagrams and heat treatment, and different types of mechanical testing methods. Each chapter follows a similar format:

  1. Discusses the importance of each technique
  2. Presents the necessary theoretical and background details
  3. Clarifies concepts with numerous worked-out examples
  4. Provides a detailed description of the experiment to be conducted and how the data could be tabulated and interpreted
  5. Includes a large number of illustrations, figures, and micrographs
  6. Contains a wealth of exercises and references for further reading

Bridging the gap between lecture and lab, this text gives students hands-on experience using mechanical engineering and materials science/engineering techniques for determining the structure and properties of materials. After completing the book, students will be able to confidently perform experiments in the lab and extract valuable data from the experimental results.


This book covers the main characterization tools for materials mechanics, phase analysis by x-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis in a comprehensive and exhaustive way. In addition, steel is presented as a practical example, covering phase transitions and common heat treatments. [It is] easy to read and understand for a beginner’s level, including examples and questions for practicing and control.

—Thomas Klassen, Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Germany

… beneficial for undergraduate students in developing their concepts related to the experimental techniques in materials and mechanics.

—Soon-Jik Hong, Kongju National University

Table of Contents


Materials Science and Engineering



Outline of the Book

X-Ray Diffraction


Crystal Structure

Production of X-Rays

Absorption of X-Rays

The Bragg Equation

Diffraction Angles

Intensities of Diffracted Beams

XRD Equipment

Examination of a Typical XRD Pattern

Crystal Structure Determination

Indexing the XRD Pattern

Differentiation between SC and BCC Lattices

Comparison with Electron and Neutron Diffraction

Experimental Procedure

Optical Microscopy


Principle of the Optical Microscope

Components of the Microscope

Microscopic Observation

Information Derivable from the Microstructure

Specimen Preparation for Microscopic Examination

Some Typical Microstructures


Experimental Procedure

Scanning Electron Microscopy


Basic Design of the SEM

Electron Source

Electron Beam–Specimen Interactions

Specimen Preparation


Experimental Procedure

The Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram and Microstructures of Steels


Phase Diagrams

Representation of Phase Diagrams

The Phase Rule

Application of the Phase Rule

Derivation of Lever Rule

The Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram

Cooling Behavior and Microstructural Development

Differentiation between Proeutectoid Ferrite and Proeutectoid Cementite

Microstructural Observation

Experimental Procedure

Heat Treatment of Steels


Reaction Rates

Isothermal Transformation Diagrams

Transformation Products

Retained Austenite

Isothermal Treatments

Effect of Alloying Elements on the T–T–T Diagram

Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams

Types of Heat Treatment

Temper Embrittlement

Properties of Heat-Treated Steels

Experimental Procedure

Hardenability of Steels


Definition of Hardenability

Distribution of Hardness

Severity of Quench

The Grossmann Test

The Jominy End-Quench Test

Parameters Affecting Hardenability

Jominy Tests and Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams

Hardness Tester to be Used

Jominy Test for Nonferrous Alloys

Some Comments

Experimental Procedure


Additional Experiment

Hardness Testing


Types of Hardness Measurements

Scratch Hardness Measurement

Rebound Hardness Measurement

The Durometer Test

Indentation Hardness Measurement

Brinell Hardness Testing

Rockwell Hardness Testing

Vickers Hardness Testing

Microhardness Testing

Nanoindentation Testing

General Observations


Experimental Procedure


Additional Experiments

Tensile Testing


Measurement of Strength

Basic Definitions

Deformation Behavior

The Tensile Test

Properties Obtained from the Tensile Test

True Stress versus True Strain Curve

General Observations

Influence of Variables on Tensile Properties

Experimental Procedure



Additional Experiment

Impact Testing


Impact-Testing Techniques

Ductile–Brittle Transition

Determination of Ductile–Brittle Transition Temperature

Effect of Variables on Impact Energy


Correlations with Other Mechanical Properties

DBTT in Nonmetallic Materials

Experimental Procedure


Fatigue Testing



Fatigue Testing

Some Typical Examples of Fatigue Failure

Fatigue Failure Mechanism

Factors Affecting the Fatigue Strength of Materials

Fracture Mechanics Approach

Correlations between Fatigue Strength and Other Mechanical Properties


Experimental Procedure

Additional Experiments

Creep Testing


The Creep Test

The Creep Curve

Effect of Stress and Temperature

Creep-Rupture Test

Creep Resistance Criteria

Larson–Miller Parameter

Creep in Ceramic Materials

Creep in Polymeric Materials

Experimental Procedure


Exercises and Further Reading appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

C. Suryanarayana is a professor of materials science and engineering in the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Central Florida. Dr. Suryanarayana is a fellow of ASM International and the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (UK). He has published over 330 technical papers and according to Thomson Reuters, is one of the top 40 materials scientists with the highest citation impact scores for papers published since 2000. His research focuses on rapid solidification processing, mechanical alloying, innovative synthesis/processing techniques, metallic glasses, superconductivity, quasicrystals, and nanostructured materials.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General