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3rd Edition

Handbook of Optical Design




ISBN 9781439867990
Published February 20, 2013 by CRC Press
588 Pages 32 Color & 393 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses.

This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also discusses component selection, optimization, and integration for the development of effective optical apparatus. The authors analyze the performance of a wide range of optical materials, components, and systems, from simple magnifiers to complex lenses used in photography, ophthalmology, telescopes, microscopes, and projection systems. Throughout, the book includes a wealth of design examples, illustrations, and equations, most of which are derived from basic principles. Appendices supply additional background information.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Improved figures, including 32 now in color
  • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field
  • New material on Buchdahl high-order aberrations
  • Expanded and improved coverage of the calculation of wavefront aberrations based on optical path
  • An updated list of optical materials in the appendix
  • A clearer, more detailed description of primary aberrations
  • References to important new publications
  • Optical system design examples updated to include newly available glasses
  • 25 new design examples

This comprehensive book combines basic theory and practical details for the design of optical systems. It is an invaluable reference for optical students as well as scientists and engineers working with optical instrumentation.

Table of Contents

Geometrical Optics Principles
Wave Nature of Light and Fermat’s Principle
Reflection and Refraction Laws
Basic Meridional Ray Tracing Equations
Gaussian or First-Order Optics
Image Formation
Stop, Pupils, and Principal Ray
Delano’s Relation
Optical Sine Theorem
Lagrange Invariant
Herschel Invariant and Image Magnifications

Thin Lenses and Spherical Mirrors
Thin Lenses
Formulas for Image Formation with Thin Lenses
Nodal Points of A Thin Lens
Image Formation with Converging Lenses
Image Formation with Diverging Lenses

Systems of Several Lenses and Thick Lenses
Focal Length and Power of A Lens System
Image Formation with Thick Lenses or Systems of Lenses
Cardinal Points
Image Formation with A Tilted or Curved Object
Thick Lenses
Systems of Thin Lenses
The Lagrange Invariant in A System of Thin Lenses
Effect of Object or Stop Shifting
The Delano y − ȳ Diagram

Chromatic Aberrations
Introduction
Axial Chromatic Aberration
Conrady’s D – d Method of Achromatization
Secondary Color Aberration
Magnification Chromatic Aberration

Spherical Aberration
Spherical Aberration Calculation
Primary Spherical Aberration
Aspherical Surfaces
Spherical Aberration of Aspherical Surfaces
Surfaces without Spherical Aberration
Aberration Polynomial for Spherical Aberration
High-Order Spherical Aberration
Spherical Aberration Correction with Gradient Index

Monochromatic Off-Axis Aberrations
Introduction
Petzval Curvature
Coma
Astigmatism
Aplanatic Surfaces
Distortion
Off-Axis Aberrations in Aspherical Surfaces
The Symmetrical Principle and the Bow–Sutton Conditions
Stop Shift Equations
Aberrations of the Pupil

Aberration Polynomials and High-Order Aberrations
Wavefronts in an Optical System
Ray Aberrations and Wavefront Aberrations
Wavefront Aberration Polynomial
Zernike Polynomials
Fitting of Wavefront Deformations to A Polynomial
Wavefront Representation by an Array of Gaussians
Wavefront Aberrations in Refractive Surfaces
Wavefront Aberrations in Reflective Surfaces
Aldis Theorem

Computer Evaluation of Optical Systems
Transverse Aberration Polynomials
Transverse Aberrations with H.H. Hopkins, Seidel, and Buchdahl Coefficients
Meridional Ray Tracing and Stop Position Analysis
Spot Diagram
Wavefront Deformation
Point and Line Spread Function
Optical Transfer Function
Tolerance to Aberrations

Diffraction in Optical Systems
Huygens–Fresnel Theory
Fresnel Diffraction
Fraunhofer Diffraction
Diffraction Images with Aberrations
Strehl Ratio
Optical Transfer Function
Resolution Criteria
Gaussian Beams

Prisms
Tunnel Diagram
Deflecting A Light Beam
Transforming an Image
Deflecting and Transforming Prisms
Nondeflecting Transforming Prisms
Beam-Splitting Prisms
Chromatic Dispersing Prisms
Nonimaging Prisms

Basic Optical Systems and Simple Photographic Lenses
Optical Systems Diversity
Magnifiers and Single Imaging Lens
Landscape Lenses
Periscopic Lens
Achromatic Landscape Lens
Doublets
Laser Light Collimators
Spherical and Paraboloidal Mirrors
Some Catoptric and Catadioptric Systems
F-Theta Lenses
Fresnel Lenses and Gabor Plates

Complex Photographic Lenses
Introduction
Asymmetrical Systems
Symmetrical Anastigmat Systems
Varifocal and Zoom Lenses

The Human Eye and Ophthalmic Lenses
The Human Eye
Ophthalmic Lenses
Ophthalmic Lens Design
Prismatic Lenses
Spherocylindrical Lenses

Astronomical Telescopes
Resolution and Light-Gathering Power
Reflecting Two-Mirror Cameras and Telescopes
Catadioptric Cameras
Astronomical Telescopes
Field Correctors
Multiple-Mirror Telescopes
Active and Adaptive Optics

Visual Systems and Afocal Systems
Visual Optical Systems
Basic Telescopic System
Afocal Systems
Visual And Terrestrial Telescopes
Telescope Eyepieces
Relays and Periscopes

Microscopes
Compound Microscope
Microscope Objectives
Microscope Eyepieces
Microscope Illuminators

Projection Systems
Image Projectors
Main Projector Components
Coherence Effects in Projectors
Anamorphic Projection
Slide and Movie Projectors
Overhead Projectors
Profile Projectors
Television Projectors
LCD Computer and Home Theater Projectors

Lens Design Optimization
Basic Principles
Optimization Methods
Glatzel Adaptive Method
Constrained Damped Least-Squares Optimization Method
Merit Function and Boundary Conditions
Modern Trends in Optical Design
Flowchart for a Lens Optimization Program
Practical Tips for the Use of Lens Evaluation Programs
Some Commercial Lens Design Programs

Appendices
Appendix: Notation and Primary Aberration Coefficients Summary
Appendix: Mathematical Representation of Optical Surfaces
Appendix: Optical Materials
Appendix: Exact Ray Tracing of Skew Rays
Appendix: General Bibliography on Lens Design

Index

Chapters include references.

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Author(s)

Biography

Daniel Malacara-Hernández is a professor and researcher at Centro de Investigaciones en Optica in Leon, Mexico.

Zacarías Malacara-Hernández is a researcher at Centro de Investigaciones en Optica in Leon, Mexico.

Reviews

"An excellent update to an excellent book. A comprehensive handbook on optical design and geometrical optics that covers the basic theory as well as practical details."
—James C. Wyant, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, USA

"Even with modern 'easy-to-use' lens design software and global optimization, the understanding of aberration theory is essential to finding high-performing cost-effective design solutions. This book not only teaches the students the basics of aberration theory but adds in the needed understanding of higher order aberrations for modern optical systems. The chapter on wavefront aberrations and Zernike polynomials has been greatly improved and follows a notation becoming a standard in the industry."
—Dr. Julie L. Bentley, University of Rochester, New York, USA

"This is a new edition of a book that has been used in the course of lens design by the authors for many years. So it covers many aspects of optics taking in the progress in the individual field. Also the authors are trying to make the students of the course changing the order of materials as well as adding new ones."
—Kyoji Nariai, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo

Praise for Previous Editions

"Many helpful references are given at the end of each chapter and the appendices, and these have been expanded from the first edition. … Overall, the changes made in this edition have enhanced the book's value as an important reference for the optics community."
Optics and Photonics News, Feb. 2006

"… the book makes liberal use of figures and diagrams, and covers both the basic principles of geometrical optics as well as their application to lens design. … this book is recommended for academic libraries with active programs in optical engineering, and certainly for libraries owning well-used copies of the first edition."
E-Streams, Vol. 7, No. 5, May 2004

"I found the book to be well presented and easy to read. … For those interested in optical systems, this is a useful book to have on hand."
The Physicist, Vol. 41, No. 2, March/April 2004

"Not only the basic theory is treated in this book, but many practical details for the design of important optical systems are given. … [A] book which is important and helpful and should not be missed in any optical laboratory."
Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Vol. 115, No. 10, 2004