1st Edition

Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

By V.N.S. Murthy Copyright 2003
    1056 Pages
    by CRC Press

    A must have reference for any engineer involved with foundations, piers, and retaining walls, this remarkably comprehensive volume illustrates soil characteristic concepts with examples that detail a wealth of practical considerations, It covers the latest developments in the design of drilled pier foundations and mechanically stabilized earth retaining wall and explores a pioneering approach for predicting the nonlinear behavior of laterally loaded long vertical and batter piles.

    As complete and authoritative as any volume on the subject, it discusses soil formation, index properties, and classification; soil permeability, seepage, and the effect of water on stress conditions; stresses due to surface loads; soil compressibility and consolidation; and shear strength characteristics of soils.

    While this book is a valuable teaching text for advanced students, it is one that the practicing engineer will continually be taking off the shelf long after school lets out. Just the quick reference it affords to a huge range of tests and the appendices filled with essential data, makes it an essential addition to an civil engineering library.

    General Remarks
    A Brief Historical Development
    Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
    Soil Formation and Characterization
    Rock Classification
    Formation of Soils
    General Types of Soils
    Soil Particle Size and Shape
    Composition of Clay Minerals
    Structure of Clay Minerals
    Clay Particle–Water Relations
    Soil Mass Structure
    Soil Phase Relationships, Index Properties and Classification
    Soil Phase Relationships
    Mass–Volume Relationships
    Weight–Volume Relationships
    Comments on Soil Phase Relationships
    Index Properties of Soils
    The Shape and Size of Particles
    Sieve Analysis
    The Hydrometer Method of Analysis
    Grain Size Distribution Curves
    Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils
    Consistency of Clay Soils
    Determination of Atterberg Limits
    Discussion on Limits and Indices
    Plasticity Chart
    General Considerations for Classification of Soils
    Field Identification of Soils
    Classification of Soils
    Textural Soil Classification
    AASHTO Soil Classification System
    Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
    Comments on the Systems of Soil Classification
    Soil Permeability and Seepage
    Soil Permeability
    Darcy’s Law
    Discharge and Seepage Velocities
    Methods of Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils
    Constant Head Permeability Test
    Falling Head Permeability Test
    Direct Determination of k of Soils in Place by Pumping Test
    Borehole Permeability Tests
    Approximate Values of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils
    Hydraulic Conductivity on Stratified Layers of Soils
    Empirical Correlations for Hydraulic Conductivity
    Hydraulic Conductivity of Rocks by Packer Method
    Laplace Equation
    Flow Net Construction
    Determination of Quantity of Seepage
    Determination of Seepage Pressure
    Determination of Uplift Pressure
    Seepage Flow Through Homogeneous Earth Dams
    Flow Net Consisting of Conjugate Confocal Parabolas
    Piping Failure
    Effective Stress and Pore Water Pressure
    Stresses When No Flow Takes Place Through the Saturated Soil Mass
    Stresses When Flow Takes Place Through the Soil from Top to Bottom
    Stresses When Flow Takes Place Through the Soil from Bottom to Top
    Effective Pressure Due to Capillary Water Rise in Soil
    Stress Distribution in Soils Due to Surface Loads
    Boussinesq’s Formula for Point Loads
    Westergaard’s Formula for Point Loads
    Line Loads
    Strip Loads
    Stresses Beneath the Corner of a Rectangular Foundation
    Stresses Under Uniformly Loaded Circular Footing
    Vertical Stress Beneath Loaded Areas of Irregular Shape
    Embankment Loadings
    Approximate Methods for Computing σz
    Pressure Isobars
    Compressibility and Consolidation
    The Standard One-Dimensional Consolidation Test
    Pressure-Void Ratio Curves
    Determination of Preconsolidation Pressure
