1st Edition

# Gas Pipeline Hydraulics

By E. Shashi Menon Copyright 2005
416 Pages 83 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

416 Pages
by CRC Press

Also available as eBook on:

In your day-to-day planning, design, operation, and optimization of pipelines, wading through complex formulas and theories is not the way to get the job done. Gas Pipeline Hydraulics acts as a quick-reference guide to formulas, codes, and standards encountered in the gas industry. Based on the author's 30 years of experience in manufacturing and the oil and gas industry, the book presents a step-by-step introduction to the concepts in a practical approach illustrated by real-world examples, case studies, and a wealth of problems at the end of each chapter.

Avoiding overly complex equations and theorems, Gas Pipeline Hydraulics demonstrates the calculation of pressure drop using various commonly accepted formulas. The author extends this discussion to determine total pressure required under various configurations, the necessity of pressure regulators and control valves, the comparative pros and cons of adding compressor stations versus pipe loops, mechanical strength of the pipeline, and thermal hydraulic analysis. He also introduces transient pressure analysis along with references for more in-depth study. The text concludes with the economic aspects of pipeline systems.

Containing valuable appendices that provide conversions from USCS to SI units, tables of properties of natural gas, commonly used pipe sizes, and allowable internal and hydrotest pressures, this is the most easy-to-use, hands-on reference for gas pipelines available.

GAS PROPERTIES
Mass and Weight
Volume
Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Volume
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
Ideal Gases
Real Gases
Natural Gas Mixtures
Pseudo-Critical Properties from Gas Gravity
Impact of Sour Gas on Non-Hydrocarbon Components
Compressibility Factor
Heating Value
Summary
Problems
References

PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FRICTION
Bernoulli's Equation
Flow Equations
General Flow Equation
Effect of Pipe Elevations
Average Pipe Segment Pressure
Velocity of Gas in a Pipeline
Erosional Velocity
Reynolds Number of Flow
Friction Factor
Colebrook-White Equation
Transmission Factor
Modified Colebrook-White Equation
American Gas Association (AGA) Equation
Weymouth Equation
Panhandle A Equation
Panhandle B Equation
Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Equation
Spitzglass Equation
Mueller Equation
Fritzsche Equation
Effect of Pipe Roughness
Comparison of Flow Equations
Summary
Problems
References

PRESSURE REQUIRED TO TRANSPORT
Total Pressure Drop Required
Frictional Effect
Effect of Pipeline Elevation
Effect of Changing Pipe Delivery Pressure
Pipeline with Intermediate Injections and Deliveries
Series Piping
Parallel Piping
Locating Pipe Loop
Pressure Regulators and Relief Valves
Temperature Variation and Gas Pipeline Modeling
Line Pack
Summary
Problems
References

COMPRESSOR STATIONS
Compressor Station Locations
Hydraulic Balance
Isothermal Compression
Polytropic Compression
Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas
Horsepower Required
Optimum Compressor Locations
Compressors in Series and Parallel
Types of Compressors-Centrifugal and Positive Displacement
Compressor Performance Curves
Compressor Station Piping Losses
Compressor Station Schematic
Summary
Problems
References

PIPE LOOPS VERSUS COMPRESSION
Purpose of a Pipe Loop
Purpose of Compression
Increasing Pipeline Capacity
Reducing Power Requirements
Looping in Distribution Piping
Summary
Problems
References

PIPE ANALYSIS
Pipe Wall Thickness
Barlow's Equation
Thick-Walled Pipes
Derivation of Barlow's Equation
Internal Design Pressure Equation
Class Location
Mainline Valves
Hydrostatic Test Pressure
Blowdown Calculations
Determining Pipe Tonnage
Summary
Problems
References

THERMAL HYDRAULICS
Isothermal versus Thermal Hydraulics
Temperature Variation and Gas Pipeline Modeling
Review of Simulation Model Reports
Summary
Problems
References

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS AND CASE STUDIES
Case Studies
Summary
Problems
References

VALVES AND FLOW MEASUREMENTS
Purpose of Valves
Types of Valves
Material of Construction
Codes for Design and Construction
Gate Valve
Ball Valve
Plug Valve
Butterfly Valve
Globe Valve
Check Valve
Pressure Control Valve
Pressure Regulator
Pressure Relief Valve
Flow Measurement
Flow Meters
Venturi Meter
Flow Nozzle
Summary
Problems
References

PIPELINE ECONOMICS
Components of Cost
Capital Costs
Operating Costs
Determining Economic Pipe Size
Summary
Problems
References

APPENDIX A: UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
APPENDIX B: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS GASES
APPENDIX C: PIPE PROPERTIES-US CUSTOMARY SYSTEM OF UNITS
APPENDIX D: GASMOD OUTPUT REPORT
APPENDIX E: SUMMARY OF FORMULAS
INDEX

### Biography

E. Shashi Menon