Flight Mechanics Modeling and Analysis
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Flight Mechanics Modeling and Analysis comprehensively covers flight mechanics and flight dynamics using a systems approach.
The book focuses on applied mathematics and control theory in its discussion of flight mechanics to build a strong foundation for solving design and control problems in the areas of flight simulation and flight data analysis. The second edition has been expanded to include two new chapters and coverage of aeroservoelastic topics and engineering mechanics, presenting more concepts of flight control and aircraft parameter estimation.
The book is intended for senior undergraduate aerospace students taking Aircraft Mechanics, Flight Dynamics & Controls, and Flight Mechanics courses. It will also be of interest to research students and R&D project-scientists of the same disciplines.
Including end-of-chapter exercises and illustrative examples with a MATLAB® based approach, the book also includes a Solutions Manual and Figure Slides for adopting instructors.
- Covers flight mechanics, flight simulation, flight testing, flight control, and aeroservoelasticity.
- Features artificial neural network- and fuzzy logic-based aspects in modelling and analysis of flight mechanics systems: aircraft parameter estimation, and reconfiguration of control.
- Focuses on a systems-based approach.
- Includes two new chapters, numerical simulation examples with MATLAB® based implementations, and end-of-chapter exercises.
- Includes a Solutions Manual and Figure Slides for adopting instructors.
Table of Contents
1. Aerodynamic Principles and Fundamentals. 1.1. Aerodynamic Concepts and Relationships. 1.2. Aircraft Force Parameters. 1.3. Aerodynamic Derivatives-Peliminary Determination. 1.4. Aircraft Propulsion and its Performance. 1.5.Aircraft Sensors-Instrumentation Systems. 1.6 Energy Awareness, Convergence, and Management. 1.7. Angle of Attack Awareness and Management. 2. Engineering Dynamics. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Kinematics. 2.3. Relative Motion. 2.4. Kinematics of constraint rigid bodies. 2.5. Inertial effects. 2.6. Newton-Euler Equations of Motion. 2.7. Analytics mechanics. 2.8. Constraint generalized coordinates. 2.9. Alternative formulations. 2.10. Gyroscopic effects. 3. Equations of Motion. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Rigid Body equations of motion (EOM).3.3. Resolution of Inertial Forces and Moments. 3.4. Resolution of Aerodynamics, Gravity Forces, and Thrust Forces. 3.5. Complete Sets of EOM. 3.6. Missile Dynamic Equations. 3.7. Rotorcraft Dynamics. 4. Aerodynamic Derivatives and Modeling. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Basic Aerodynamic Forces and Moments. 4.3. Aerodynamic Parameters. 4.4. Missile Aerodynamic Derivatives. 4.5. Rotorcraft Aerodynamic Derivatives. 4.6. Role of Derivatives in Aircraft Design Cycle and Flight Control Law Development. 4.7. Aircraft Aerodynamic Models. 5. Simplification of Equations of Motion and Transfer-function Analysis. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Mathematical Model Structures. 5.3. Models for Noise and Error Processes. 5.4. Strategies for Simpliﬁcation of EOM. 5.5. Longitudinal Models and Modes. 5.6. Lateral-Directional Models and Modes. 5.7. Missile Aerodynamic Transfer Functions. 5.8. Rotorcraft Linear Modeling. 5.9. UAV Dynamics. 5.10. MAV Dynamics. 5.11. Lighter-than-Air Vehicle/BLIMP Dynamics. 6. Simulation of Flight Dynamics. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Aircraft Subsystems Data and Models. 6.3. Steady-State Flight and Trim Conditions. 6.4. Six DOF Simulation and Validation. 6.5. PC MATLAB and SIMULINK-Based Simulation. 6.6. Real-Time Desktop Simulator for Evaluation of Flying Qualities. 6.7. Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation (HILS) for a Mini UAV. 7. Flight Test Maneuvers and Database Management. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Planning of Flight Test Maneuvers. 7.3. Speciﬁc Flight Test Data Generation and Analysis Aspects. 7.4. Quality of Flight Test Maneuvers. 7.5. Input Signals for Exciting Maneuvers. 7.6. Speciﬁc Maneuvers for Aerodynamic Modeling. 7.7. Speciﬁc Dynamic Maneuvers for Determination of Drag Polars. 7.8. Speciﬁc Maneuvers for Rotorcraft. 7.9. Flight Test Database Management. 8. Flight Control. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. Control System – A Dynamic System Concept. 8.3. Digital Control System. 8.4. Design Compensation for Linear Control System. 8.5. Root Locus. 