2nd Edition

Handbook of Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin

Edited By Jorgen Serup, Gregor B. E. Jemec, Gary L. Grove Copyright 2006
    1060 Pages 9 Color & 721 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Firmly established as the leading international reference in this field, Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin broke new ground with its comprehensive coverage of methods used in both clinical and experimental dermatology. Completely revised and updated, containing more than twice as much information, the Second Edition continues the tradition. The authors' thorough research and clear organization make this book a baseline reference for those using noninvasive biophysical methods to study the skin.

    Arranged by physical modality and structured to provide educational and practical information, the second edition, like its predecessor, will prove to be of value to young researchers and senior scientists alike. The coverage of major evaluation and measurement methods share a consistent format, including scope, sources of error, application, and validity. This edition incorporates 69 revised chapters with more than 90 new chapters covering topics such as computer technique, imaging techniques, skin friction, barrier functions, and more.

    New chapters provide coverage of:

  • computers, computer techniques, and image analysis
  • imaging techniques, including clinical photography
  • legal situations and guidelines behind instrumental use
  • skin friction
  • barrier functions
  • important new techniques such as in vitro confocal microscopy, OCT, and Raman spectroscopy
  • veterinary/animal research use of methods

    The truly interdisciplinary, international panel of contributors includes experts from the specialties of dermatology, bioengineering, pathology, manufacturing engineering, medical physics, pharmacology, microbiology, neurology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, cardiovascular research, and pharmacy from academic institutions and hospitals in countries such as Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, Israel, Taiwan, and Singapore. The revision is extensive and covers a broad spectrum of methods while providing the same caliber of authoritative information that made the previous edition so popular. Application oriented, practical, and instructive, this Second Edition will meet the needs of the researchers today, and in years to come.
    Personal Perspectives on Bioengineering and the Skin: The Successful Past and the Brilliant Future, A.M. Kligman
    How to Choose and Use Non-Invasive Methods, J. Serup
    A Practical Guide to Resources on the Internet for the Skin Researcher, E. Grove Wickersheim and G. Lee Grove
    The Skin Integument: Variation Relative to Sex, Age, Race, and Body Region, N. Farinelli and E. Berardesca
    Seasonal Variations and Environmental Influences on the Skin, C.L. Goh
    Non-Invasive Methods and Assessment of Skin Diseases, S. Seidenari, F. Giusti, and G. Pellacani
    Standards for Good Clinical Practice (GCP), M. Thyme
    Statistical Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Value of a Diagnostic Test, N. Lange and M.A. Weinstock
    Sample Size Calculation, C. Bay and S. Møller
    Implementation of a Quality Management System in a Contract Laboratory Working with Non-Invasive Methods, K.-P. Wilhelm and J. Hofmann
    Ethical Considerations, M. Noerreslet and G.B.E. Jemec

    Skin Surface, Epidermal Structure, and Function
    Clinical Photography, Surface Imaging Techniques, and Computerized Image Analysis
    General Aspects in Medical/Clinical Photography, N. Kentorp
    Use of Compact Digital Camera for Snap Photography, K.-I. O'goshi
    Computerized Image Analysis of Clinical Photos, S.S. Hawkins
    Magnifying Lens - Non-Invasive Oil Immersion Examination of the Skin, H.I. Katz and J.S. Lindholm
    Dermatoscopy, W. Westerhof
    Fiber-Optic Microscopy System for Skin Surface Imaging, I. Sadiq and T. Stoudemayer
    Automated Assessment of Pigment Distribution and Color Areas for Melanoma Diagnosis, S. Seidenari, G. Pellacani, and C. Grana

    Skin Surface Contour and Roughness Assessment
    Skin Replication for Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, B. Forslind
    Skin Surface Replica Image Analysis of Furrows and Wrinkles, P. Corcuff and J.-L. Leveque
    Stylus Method for Skin Surface Contour Measurement, J. Gassmueller, A. Kecskés, and P. Jahn
    Laser Profilometry, J. Efsen, S. Christiansen, H.N. Hansen, and J. Keiding
    Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Skin Surface: Micro- and Macrorelief, J. Mignot
    The Morphological Tree of the Cutaneous Network of Lines, H. Zahouani and Ph. Humbert
    Comparison of Methodologies for Evaluation of Skin Surface Contour and Wrinkles: Advantages and Limitations, M. Takahashi and M. Oguri

    Skin Surface Friction
    Tribological Studies on Skin: Measurement of the Coefficient of Friction, R.K. Sivamani, G. Wu, H.I. Maibach, and N.V. Gitis
    Skin Friction Evaluation by Unidirectional Stress Using a Friction Tester, M. Egawa and M. Takahashi
    Haptic Finger, M. Tanaka

