Handbook of Biofunctional Surfaces: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Biofunctional Surfaces

1st Edition

Edited by Wolfgang Knoll

Jenny Stanford Publishing

1,184 pages | 32 Color Illus. | 359 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9789814316637
pub: 2013-05-22
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429066634
pub: 2013-05-22
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The design and synthesis of molecularly or supramolecularly defined interfacial architectures have seen in recent years a remarkable growth of interest and scientific research activities for various reasons. On the one hand, it is generally believed that the construction of an interactive interface between the living world of cells, tissue, or whole organisms and the (inorganic or organic) materials world of technical devices such as implants or medical parts requires proper construction and structural (and functional) control of this organism–machine interface. It is still the very beginning of generating a better understanding of what is needed to make an organism tolerate implants, to guarantee bidirectional communication between microelectronic devices and living tissue, or to simply construct interactive biocompatibility of surfaces in general.

This exhaustive book lucidly describes the design, synthesis, assembly and characterization, and bio-(medical) applications of interfacial layers on solid substrates with molecularly or supramolecularly controlled architectures. Experts in the field share their contributions that have been developed in recent years.

Table of Contents



Self-Assembled Monolayers

Self-Assembled Monolayers: A Versatile Tool for Biofunctionalization of Surfaces Atul N. Parikh and David L. Allara


Self-Assembly Mechanisms

Spatial Patternability

Biologically Relevant Surface Functionalization


Gemini SAMs Kaoru Tamada and Shinobu Yokokawa


Basic Characteristics of Gemini-Structured SAMs

Selective Adsorption of Tartatic Acid

Optical Resolution on Chiral SAMs


Physical Chemistry of Nonfouling Oligo (Ethylene Oxide)-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers Michael Grunze


A Survey of Physicochemical Surface Properties Relevant for Biofouling

Surface Energy


Steric Repulsion by Polymer Brushes

Preparation of OEG-Terminated Alkanethiolate SAMs and Their Characterization

Stability of OEG and PEG Coatings

OEG SAMs on Other Substrates

Mechanisms of "Inertness" of OEG SAMs

Hydration of Oligo(Ethylene Oxide)

The Thermodynamic Perspective


Electrochemically Designed Self-Assembled Monolayers for the Selective Immobilization and Release of Ligands, Proteins, and Cells Omar Azzaroni and Roberto C. Salvarezza


Electrochemistry of Thiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Metal Surfaces

Controlling Biological Activity Using Electroactive Self-Assembled Monolayers

Controlling the Release of Bioactive Elements by Electrochemical Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers


OM-CVD on Patterned SAMs Silvia Mittler

Introduction 140

OM-CVD of Cu onto Patterned MPTS and SAMs on OTS as a Blocking Resist

OM-CVD of Pd and Pt onto Patterned OTS SAMs as a Blocking Resist

OM-CVD-Grown Au on Stamped SAMs on Au/Mica

OM-CVD-Grown Gold NPs in Rows on SNOM Nanolithographically Manipulated HDT SAMs on Au

OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Cu– Ion Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers

OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers

OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers with Additional Density Control due to the Application of a Binary Mixed Refilled SAM

OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on SiO2/ITO/Glass and Directly on Glass


Brushes, Dendrimers, Networks

Modification of Glass Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimer Layers for Biosensors Anne-Marie Caminade and Jean-Pierre Majoral


Modification of Inorganic Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimers

Chemical Sensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers

Biosensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers


Biofunctional Dendrons Grafted on a Surface Young-Eun Choi and Joon Won Park


Self-Assembly of Dendrons through Covalent Bonds

Self-Assembly of a Dendron through a Noncovalent Bond


Surface-Attached Polymeric Hydrogel Films Ulrich Jonas, Coenraad R. van den Brom, Annette Brunsen, and Robert F. Roskamp


Hydrogel Systems

Structure and Properties of Hydrogel Layers


Conclusion and Outlook

Evanescent Wave Biosensors with a Hydrogel Binding Matrix 361 Jakub Dostalek, Yi Wang, Chun Jen Huang, and Wolfgang Knoll


