Materials Characterization Techniques  book cover
1st Edition

Materials Characterization Techniques

ISBN 9781420042948
Published December 22, 2008 by CRC Press
342 Pages 208 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Experts must be able to analyze and distinguish all materials, or combinations of materials, in use today—whether they be metals, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, or composites. To understand a material’s structure, how that structure determines its properties, and how that material will subsequently work in technological applications, researchers apply basic principles of chemistry, physics, and biology to address its scientific fundamentals, as well as how it is processed and engineered for use.

Emphasizing practical applications and real-world case studies, Materials Characterization Techniques presents the principles of widely used, advanced surface and structural characterization techniques for quality assurance, contamination control, and process improvement.

This useful volume:

  • Explores scientific processes to characterize materials using modern technologies
  • Provides analysis of materials’ performance under specific use conditions
  • Focuses on the interrelationships and interdependence between processing, structure, properties, and performance
  • Details the sophisticated instruments involved in an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the wide range of mutually interacting processes, mechanisms, and materials
  • Covers electron, X-ray-photoelectron, and UV spectroscopy; scanning-electron, atomic-force, transmission-electron, and laser-confocal-scanning-florescent microscopy, and gel electrophoresis chromatography
  • Presents the fundamentals of vacuum, as well as X-ray diffraction principles

Explaining appropriate uses and related technical requirements for characterization techniques, the authors omit lengthy and often intimidating derivations and formulations. Instead, they emphasize useful basic principles and applications of modern technologies used to characterize engineering materials, helping readers grasp micro- and nanoscale properties. This text will serve as a valuable guide for scientists and engineers involved in characterization and also as a powerful introduction to the field for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

Table of Contents



Contact Angle in Surface Analysis

Measuring Contact Angle

Determining Surface Energy of a Homogeneous Solid Surface

Work Examples

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy

Atomic Model and Electron Configuration

Principles of XPS and AES


Routine Limits of XPS

XPS Applications and Case Studies

AES Applications

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

Working Principle


Modes of Operation

Differences between STM and AFM


X-ray Diffraction

X-ray Characteristics and Generation

Lattice Planes and Bragg’s Law

Powder Diffraction

Thin Film Diffraction

Texture Measurement

Grazing Angle X-ray Diffraction

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Basics of Transmission Electron Microscopes

Reciprocal Lattice

Specimen Preparation

Bright-Field and Dark-Field Images

Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Introduction to Scanning Electron Microscopes

Electron Beam–Specimen Interaction

SEM Operating Parameters


Chromatographic Methods

General Principles of Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Electrophoresis Chromatography

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Gas Chromatography

Quantitative Analysis Methods

Infrared Spectroscopy and UV/Vis Spectroscopy

Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy

Macro and Micro Thermal Analyses

Macro and Micro Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

Thermogravimetric Analysis

Laser Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

Fluorescence and Fluorescent Dyes

Fluorescence Microscopy

Laser Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

Applications of LCFM


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