1st Edition

Materials Characterization Techniques

By Sam Zhang, Lin Li, Ashok Kumar Copyright 2008
    342 Pages 208 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Experts must be able to analyze and distinguish all materials, or combinations of materials, in use today—whether they be metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, or composites. To understand a material’s structure, how that structure determines its properties, and how that material will subsequently work in technological applications, researchers apply basic principles of chemistry, physics, and biology to address its scientific fundamentals, as well as how it is processed and engineered for use.

    Emphasizing practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used, advanced surface and structural characterization techniques for quality assurance, contamination control, and process improvement.

    This useful volume:

    • Explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies
    • Provides analysis of materials’ performance under specific use conditions
    • Focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence between processing, structure, properties, and performance
    • Details the sophisticated instruments involved in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the wide range of mutually interacting processes, mechanisms, and materials
    • Covers electron, X-ray-photoelectron, and UV spectroscopy; scanning-electron, atomic-force, transmission-electron, and laser-confocal-scanning-florescent microscopy, and gel electrophoresis chromatography
    • Presents the fundamentals of vacuum, as well as X-ray diffraction principles

    Explaining appropriate uses and related technical requirements for characterization techniques, the authors omit lengthy and often intimidating derivations and formulations. Instead, they emphasize useful basic principles and applications of modern technologies used to characterize engineering materials, helping readers grasp micro- and nanoscale properties. This text will serve as a valuable guide for scientists and engineers involved in characterization and also as a powerful introduction to the field for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.



    Contact Angle in Surface Analysis

    Measuring Contact Angle

    Determining Surface Energy of a Homogeneous Solid Surface

    Work Examples

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    Atomic Model and Electron Configuration

    Principles of XPS and AES


    Routine Limits of XPS

    XPS Applications and Case Studies

    AES Applications

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Working Principle


    Modes of Operation

    Differences between STM and AFM


    X-ray Diffraction

    X-ray Characteristics and Generation

    Lattice Planes and Bragg’s Law

    Powder Diffraction

    Thin Film Diffraction

    Texture Measurement

    Grazing Angle X-ray Diffraction

    Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Basics of Transmission Electron Microscopes

    Reciprocal Lattice

    Specimen Preparation

    Bright-Field and Dark-Field Images

    Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Introduction to Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Electron Beam–Specimen Interaction

    SEM Operating Parameters


    Chromatographic Methods

    General Principles of Chromatography

    Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Gel Permeation Chromatography

    Gel Electrophoresis Chromatography

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Gas Chromatography

    Quantitative Analysis Methods

    Infrared Spectroscopy and UV/Vis Spectroscopy

    Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy

    Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy

    Macro and Micro Thermal Analyses

    Macro and Micro Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Laser Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    Fluorescence and Fluorescent Dyes

    Fluorescence Microscopy

    Laser Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    Applications of LCFM



    Sam Zhang, Lin Li, Ashok Kumar