1st Edition

Fundamentals of MRI An Interactive Learning Approach

By Elizabeth Berry, Andrew J. Bulpitt Copyright 2008
    316 Pages 304 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Fundamentals of MRI: An Interactive Learning Approach explores the physical principles that underpin the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    After covering background mathematics, physics, and digital imaging, the book presents fundamental physical principles, including magnetization and rotating reference frame. It describes how relaxation mechanisms help predict tissue contrast and how an MR signal is localized to a selected slice through the body. The text then focuses on frequency and phase encoding. It also explores the spin-echo sequence, its scan parameters, and additional imaging sequences, such as inversion recovery and gradient echo.

    The authors enhance the learning experience with practical materials. Along with questions, exercises, and solutions, they include ten interactive programs on the accompanying downloadable resources. These programs not only allow concepts to be clearly demonstrated and further developed, but also provide an opportunity to engage in the learning process through guided exercises.

    By providing a solid, hands-on foundation in the physics of MRI, this textbook helps students gain confidence with core concepts before they move on to further study or practical training.


    The Fundamentals of MRI

    An Interactive Learning Approach

    Using the Programs from Windows® Operating Systems

    Non-Windows Operating Systems

    Structure of the Book

    Mathematics, Physics, and Imaging for MRI

    Learning Outcomes

    Mathematics for MRI

    Physics for MRI

    Imaging for MRI

    Clinical Imaging Terms for MRI

    Basic Physical Principles

    Learning Outcomes

    Spins and the Net Magnetization Vector

    The Larmor Equation

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Longitudinal and Transverse Magnetization

    Rotating Frame of Reference

    Relaxation Mechanisms

    Learning Outcomes

    T1 and T2 Relaxation

    Effect of Magnetic Field Strength on Relaxation Mechanisms

    Saturation Recovery Graphs and Tissue Contrast

    Contrast Agents

    Slice Selection

    Learning Outcomes

    Gradient Fields

    Gradient Fields for Slice Selection

    RF Pulse for Slice Selection: Center Frequency and Transmitted Bandwidth

    The Slice Selection Program

    Acquiring Several Slices

    Additional Self-Assessment Questions

    Frequency Encoding

    Learning Outcomes

    Principles of Frequency Encoding

    Gradient Fields for Frequency Encoding

    The Frequency Encoding Demonstrator

    Effect of Gradient Strength and Receiver Bandwidth on Field of View (FOV)

    Additional Self-Assessment Questions

    Phase Encoding

    Learning Outcomes

    Principles of Phase Encoding

    Gradient Fields for Phase Encoding

    The Phase Encoding Demonstrator

    The Effect of Gradient Strength and Duration on Phase Shift

    Repeated Phase Encoding Steps

    The Data Matrix

    Additional Self-Assessment Questions

    The Spin-Echo Imaging Sequence

    Learning Outcomes

    The Concept of the Spin-Echo Sequence

    Demonstration of the Principles of the Spin-Echo Sequence

    TR and TE

    Timing Diagram

    Additional Self-Assessment Questions

    Scan Parameters for the Spin-Echo Imaging Sequence

    Learning Outcomes

    Image Gray-Scale Characteristics

    Image Spatial Characteristics

    Image Noise Characteristics

    Scan Time

    The Spin-Echo Image Simulator

    System Performance Assessment

    Further Imaging Sequences

    Learning Outcomes

    Inversion Recovery Sequence

    The Inversion Recovery Image Simulator

    The Gradient-Echo Sequence

    Flow Phenomena

    Flow Phenomena Demonstrator: Spin-Echo Imaging Sequence

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Multiple-Choice Questions

    Multiple-Choice Questions

    Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions



    Elizabeth Berry, Andrew J. Bulpitt

    Learning by feedback is essential, especially for a subject such as MRI. This interactive book with CD by Berry and Bulpitt provides an easy-to-follow, step-by-step process to efficiently assimilate and develop understanding of the fundamentals of MRI. It is suitable for students, postgraduates new to the field, and even those with a passing interest in MRI. The online teaching methods and exercises are both intuitive and informative. This will be an invaluable learning tool and resource for those interested in grappling with the complexities of MRI. I would highly recommend this interactive book to those wanting an understanding of MRI.
    —Vincent Khoo, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK

    An easy read for those interested in how MRI works but afraid of the heavy mathematics. The basic physics of MRI is clearly explained in layman’s language. Many worked examples help the reader to walk through the fundamental concepts. My favorite part is the exercise questions with answers provided. The multiple-choice questions at the end of the book with answers best prepare the reader to pass an exam on this subject. The best text I have seen for students who are preparing for an exam on MRI physics and for self-study.
    —Larry Zeng, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA