586 Pages 32 Color & 393 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses.

    This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also discusses component selection, optimization, and integration for the development of effective optical apparatus. The authors analyze the performance of a wide range of optical materials, components, and systems, from simple magnifiers to complex lenses used in photography, ophthalmology, telescopes, microscopes, and projection systems. Throughout, the book includes a wealth of design examples, illustrations, and equations, most of which are derived from basic principles. Appendices supply additional background information.

    What’s New in This Edition

    • Improved figures, including 32 now in color
    • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field
    • New material on Buchdahl high-order aberrations
    • Expanded and improved coverage of the calculation of wavefront aberrations based on optical path
    • An updated list of optical materials in the appendix
    • A clearer, more detailed description of primary aberrations
    • References to important new publications
    • Optical system design examples updated to include newly available glasses
    • 25 new design examples

    This comprehensive book combines basic theory and practical details for the design of optical systems. It is an invaluable reference for optical students as well as scientists and engineers working with optical instrumentation.

    Geometrical Optics Principles
    Wave Nature of Light and Fermat’s Principle
    Reflection and Refraction Laws
    Basic Meridional Ray Tracing Equations
    Gaussian or First-Order Optics
    Image Formation
    Stop, Pupils, and Principal Ray
    Delano’s Relation
    Optical Sine Theorem
    Lagrange Invariant
    Herschel Invariant and Image Magnifications

    Thin Lenses and Spherical Mirrors
    Thin Lenses
    Formulas for Image Formation with Thin Lenses
    Nodal Points of A Thin Lens
    Image Formation with Converging Lenses
    Image Formation with Diverging Lenses

    Systems of Several Lenses and Thick Lenses
    Focal Length and Power of A Lens System
    Image Formation with Thick Lenses or Systems of Lenses
    Cardinal Points
    Image Formation with A Tilted or Curved Object
    Thick Lenses
    Systems of Thin Lenses
    The Lagrange Invariant in A System of Thin Lenses
    Effect of Object or Stop Shifting
    The Delano y − ȳ Diagram

    Chromatic Aberrations
    Introduction
    Axial Chromatic Aberration
    Conrady’s D – d Method of Achromatization
    Secondary Color Aberration
    Magnification Chromatic Aberration

    Spherical Aberration
    Spherical Aberration Calculation
    Primary Spherical Aberration
    Aspherical Surfaces
    Spherical Aberration of Aspherical Surfaces
    Surfaces without Spherical Aberration
    Aberration Polynomial for Spherical Aberration
    High-Order Spherical Aberration
    Spherical Aberration Correction with Gradient Index

    Monochromatic Off-Axis Aberrations
    Introduction
    Petzval Curvature
    Coma
    Astigmatism
    Aplanatic Surfaces
    Distortion
    Off-Axis Aberrations in Aspherical Surfaces
    The Symmetrical Principle and the Bow–Sutton Conditions
    Stop Shift Equations
    Aberrations of the Pupil

    Aberration Polynomials and High-Order Aberrations
    Wavefronts in an Optical System
    Ray Aberrations and Wavefront Aberrations
    Wavefront Aberration Polynomial
    Zernike Polynomials
    Fitting of Wavefront Deformations to A Polynomial
    Wavefront Representation by an Array of Gaussians
    Wavefront Aberrations in Refractive Surfaces
    Wavefront Aberrations in Reflective Surfaces
    Aldis Theorem

    Computer Evaluation of Optical Systems
    Transverse Aberration Polynomials
    Transverse Aberrations with H.H. Hopkins, Seidel, and Buchdahl Coefficients
    Meridional Ray Tracing and Stop Position Analysis
    Spot Diagram
    Wavefront Deformation
    Point and Line Spread Function
    Optical Transfer Function
    Tolerance to Aberrations

    Diffraction in Optical Systems
    Huygens–Fresnel Theory
    Fresnel Diffraction
    Fraunhofer Diffraction
    Diffraction Images with Aberrations
    Strehl Ratio
    Optical Transfer Function
    Resolution Criteria
    Gaussian Beams

    Prisms
    Tunnel Diagram
    Deflecting A Light Beam
    Transforming an Image
    Deflecting and Transforming Prisms
    Nondeflecting Transforming Prisms
    Beam-Splitting Prisms
    Chromatic Dispersing Prisms
    Nonimaging Prisms