    e-log p Field Curves for Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays of Low to Medium Sensitivity
    Computation of Consolidation Settlement
    Settlement Due to Secondary Compression
    Rate of One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory of Terzaghi
    Determination of the Coefficient of Consolidation
    Rate of Settlement Due to Consolidation
    Two- and Three-Dimensional Consolidation Problems
    Shear Strength of Soil
    Basic Concept of Shearing Resistance and Shearing Strength
    The Coulomb Equation
    Methods of Determining Shear Strength Parameters
    Shear Test Apparatus
    Stress Condition at a Point in a Soil Mass
    Stress Conditions in Soil During Triaxial Compression Test
    Relationship Between the Principal Stresses and Cohesion c
    Mohr Circle of Stress
    Mohr Circle of Stress When a Prismatic Element is Subjected to Normal and Shear Stresses
    Mohr Circle of Stress for a Cylindrical Specimen Compression Test
    Mohr-Coulomb Failure Theory
    Mohr Diagram for Triaxial Compression Test at Failure
    Mohr Diagram for a Direct Shear Test at Failure
    Effective Stresses
    Shear Strength Equation in Terms of Effective Principal Stresses
    Stress-Controlled and Strain-Controlled Tests
    Types of Laboratory Tests
    Shearing Strength Tests on Sand
    Unconsolidated-Undrained Test
    Unconfined Compression Tests
    Consolidated-Undrained Test on Saturated Clay
    Consolidated-Drained Shear Strength Test
    Pore Pressure Parameters Under Undrained Loading
    Vane Shear Tests
    Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
    The Relationship Between Undrained Shear Strength and Effective Overburden Pressure
    General Comments
     Questions and Problems
    Soil Exploration
    Boring of Holes
    Sampling in Soil
    Rock Core Sampling
    Standard Penetration Test
    SPT Values Related to Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils
    SPT Values Related to Consistency of Clay Soil
    Static Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
    The Flat Dilatometer Test
    Field Vane Shear Test (VST)
    Field Plate Load Test (PLT)
    Geophysical Exploration
    Planning of Soil Exploration
    Execution of Soil Exploration Program
    Stability of Slopes
    General Considerations and Assumptions in the Analysis
    Factor of Safety
    Stability Analysis of Infinite Slopes in Sand
    Stability Analysis of Infinite Slopes in Clay
    Methods of Stability Analysis of Slopes of Finite Height
    Plane Surface of Failure
    Circular Surface of Failure
    Failure Under Undrained Conditions (φ= 0)
    Friction-Circle Method
    Taylor’s Stability Number
    Tension Cracks
    Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady Seepage
    Bishop’s Simplified Method of Slices
    Bishop and Morgenstern Method for Slope Analysis
    Morgenstern Method of Analysis for Rapid Drawdown Condition
    Spencer Method of Analysis
    Lateral Earth Pressure
    Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
    Lateral Earth Pressure for at Rest Condition
    Rankine’s States of Plastic Equilibrium for Cohesionless Soils
    Rankine’s Earth Pressure Against Smooth Vertical Wall with Cohesionless Backfill
    Rankine’s Active Earth Pressure with Cohesive Backfill
    Rankine’s Passive Earth Pressure with Cohesive Backfill
    Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory for Sand for Active State
    Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory for Sand For Passive State
    Active Pressure by Culmann’s Method for Cohesionless Soils
    Lateral Pressures by Theory of Elasticity for Surcharge Loads on the Surface of Backfill
    Curved Surfaces of Failure for Computing Passive Earth Pressure
    Coefficients of Passive Earth Pressure Tables and Graphs
    Lateral Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls During Earthquakes
    Shallow Foundation I: Ultimate Bearing Capacity
    The Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil
    Some of the Terms Defined
    Types of Failure in Soil
    An Overview of Bearing Capacity Theories
    Tarzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory
    Skempton’s Bearing Capacity Factor Nc
    Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity
    The General Bearing Capacity Equation
    Effect of Soil Compressibility on Bearing Capacity of Soil