8.6. Aircraft Flight Control. 8.7. Stability Augmentation Systems. 8.8. Flight Control Design Examples. 8.9. Fuzzy Logic Control. 8.10. Fault Management and Reconfiguration Control. 9. System Identification and Parameter Estimation for Aircraft. 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. System Identiﬁcation. 9.3. Aircraft Parameter Estimation. 9.4. Determination of Stability and Control Derivatives from Flight Data-Case Studies. 9.5. Approaches for Determination of Drag Polars from Flight Data. 9.6. Analysis of Large Amplitude Maneuver Data. 9.7. Global Nonlinear Analytical Modeling. 9.8. Fuzzy Kalman Filter for State Estimation. 9.9. Derivative-Free Kalman Filter for State Estimation. 10. Handling Qualities Analysis. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. Pilot Opinion Rating. 10.3. Human Operator Modeling. 10.4. Handling Qualities Criteria. 10.5. Evaluation of HQ Criteria. 10.6. HQ Aspects for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 10.7. Pilot–Aircraft Interactions. 10.8. Model Order Reduction for Evaluations of HQ. 11. Aero-servo-elastic Concepts. 11.1. Introduction. 11.2. Flight Dynamics of a Flexile Aircraft. 11.3. Parameter Estimation for Flexible Aircraft. 11.4. X-56A Aircraft and Flight Tests. Appendix A. Atmospheric Disturbance Models. Appendix B. Artificial Neural Networks based Modelling. Appendix C. Fuzzy Logic based Modelling. Appendix D. Statistics and Probability. Appendix E. Signal and Systems Concepts. Bibliography
Jitendra R. Raol received his B. E. and M. E. degrees in electrical engineering from M. S. University (MSU) of Baroda, Vadodara, in 1971 and 1973 respectively and Ph.D. (in electrical & computer engineering) from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, in 1986, and at both the places he was also a post graduate research and teaching assistant. He joined the National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) in 1975. At CSIR-NAL he was involved in the activities on human pilot modeling in fix- and motion-based research flight simulators. He re-joined NAL in 1986 and retired in July 2007 as Scientist-G (and Head, flight mechanics and control division at CSIR-NAL).
He visited Syria, Germany, The United Kingdom, Canada, China, the United States of America and South Africa on deputation/fellowships to i) work on research problems on system identification, neural networks, parameter estimation, multi-sensor data fusion and robotics; ii) present technical papers at international conferences; and/or iii) deliver guest lectures at some of these places. He had given several guest lectures at many Indian colleges & Universities, and Honeywell (HTSL, Bangalore).
He was a Fellow of the IEE/IET (United Kingdom) and a senior member of the IEEE (United States). He is a life-fellow of the Aeronautical Society of India and a life member of the Systems Society of India. During his studies at the MSU he had received Suba Rao memorial prize and M. C. Ghia charitable fellowship. In 1976, he had won K. F. Antia Memorial Prize of the Institution of Engineers (India) for his research paper on nonlinear filtering. He was awarded a certificate of merit by the Institution of Engineers (India) for his paper on parameter estimation of unstable systems. He had received the best poster paper award from the National Conference on Sensor Technology (New Delhi) for a paper on sensor data fusion. He had also received a gold medal and a certificate for a paper related to target tracking (from the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineers, India). He is also one of the (5) recipients of the CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India) prestigious technology shield for the year 2003 for the leadership and contributions to the development of Integrated Flight Mechanics and Control Technology for Aerospace Vehicles in the country; the shield was associated with a plaque, a certificate and a project-grant-prize of INRs. 30,00,000 for the project work. He was one of the five recipients of the Chellaram Foundation Diabetes Research Award-2018 for the best paper (presented at the 2nd International Diabetes Summit, March 2018, Pune, India; which carried a prize of 100,000 INRs.). He has received Sir Thomas Ward memorial prize of the Institution of Engineers (India) in 2019 (jointly) for the paper on Image Centroid Tracking with Fuzzy Logic, and it carried a gold medal and a certificate. He is featured in the list of the Stanford University (USA) as one of the top 2% scientists/researchers of the world for the year 2019.