    Epidermis Structure
    Cyanoacrylate Biopsy for Cytologic Evaluation of the Epidermis, J.E. Arrese, P. Quatresooz, C. Piérard-Franchimont, and G.E. Piérard
    High-Resolution Sonography of the Epidermis In Vivo, S. El Gammal, C. El Gammal, P. Altmeyer, M. Vog, and H. Ermert
    Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology, P. Andersen, L. Thrane, A. Tycho, and G.B.E. Jemec
    In Vivo Reflectance Mode Confocal Microscopy in Clinical and Surgical Dermatology, S. González, Y. Gilaberte-Calzada, A. González-Rodríguez, A. Torres, A. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha
    In Vivo Reflectance Mode Confocal Laser Microscopy of Melanocytic Skin Lesions, G. Pellacani and S. Seidenari
    In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Skin Surface Using Fluorescent Markers, S.G. Thomas and L.D. Swindle
    In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Application in Product Research and Development, T. Yamashita and M. Takahashi
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Examination of the Epidermis In Vivo, B. Querleux
    Spectrophotometric Intracutaneous Imaging (SIAscopy): Method and Clinical Applications, E. Claridge, S. Cotton, M. Moncrieff, and P. Hall

    Epidermis Hydration
    Epidermal Hydration: Measurement of High-Frequency Electrical Conductance, H. Tagami
    Measurement of Epidermal Capacitance, A.O. Barel and P. Clarys
    Bioimpedance as a Non-Invasive Method for Measuring Changes in Skin, I. Nicander, P. Åberg and S. Ollmar
    Comparison of Commercial Electrical Measurement Instruments for Assessing the Hydration State of the Stratum Corneum, B. Gabard, P. Clarys, and A.O. Barel

    Methods to Determine Desquamation Rate, C. Edwards
    Application of Adhesive Techniques to Harvest Stratum Corneum Material, D.L. Miller
    Dry Skin and Scaling Evaluated by D-Squames and Image Analysis, H. Schatz, P.J. Altmeyer, and A.M. Kligman

    Barrier Functions and Gradients
    Measurement of Transepidermal Water Loss by Semiopen Systems, R.A. Tupker and J. Pinnagoda
    Measurement of Transepidermal Water Loss by Closed-Chamber Systems, J. Nuutinen
    Measurement of Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension, H. Takiwaki
    Measurement of Transcutaneous PCO 2, C.N. Nickelsen
    Skin Surface pH: Mechanism, Measurement, Importance, J. Fluhr, L. Bankova, and S. Dikstein
    The pH Gradient in the Epidermis Evaluated by Serial Tape Stripping, H. Öhman
    Techniques for Visualization of Ionic Gradation in Human Epidermis, M. Denda
    Skin Chamber Techniques, B. Zweiman
    Microdialysis Methodology for Sampling in the Skin, L. Groth, P. García Ortiz, and E. Benfeldt

    Skin Surface Microflora
    Sampling the Bacteria of the Skin, E.A. Eady
    Mapping the Fungi of the Skin, J. Faergemann

    Dermis Structure and Function
    Dermis Structure
    High-Frequency Ultrasound Examination of Skin: Introduction and Guide, J. Serup, J. Keiding, A. Fullerton, M. Gniadecka, and R. Gniadecki
    Ultrasound B-Mode Imaging and In Vivo Structure Analysis, S. Seidenari
    Ultrasound Assessment of Dermal Water and Edema In Vivo, M. Gniadecka
    Ultrasound Assessment of Skin Aging, G. Pellacani, F. Giusti, and S. Seidenari
    Ultrasound Imaging of Subcutaneous Tissue and Adjacent Structures, X. Wortsman, E.A. Holm, and G.B.E. Jemec
    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Skin, A. Zemtsov
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Examination of Skin Disorders, S. El Gammal, R. Hartwig, S. Aygen, T. Bauermann, K. Hoffmann, and P. Altmeyer
    Raman Spectroscopy of Skin, H.G.M. Edwards

    Mechanical Properties
    Identification of Langer's Lines, J.C. Barbenel
    Suction Chamber Method for Measuring Skin Mechanical Properties: The Dermaflex ®, M. Gniadecka and J. Serup
    Suction Chamber Method for Measurement of Skin Mechanics: The Cutometer ®, K.-I. O'goshi
    Suction Chamber Method for Measurement of Skin Mechanics: The New Digital Version of the Cutometer, A.O. Barel, W. Courage, and P. Clarys
    Suction Chamber Method for Measurement of Skin Mechanics: The DermaLab, G.L. Grove, J. Damia, M.J. Grove, and C. Zerweck
    Twistometry Measurement of Skin Elasticity, P.G. Agache
    Levarometry, S. Dikstein and J. Fluhr
    Indentometry, S. Dikstein and J.W. Fluhr
    The Gas-Bearing Electrodynamo meter, C.W. Hargens
    Ballistometry, C.W. Hargens