    Bearing Capacity of Foundations Subjected to Eccentric Loads
    Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings Based on SPT Values (N)
    The CPT Method of Determining Ultimate Bearing Capacity
    Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings Resting on Stratified Deposits of Soil
    Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope
    Foundations on Rock
    Case History of Failure of the Transcona Grain Elevator
    Shallow Foundation II: Safe Bearing Pressure and Settlement Calculation
    Field Plate Load Tests
    Effect of Size of Footings on Settlement
    Design Charts from SPT Values for Footings on Sand
    Empirical Equations Based on SPT Values for Footings on Cohesionless Soils
    Safe Bearing Pressure from Empirical Equations Based on CPT Values for Footings on Cohesionless Soil
    Foundation Settlement
    Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity
    Methods of Computing Settlements
    Elastic Settlement Beneath the Corner of a Uniformly Loaded Flexible Area Based on the Theory of Elasticity
    Janbu, Bjerrum and Kjaernli’s Method of Determining Elastic Settlement Under Undrained Conditions
    Schmertmann’s Method of Calculating Settlement in Granular Soils by Using CPT Values
    Estimation of Consolidation Settlement by Using Oedometer Test Data
    Skempton–Bjerrum Mthod of Calculating Consolidation Settlement (1957)
    Shallow Foundation III: Combined Footings and Mat Foundations
    Safe Bearing Pressures for Mat Foundations in Sand and Clay
    Eccentric Loading
    The Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction
    Proportion of Cantilever Footing
    Design of Combined Footings by Rigid Method (Conventional Method)
    Design of Mat Foundation by Rigid Method
    Design of Combined Footings by Elastic Line Method
    Design of Mat Foundations by Elastic Plate Method
    Floating Foundations
    Deep Foundation I: Pile Foundation
    Classification of Piles
    Types of Piles According to the Method of Installation
    Uses of Piles
    Selection of Pile
    Installation of Piles
     Part A: Vertical Loading Capacity of a Single Vertical Pile
    General Considerations
    Methods of Determining Ultimate Load Bearing Capacity of a Single Vertical Pile
    General Theory for Ultimate Bearing Capacity
    Ultimate Bearing Capacity in Cohesionless Soils
    Critical Depth
    Tomlinson’s Solution for Qb in Sand
    Meyerhof’s Method of Determining Qb for Piles in Sand
    Vesic’s Method of Determining Qb
    Janbu’s Method of Determining Qb
    Coyle and Castello’s Method of Estimating Qb in Sand
    The Ultimate Skin Resistance of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil
    Skin Resistance Qf by Coyle and Castello Method (1981)
    Static Bearing Capacity of Piles in Clay Soil
    Bearing Capacity of Piles in Granular Soils Based on SPT Value
    Bearing Capacity of Piles Based on Static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT)
    Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile by Load Test
    Pile Bearing Capacity from Dynamic Pile Driving Formulas
    Bearing Capacity of Piles Founded on a Rocky Bed
    Uplift Resistance of Piles
    .   Part B: Pile Group
    Number and Spacing of Piles in a Group
    Pile Group Efficiency
    Vertical Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups Embedded in Sands and Gravels
    Settlement of Piles in Pile Groups in Sands and Gravels
    Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils
    Allowable Loads on Groups of Piles
    Negative Friction
    Uplift Capacity of a Pile Group
    Deep Foundation II: Behavior of Laterally Loaded Vertical and Batter Piles
    Winkler’s Hypothesis
    The Differential Equation
    Non-Dimensional Solutions for Vertical Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads
    p–y Curves for the Solution of Laterally Loaded Piles
    Brom’s Solutions for Laterally Loaded Piles
    A Direct Method for Solving the Non-Linear Behavior of Laterally Loaded Flexible Pile Problems
    Case Studies for Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles in Sand
    Case Studies for Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles in Clay
    Behavior of Laterally Loaded Batter Piles in Sand
    Deep Foundation III: Drilled Pier Foundations
