Democracy, anticipated by American and other Western powers to prevent economic chaos and political conflict within and among states, is not evolving as expected. This research argues that part of the failure resides in United States democracy assistance's inadequate consideration of gender within democracy programming.
Introduction Getting it Wrong Ethnic Conflict and Democracy: Is Something Gendered Here? Case Study: USAID Democracy Assistance to Kyrgyzstan Research Framework Chapter One: The Significance of Feminist Research 1.1 Significance of Gender 1.2 Integrating Gender 1.3 Gender and Cultural Difference 1.4 Feminism and Private/Public versus Western/Eastern 1.5 Identity and the Significance of Gender 1.6 Summary Chapter Two: Gendering Ethnicity 2.1 Ethnic Identity: Definitions, Debates and Theoretical Development 2.1.1 The Soviet Experiment: Nationalism and Ethnicity 2.1.2 Western Theory 2.2 Ethnicity and the Political Process 2.3 Gendering Ethnicity 2.3.1 Male Honor and the Female as Ethnic Boundary Marker: Point One 2.3.2 Gender as Central to Ethnic Violence and Peace: Point Two 2.3.3 Ethnic Myth of Creation and the Female: Points Three and Four 2.4 Summary Chapter Three: Gendering Democracy: Theory and Practice 3.1 Dilemmas with Western Democratic Theory and US Assistance Practice 3.2 US Foreign Policy: 'The Sport of Democracy'. 3.3 USAID's Democracy Assistance in Kyrgyzstan 3.4 Gendering Democracy Theory and Practice 3.4.1 Philosophical Assumptions and Current Practice 3.4.2 Checking the Wid Box 3.4.3 Civil Society - NGOs and GONGOs 3.4.4 Patriarchal Bargain Producing Paradoxical Results 3.5 Summary Chapter Four: Gender and Ethnicity in the 'Democratic' Transition of Kyrgyzstan 4.1 Kyrgyzstan Case Rationale 4.2 History of Kyrgyz People-Region 4.3 The Relevance of Ethnicity 4.4 The Relevance of Gender 4.4.1 Soviet Construction of Woman 4.4.2 Muslim History: Re-Invented and New 4.4.3 Tribalism 4.4.4 Western Democratic Influence 4.4.5 Transitional Society and Linkages Between Gender and Conflict 4.5 The Potential for Ethnic Conflict 4.6 Summary Chapter Five: Analyzing Identity in Kyrgyzstan: Fieldwork Method and Design 5.1 Feminist Mixed Model Research Design and Paradigms 5.2 Feminist Data Collection Method and Type 5.2.1 Survey Strategy and Procedure 5.3 Sample Size and Method of Measurement 5.3.1 Measures of Association/Relationship 5.4 Measures of the Validity/Reliability of Data Results 5.4.1 Validity of Research Design Strategy 5.4.2 Validity of Measurement 5.4.3 Validity of Results 5.5 Summary Chapter Six: Gendered Attachments to Ethnicity: Survey Results 6.1 Conclusions for All Survey Sets 6.2 Results-Quantitative Survey Set (A.1) Average Adult Population Self-Identification: Quallitized Narrative Profile Results Description by Sector 6.2.1 Demographics 6.2.2 Primary Identity 6.2.3 Ethnic Origin and Teaching for Self and Children 6.2.4 Ethnicity of Self and Other: Qualities and Descriptions 6.2.5 Citizenship and Ethnicity of State 6.2.6 Active in Politics/Community/Nationalism 6.2.7 Life Conditions under Independnece Versus the USSR 6.3 Two Way Crosstab