    The Cutaneous Vasculature
    Skin Colour and Blood Vessels
    Colorimetry, W. Westerhof
    Quasi-L*a*b* Color Measurement from Digital Images, H.Takiwaki
    Practical Color Calibration for Dermatoscopic Images, C. Grana, G. Pellacani, and S. Seidenari
    Measurement of Erythema and Melanin Indices, H. Takiwaki
    Dynamic Capillaroscopy, H.S. Yu, C.H. Lee, and C.H. Chang
    Capillaroscopy and Videocapillaroscopy Assessment of Skin Microcirculation: Dermatological and Cosmetic Approaches, P. Humbert, J.-M. Sainthillier, S. Mac-Mary, A. Petitjean, P. Creidi, and T. Gharbi

    Blood Flow, Vasomotion and Vascular Functions
    Laser Doppler Measurement of Skin Blood Flux: Variation and Validation, A.J. Bircher
    Examination of Periodic Fluctuations in Cutaneous Blood Flow, R. Gniadecki, M. Gniadecka, and J. Serup
    Laser Doppler Flowmetry: Principles of Technology and Clinical Applications, G. Belcaro and A.N. Nicolaides
    Laser Doppler Imaging of Skin, K. Wårdell
    The Heat Wash-In and Heat Wash-Out Technique for Quantitative, Non-Invasive Measurement of Cutaneous Blood Flow Rate, P. Sejrsen and M. Midttun
    The 133 Xenon Wash-Out Technique for Quantitative Measurement of Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Blood Flow Rates, P. Sejrsen
    Evaluation of Lymph Flow, P.S. Mortimer

    Temperature and Thermoregulation
    Sensors and Handheld Devices for Surface Measurement of Skin Temperature, Roderick Thomas
    Thermal Imaging of Skin Temperature, E.F.J. Ring
    Assessment of Cutaneous Pain, L. Arendt-Nielsen

    Sweat Gland Distribution and Function
    Classical Techniques for the Localization of Sweat Glands, P. Dykes
    Micro-Sensor Mapping of Sudoral Activity and Skin Surface Hydration, J.-L. Lévêque
    Methods for the Collection of Eccrine Sweat, J.H. Barth
    Methods for the Collection of Apocrine Sweat, J.H. Barth

    Sebaceous Glands and Sebum Excretion
    The Follicular Biopsy, O. H. Mills, Jr.
    Measurement of Excreted Sebum Using Sebum-Absorbent Film and an Optical Reader: The TapeAnalyzer, D.L. Miller
    Quantification of Sebum Output Using Sebum-Absorbent Tapes (Sebutapes ® ), C. El Gammal, S. El Gammal, A. Pagnoni, and A.M. Kligman
    Optical Measurement of Sebum Excretion Using Opalescent Film Imprint: The Sebumeter ®, K.-I. O'goshi
    Gravimetric Technique for Measuring Sebum Excretion Rate (SER), W.J. Cunliffe and J.P. Taylor
    Fluorescence Photography of Sebaceous Follicles, A. Herpens, S. Schagen, and S. Scheede
    Methods for Assessment of Follicular Transport in Ex Vivo and In Vivo, J. Lademann

    Hair, Physical Properties, and Growth Rate
    Measurement of Hair Growth, J.H. Barth and D. Hugh Rushton
    Microscopy of the Hair: The T 875, U. Blume-Peytavi and C.E. Orfanos
    Photographic and Computerized Techniques for Quantification of Hair Growth, D. Van Neste
    Measurement of the Mechanical Strength of Hair, R. Randall Wickett
    Evaluating the Strength of Human Hair, S.B. Hornby

    Nail Structure and Growth
    Methods for Nail Assessment: An Overview, D. de Berker
    Measurement of Longitudinal Nail Growth, J.S. Roth and R.K. Scher
    Measurement of Nail Thickness, G.B.E. Jemec
    Image Analysis of the Nail Surface, C. Piérard-Franchimont and G.E. Piérard

    General Guidelines for Assessment of Skin Diseases, E.A. Holm and G.B.E. Jemec
    Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) Testing: ESCD Application and Reading Standards, R.A. Tupker
    Instrumental and Computer-Based Methods for Measurement of Surface Area Afflicted with Disease, C.H. Oh
    Instrumental Evaluation of Wheal-and-Flare Reactions, D. Van Neste
    Instrumental Evaluation of Occluded Patch Test Reactions, S. Seidenari, F. Giusti, and G. Pellacani
    Light Sources, Sunlight, and Radiation Dosimetry, H.C. Wulf
    Phototesting: Phototoxicity and Photoallergy, T. Horio


    Jorgen Serup, Gregor B. E. Jemec, Gary L. Grove

    "…If you are interested in doing basic science or clinical dermatology research, you will certainly want to have this reference….I am unaware of any other book that accomplishes what this book does…extremely valuable."
    -Doody's Reviews