    Types of Drilled Piers
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations
    Methods of Construction
    Design Considerations
    Load Transfer Mechanism
    Vertical Bearing Capacity of Drilled Piers
    The General Bearing Capacity Equation for the Base Resistance qb (= qmax)
    Bearing Capacity Equations for the Base in Cohesive Soil
    Bearing Capacity Equation for the Base in Granular Soil
    Bearing Capacity Equations for the Base in Cohesive IGM or Rock
    The Ultimate Skin Resistance of Cohesive and Intermediate Materials
    Ultimate Skin Resistance in Cohesionless Soil and Gravelly Sands
    Ultimate Side and Total Resistance in Rock
    Estimation of Settlements of Drilled Piers at Working Loads
    Uplift Capacity of Drilled Piers
    Lateral Bearing Capacity of Drilled Piers
    Case Study of a Drilled Pier Subjected to Lateral Loads
    Foundation on Collapsible and Expansive Soils
    General Considerations
    Part A: Collapsible Soils
    General Observations
    Collapse Potential and Settlement
    Computation of Collapse Settlement
    Foundation Design
    Treatment Methods for Collapsible Soils
     Part B: Expansive Soils
    Distribution of Expansive Soils
    General Characteristics of Swelling Soils
    Clay Mineralogy and Mechanism of Swelling
    Definition of Some Parameters
    Evaluation of the Swelling Potential of Expansive Soils by Single Index Method
    Classification of Swelling Soils by Indirect Measurement
    Swelling Pressure by Direct Measurement
    Effect of Initial Moisture Content and Initial Dry Density on Swelling Pressure
    Estimating the Magnitude of Swelling
    Design of Foundations in Swelling Soils
    Drilled Pier Foundations
    Elimination of Swelling
    Concrete and Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls
    Part A: Concrete Retaining Walls
    Conditions Under Whicn Rankine and Coulomb Formulas Are Applicable to Retaining Walls Under the Active State
    Proportioning of Retaining Walls
    Earth Pressure Charts for Retaining Walls
    Stability of Retaining Walls
    Part B: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls
    General Considerations
    Backfill Reinforcing Materials
    Construction Details
    Design Considerations for a Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall
    Design Method
    External Stability
    Examples of Measured Lateral Earth Pressures
    Sheet Pile Walls and Braced Cuts
    Sheet Pile Structures
    Free Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
    Depth of Embedment of Cantilever Walls in Sandy Soils
    Depth of Embedment of Cantilever Walls in Cohesive Soils
    Anchored Bulkhead: Free-Earth Support Method—Depth of Embedment of Anchored Sheet Piles in Granular Soils
    Design Charts for Anchored Bulkheads in Sand
    Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
    Anchorage of Bulkheads
    Braced Cuts
    Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution on Braced-Cuts
    Stability of Braced Cuts in Saturated Clay
    Bjerrum and Eide Method of Analysis
    Piping Failures in Sand Cuts
    Soil Improvement
    Mechanical Compaction
    Laboratory Tests on Compaction
    Effect of Compaction on Engineering Behavior
    Field Compaction and Control
    Compaction for Deeper Layers of Soil
    Sand Compaction Piles and Stone Columns
    Soil Stabilization by the Use of Admixtures
    Soil Stabilization by Injection of Suitable Grouts
    Appendix A: SI Units in Geotechnical Engineering
    Appendix B: Slope Stability Charts and Tables


    V.N.S. Murthy

    “Each chapter … represents an important and modern approaching of the principal aspects … in the domain of soil mechanics and foundations. … The author used a large number of applications to illustrate the importance of the theory for the future engineer … an interesting manner to capture the attention [of undergraduate] students. … also useful for the Master and PhD students [and for] practicing engineers … .  This book includes theoretical and practical aspects that present interest for the teachers and can be used in teaching process at our Department of Bridges, Railways, Roads, and Foundations.”
    —Professor Eng. Vasile MUSAT, Technical University of Iasi  in the Isai Polytechnic Magazine, Vol. 17 1 / 4, March/December 2005