Key Characteristics of Hydrogel Binding Matrices

Evanescent Wave Optics for Probing Hydrogel Films

Mass Transport and Affinity Binding of Analyte in a Gel

Biosensor Implementations

Conclusion and Outlook

Surface Modification of High-Strength Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels for Biomedical Device Applications David Myung, Lampros Kourtis, Jaan Noolandi, Jennifer Cochran, Christopher N. Ta, and Curtis W. Frank


Literature Review

Bulk and Surface Properties of PEG/PAA IPN Hydrogels

Cellular Interaction with Surface-Modified PEG/PAA Hydrogels

Summary and Outlook

Ultrasensitive Biosensing with Polymer Brushes Fang Yu


Polymer Brush Matrix Based on Dextran Chemistry

Protein Immobilization on a Dextran Matrix

Comparison between 2D and 3D Matrices

LOD Evaluation



Peptides, Proteins

Noncovalent Immobilization of Proteins to Surfaces Pascal Jonkheijm and Jurriaan Huskens


Site-Selective Noncovalent Immobilization Methods

Conclusion and Perspectives

Recent Progress on Site-Selective Covalent Methods for Generating Protein Biochips Qi An and Pascal Jonkheijm


Site-Selective Surface Immobilization of Proteins

Conclusion and Perspectives

S-Layer Proteins Uwe B. Sleytr, Dietmar Pum, Eva Maria Egelseer, Nicola Ilk, and Bernhard Schuster


Location and Ultrastructure of S-Layers

Isolation, Chemical Characterization, and Molecular Biology

Assembly of S-Layers in vivo

Self-Assembly of Isolated S-Layer Subunits (in vitro)

S-Layer Ultrafiltration Membranes

S-Layers as Matrix for the Immobilization of Functional Macromolecules and Nanoparticles

S-Layer Fusion Proteins and S-Layer Neoglycoproteins

S-Layers as a Matrix for Biomineralization

S-Layer-Stabilized Planar Lipid Membranes and Liposomes


Peptide Nanotube Coatings for Bioapplications Lise T. de Jonge and Molly M. Stevens


Self-Assembled Peptide-Based Nanotubes

Peptide Nanotube Coatings

Peptide Nanotubes for Bioapplications

Summary and Outlook


Heparan Sulfate Surfaces to Probe the Functions of the Master Regulator of the Extracellular Space Nina S. Azmi and David G. Fernig

Biological Significance of Glycosaminoglycans

Heparin and Heparan Sulfate

Oligosaccharide Preparation

Strategies for Functionalizing Surfaces with HS, Heparin, and Derived Oligosaccharides

Applications of HS- and Heparin-Functionalized Surfaces

Opportunities for Heparin- and HS-Functionalized Surfaces


Heparanated Surfaces Victor Nurcombe, William R. Birch, and Simon M. Cool

Proteoglycans: Core Proteins and GAG Sugars (Mulloy)

Heparan Sulfate Biochemistry

The GAG Chains on Proteoglycans are "Catalysts of Molecular Encounter"

HS Functions

Glycosaminoglycans and Surfaces

The Manipulation of Signaling by Immobilized HS

Experiments on Specific Heparanated Surfaces


Lipid Bilayer Membranes

Biomimetic Systems: The Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane Stefan M. Schiller


Models of the Biological Membrane

Components of the tBLM and Their Properties

Examples for tBLMs, Detection Schemes, and Their Applications

Current and Future Directions

Cell-Free Synthesis of Complex Membrane Proteins Ahu Arslan Yildiz, Sandra Ritz, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner


Methods and Experimental Approaches

Incorporation of Isolated Protein

Detection of Cyt-bo3 Expression and Insertion by SPFS

Immune-Blotting Assay

Enzymatic Functionality Assay

Conclusion and Outlook

Integrin-Functionalized Artificial Membranes as Test Platforms for Monitoring Small Integrin Ligand Binding by Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Ute Reuning, Daniela Lössner, Birgit Wiltschi, Wolfgang Knoll, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner

Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy as Tools for Recording Binding Events to Membrane-Embedded Receptor Proteins

Development of an Integrin/Ligand-Binding Test on Artificial Membranes Established on SPR/SPFS Biosensors

SPR/SPFS Monitoring of Binding Events of Different Ligands to Membrane-Embedded Integrins

SPR/SPFS, a Promising Scientific Method for the Characterization of Transmembrane Receptor Proteins

Supported Lipid Bilayer Formation Using Self-Spreading Phenomena Kazuaki Furukawa