He has published nearly 150 research papers and numerous technical reports. He has Guest-edited two special issues of Sadhana (an engineering journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore) on i) advances in modeling, system identification and parameter estimation (jointly with Late Prof. Dr. Naresh Kumar Sinha) and ii) multi-source, multi sensor information fusion. He has also Guest-edited two special issues of the Defense Science Journal (New Delhi, India) on i) mobile intelligent autonomous systems (jointly with Dr. Ajith K. Gopal, CSIR-SA), and ii) aerospace avionics & allied technologies (jointly with Prof. A. Ramachandran, MSRIT).
He has co-authored an IEE/IET (London, UK) Control Series book Modeling and Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Systems (2004), a CRC Press (Florida, USA) book Flight Mechanics Modeling and Analysis (2009), a CRC Press book Nonlinear Filtering: Concepts and Engineering Applications (2017), and a CRC Press book Control Systems: Classical, Modern, and AI based Approaches (2019). He has also authored CRC Press books Multi-sensor Data Fusion with MATLAB (2010), and Data Fusion Mathematics–Theory and Practice (2015). He has edited (with Ajith K. Gopal) a CRC press book Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems (2012).
He has served as a member/chairman of numerous advisory, technical project review, and doctoral examination committees. He has also conducted sponsored research and worked on several projects from Industry as well as other R&D organizations to CSIR-NAL with substantial budget. Under his technical guidance, eleven doctoral and eight master research scholars have had received their degrees successfully. He is a reviewer of a dozen national/international journals, and has evaluated several M. Tech./Doctoral theses (from India and overseas). He had been with MSRIT (M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru) as emeritus professor for five years; with the Govt. college of engineering, Kunnur (Kerala) as a senior research advisor; and with the dept. of aerospace engineering (IISc., Bangalore) as a consultant on modelling and parameter estimation for the Type I diabetes-patients’ data for a period of three months.
His main research interests have been and are data fusion, system identification, state/parameter estimation, flight mechanics-flight data analysis, H-infinity filtering, nonlinear filtering, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic systems, genetic algorithms, and soft technologies for robotics.
He has also authored a few books as the collection of his 320 (free-) verses on various facets closely related to science, philosophy, evolution, and life itself. He has also contributed 62 articles and 830 ‘bites’ (long quotes) on matrubharti.com (#1 Indian Content Community) and 7 ebooks on Amazon KDP (kindle direct publishing) covering social, philosophical, science and human life related aspects and issues. He is one of the most downloaded one hundred English authors of the matrubharti.com for the year 2021.
His new area of study and research is data-systems analytics (DaSyA).
Jatinder Singh joined as a senior scientist in the flight mechanics and control division of NAL in 1998. He has a PhD from IIT, Kanpur. He was a recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt fellowship and has worked as a guest scientist at the DLR Institute for Flight Systems, Braunschweig, Germany before joining NAL. He is a senior member of the AIAA, and a life member of Aeronautical Society of India and the Systems Society of India. He is recipient of the NAL foundation day award, and was also a member of the team, under the leadership of Dr. J. R. Raol, that won the CSIR technology shield for the year 2003 that was awarded to the flight mechanics and control division of NAL for their contribution to the integrated flight mechanics and control technology for aerospace vehicles. He has several conference and journal papers to his credit. He has also co-authored the book Modelling and Parameter Estimation for Dynamic Systems published by the IEE/IET, London, UK in 2004. He has been extensively involved in aircraft modelling and parameter estimation work and has made significant contribution to the LCA (light combat aircraft) program. His expertise is in the area of flight mechanics-flight data analysis, system identification, aerodynamic modelling for fixed and rotary wing aircraft, Kalman filtering and artificial neural networks. Some of the major projects he has worked on include: i) Aero database validation and update of LCA (TEJAS), ii) Flight identification of intermediate Jet Trainer HJT-36 Aircraft, iii) Online flight path reconstruction and parameter estimation, iv) Development of neural network software for flush air data system, v) stall data analysis, vi) Flight data analysis for SARAS-LTA (Light Transport Aircraft), vii) EC 135 & ALH (Advanced Light Helicopter) rotorcraft system identification, and viii) FOC upgradation of Mirage 2000 Aircraft.
Presently, he is a chief scientist and heads the division of flight mechanics and control at the CSIR-NAL, Bangalore.