    Basic Optical Systems and Simple Photographic Lenses
    Optical Systems Diversity
    Magnifiers and Single Imaging Lens
    Landscape Lenses
    Periscopic Lens
    Achromatic Landscape Lens
    Doublets
    Laser Light Collimators
    Spherical and Paraboloidal Mirrors
    Some Catoptric and Catadioptric Systems
    F-Theta Lenses
    Fresnel Lenses and Gabor Plates

    Complex Photographic Lenses
    Introduction
    Asymmetrical Systems
    Symmetrical Anastigmat Systems
    Varifocal and Zoom Lenses

    The Human Eye and Ophthalmic Lenses
    The Human Eye
    Ophthalmic Lenses
    Ophthalmic Lens Design
    Prismatic Lenses
    Spherocylindrical Lenses

    Astronomical Telescopes
    Resolution and Light-Gathering Power
    Reflecting Two-Mirror Cameras and Telescopes
    Catadioptric Cameras
    Astronomical Telescopes
    Field Correctors
    Multiple-Mirror Telescopes
    Active and Adaptive Optics

    Visual Systems and Afocal Systems
    Visual Optical Systems
    Basic Telescopic System
    Afocal Systems
    Visual And Terrestrial Telescopes
    Telescope Eyepieces
    Relays and Periscopes

    Microscopes
    Compound Microscope
    Microscope Objectives
    Microscope Eyepieces
    Microscope Illuminators

    Projection Systems
    Image Projectors
    Main Projector Components
    Coherence Effects in Projectors
    Anamorphic Projection
    Slide and Movie Projectors
    Overhead Projectors
    Profile Projectors
    Television Projectors
    LCD Computer and Home Theater Projectors

    Lens Design Optimization
    Basic Principles
    Optimization Methods
    Glatzel Adaptive Method
    Constrained Damped Least-Squares Optimization Method
    Merit Function and Boundary Conditions
    Modern Trends in Optical Design
    Flowchart for a Lens Optimization Program
    Practical Tips for the Use of Lens Evaluation Programs
    Some Commercial Lens Design Programs

    Appendices
    Appendix: Notation and Primary Aberration Coefficients Summary
    Appendix: Mathematical Representation of Optical Surfaces
    Appendix: Optical Materials
    Appendix: Exact Ray Tracing of Skew Rays
    Appendix: General Bibliography on Lens Design

    Index

    Chapters include references.

    Biography

    Daniel Malacara-Hernández is a professor and researcher at Centro de Investigaciones en Optica in Leon, Mexico.

    Zacarías Malacara-Hernández is a researcher at Centro de Investigaciones en Optica in Leon, Mexico.

    "An excellent update to an excellent book. A comprehensive handbook on optical design and geometrical optics that covers the basic theory as well as practical details."
    —James C. Wyant, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, USA

    "Even with modern 'easy-to-use' lens design software and global optimization, the understanding of aberration theory is essential to finding high-performing cost-effective design solutions. This book not only teaches the students the basics of aberration theory but adds in the needed understanding of higher order aberrations for modern optical systems. The chapter on wavefront aberrations and Zernike polynomials has been greatly improved and follows a notation becoming a standard in the industry."
    —Dr. Julie L. Bentley, University of Rochester, New York, USA

    "This is a new edition of a book that has been used in the course of lens design by the authors for many years. So it covers many aspects of optics taking in the progress in the individual field. Also the authors are trying to make the students of the course changing the order of materials as well as adding new ones."
    —Kyoji Nariai, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo

    Praise for Previous Editions

    "Many helpful references are given at the end of each chapter and the appendices, and these have been expanded from the first edition. … Overall, the changes made in this edition have enhanced the book's value as an important reference for the optics community."
    Optics and Photonics News, Feb. 2006

    "… the book makes liberal use of figures and diagrams, and covers both the basic principles of geometrical optics as well as their application to lens design. … this book is recommended for academic libraries with active programs in optical engineering, and certainly for libraries owning well-used copies of the first edition."
    E-Streams, Vol. 7, No. 5, May 2004

    "I found the book to be well presented and easy to read. … For those interested in optical systems, this is a useful book to have on hand."
    The Physicist, Vol. 41, No. 2, March/April 2004

    "Not only the basic theory is treated in this book, but many practical details for the design of important optical systems are given. … [A] book which is important and helpful and should not be missed in any optical laboratory."
    Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Vol. 115, No. 10, 2004