Preparation of Supported Lipid Bilayers by Self- Spreading

Self-Spreading Control Using Surface Patterns

Microchannel Device Using a Self-Spreading Lipid Bilayer as a Molecule Carrier

Interaction with a Nanoscale Structure

Summary and Perspective

Electrically Addressable, Biologically Relevant Surface-Supported Bilayers Janice Lin, Kalina Hristova, and Peter C. Searson

Introduction: Surface-Supported Bilayers as Models of Cell Membranes

Bilayers Produced via Langmuir–Blodgett Deposition

Theory of Impedance Spectroscopy of Supported Bilayers


Polymer Cushion

Lipid Composition


Micropatterned Model Biological Membranes on a Solid Surface Kenichi Morigaki


Micropatterned Model Membrane Composed of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers

Facilitated Integration of Fluid Lipid Bilayers in the Presence of Polymeric Bilayers

Composite Membranes of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers

Spatially Controlled Phase Separation

Conclusion and Outlook

Cells on Biofunctional Surfaces

Matrix Mysteries and Stem Cells William Birch and Steve Oh


Defined Media for hESC Culture

Defined Planar Surfaces for hESC Culture

Summary of 2D Surfaces for hESC Culture

Future Perspectives

Mechanical Cues for Cell Culture K. A. Melzak, S. Moreno-Flores, M. dM Vivanco, and Jose-Luis Toca-Herrera

Properties and Components of the ECM

Modification of Hard Surfaces with an ECM or ECM-Like Layer

Modification of Hard Surfaces with Collagen

Collagen Gels in Three Dimensions

Preparation and Modification of Substrates with Defined Mechanical Properties

In vitro Neuronal Cell Guidance by Protein Micro- and Nanocontact Printing Andreas Offenhäusser, Dirk Mayer, Simone Meffert, and Daniel Schwaab


Surface-Bound Proteins Patterned by Soft Lithography

Neuronal Adhesion and Outgrowth


Hemocompatible Surfaces for Blood-Contacting Applications Yuquan Zou, Kai Yu, Benjamin F. L. Lai, Donald E. Brooks, and Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu


Hemocompatible Surfaces Based on Polymer Brushes

Importance of the Use of New Screening Techniques for Assessing Hemocompatibility



Nanopatterning of Biomolecules by Dip-Pen Nanolithography Xiaozhu Zhou, Sreenivasan Koliyat Parayil, Hai Li, and Hua Zhang


Direct- and Indirect-Write DPN

Applications in Biological Systems

Conclusions and Outlook

Application of Biofunctional Surfaces in Medical Diagnostics Christa Nöhammer


Basics and Potential of Microarray Technology

Microarrays for Cancer Diagnostics

Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics and Lab-on-a-Chip Systems

Nanopatterning for Bioapplications Patrick Domnanich and Claudia Preininger


Fabrication Techniques



Glucose Biosensors: Transduction Methods, Redox Materials, and Biointerfaces Roderick B. Pernites and Rigoberto C. Advincula



Materials and Methods

New Materials and Interfaces



About the Editor

Wolfgang Knoll received a PhD in biophysics at the University of Konstanz in 1976. In 1977, he joined the group of Prof. E. Sackmann at the University of Ulm, Germany, working on model membrane systems and their phase behavior by neutron scattering and spectroscopic and thermodynamic measurements. After a postdoctoral stay at the IBM Research Laboratory in San Jose, California (1980–1981), and a stay as a visiting scientist at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, he joined the Physics Department of the Technical University of Munich. From 1991 to 1999, he was head of Laboratory for Exotic Nanomaterials hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Wako, Japan. In 1992, he was appointed consulting professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Stanford University, California. In 1998, Dr. Knoll was appointed professor of chemistry (by courtesy) at the University of Florida in Gainesville and in 1999 adjunct professor at Hanyang University in Seoul, South Korea. From 1999 to 2003 he was a Temasek Professor at the National University of Singapore, and since 2008 is honorary professor at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna, Austria, and visiting professor at the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore. Since 2008 he is scientific managing director of the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology in Vienna, Austria. His current research interests include aspects of the structure/order–property/function relationships of polymeric/organic systems, in particular in thin films and at functionalized surfaces.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Biotechnology