Gas Pipeline Hydraulics: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Gas Pipeline Hydraulics

1st Edition

By E. Shashi Menon

CRC Press

416 pages | 83 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780849327858
pub: 2005-05-24
SAVE ~$46.00
$230.00
$184.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429124105
pub: 2005-05-24
from $115.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

In your day-to-day planning, design, operation, and optimization of pipelines, wading through complex formulas and theories is not the way to get the job done. Gas Pipeline Hydraulics acts as a quick-reference guide to formulas, codes, and standards encountered in the gas industry. Based on the author's 30 years of experience in manufacturing and the oil and gas industry, the book presents a step-by-step introduction to the concepts in a practical approach illustrated by real-world examples, case studies, and a wealth of problems at the end of each chapter.

Avoiding overly complex equations and theorems, Gas Pipeline Hydraulics demonstrates the calculation of pressure drop using various commonly accepted formulas. The author extends this discussion to determine total pressure required under various configurations, the necessity of pressure regulators and control valves, the comparative pros and cons of adding compressor stations versus pipe loops, mechanical strength of the pipeline, and thermal hydraulic analysis. He also introduces transient pressure analysis along with references for more in-depth study. The text concludes with the economic aspects of pipeline systems.

Containing valuable appendices that provide conversions from USCS to SI units, tables of properties of natural gas, commonly used pipe sizes, and allowable internal and hydrotest pressures, this is the most easy-to-use, hands-on reference for gas pipelines available.

Table of Contents

GAS PROPERTIES

Mass and Weight

Volume

Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Volume

Specific Gravity

Viscosity

Ideal Gases

Real Gases

Natural Gas Mixtures

Pseudo-Critical Properties from Gas Gravity

Impact of Sour Gas on Non-Hydrocarbon Components

Compressibility Factor

Heating Value

Summary

Problems

References

PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FRICTION

Bernoulli's Equation

Flow Equations

General Flow Equation

Effect of Pipe Elevations

Average Pipe Segment Pressure

Velocity of Gas in a Pipeline

Erosional Velocity

Reynolds Number of Flow

Friction Factor

Colebrook-White Equation

Transmission Factor

Modified Colebrook-White Equation

American Gas Association (AGA) Equation

Weymouth Equation

Panhandle A Equation

Panhandle B Equation

Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Equation

Spitzglass Equation

Mueller Equation

Fritzsche Equation

Effect of Pipe Roughness

Comparison of Flow Equations

Summary

Problems

References

PRESSURE REQUIRED TO TRANSPORT

Total Pressure Drop Required

Frictional Effect

Effect of Pipeline Elevation

Effect of Changing Pipe Delivery Pressure

Pipeline with Intermediate Injections and Deliveries

Series Piping

Parallel Piping

Locating Pipe Loop

Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

Pressure Regulators and Relief Valves

Temperature Variation and Gas Pipeline Modeling

Line Pack

Summary

Problems

References

COMPRESSOR STATIONS

Compressor Station Locations

Hydraulic Balance

Isothermal Compression

Adiabatic Compression

Polytropic Compression

Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas

Horsepower Required

Optimum Compressor Locations

Compressors in Series and Parallel

Types of Compressors-Centrifugal and Positive Displacement

Compressor Performance Curves

Compressor Station Piping Losses

Compressor Station Schematic

Summary

Problems

References

PIPE LOOPS VERSUS COMPRESSION

Purpose of a Pipe Loop

Purpose of Compression

Increasing Pipeline Capacity

Reducing Power Requirements

Looping in Distribution Piping

Summary

Problems

References

PIPE ANALYSIS

Pipe Wall Thickness

Barlow's Equation

Thick-Walled Pipes

Derivation of Barlow's Equation

Pipe Material and Grade

Internal Design Pressure Equation

Class Location

Mainline Valves

Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Blowdown Calculations

Determining Pipe Tonnage

Summary

Problems

References

THERMAL HYDRAULICS

Isothermal versus Thermal Hydraulics

Temperature Variation and Gas Pipeline Modeling

Review of Simulation Model Reports

Summary

Problems

References

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS AND CASE STUDIES

Unsteady Flow

Case Studies

Summary

Problems

References

VALVES AND FLOW MEASUREMENTS

Purpose of Valves

Types of Valves

Material of Construction

Codes for Design and Construction

Gate Valve

Ball Valve

Plug Valve

Butterfly Valve

Globe Valve

Check Valve

Pressure Control Valve

Pressure Regulator

Pressure Relief Valve

Flow Measurement

Flow Meters

Venturi Meter

Flow Nozzle

Summary

Problems

References

PIPELINE ECONOMICS

Components of Cost

Capital Costs

Operating Costs

Determining Economic Pipe Size

Summary

Problems

References

APPENDIX A: UNITS AND CONVERSIONS

APPENDIX B: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS GASES

APPENDIX C: PIPE PROPERTIES-US CUSTOMARY SYSTEM OF UNITS

APPENDIX D: GASMOD OUTPUT REPORT

APPENDIX E: SUMMARY OF FORMULAS

INDEX

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI041000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical