1st Edition

Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology

Edited By

Syed Rizvi

ISBN 9780824753740
Published April 7, 2005 by CRC Press
728 Pages 384 B/W Illustrations

USD $280.00

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Book Description

As the semiconductor industry attempts to increase the number of functions that will fit into the smallest space on a chip, it becomes increasingly important for new technologies to keep apace with these demands. Photomask technology is one of the key areas to achieving this goal. Although brief overviews of photomask technology exist in the literature, the Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology is the first in-depth, comprehensive treatment of existing and emerging photomask technologies available.

The Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology features contributions from 40 internationally prominent authors from industry, academia, government, national labs, and consortia. These authors discuss conventional masks and their supporting technologies, as well as next-generation, non-optical technologies such as extreme ultraviolet, electron projection, ion projection, and x-ray lithography. The book begins with an overview of the history of photomask development. It then demonstrates the steps involved in designing, producing, testing, inspecting, and repairing photomasks, following the sequences observed in actual production. The text also includes sections on materials used as well as modeling and simulation.

Continued refinements in the photomask-making process have ushered in the sub-wavelength era in nanolithography. This invaluable handbook synthesizes these refinements and provides the tools and possibilities necessary to reach the next generation of microfabrication technologies.

Table of Contents

Foreword by Yoshio Nishi
Preface, Syed Rizvi
Introduction to Mask Making
A.G. Zanzal
Data Preparation
P.J.M. van Adrichem and C.K. Kalus
Mask Writers: An Overview
S. Babin
E-Beam Mask Writers
N. Saitou
Laser Mask Writers
C. Rydberg
Optical masks: An Overview
N. Yoshioka
Conventional Optical Masks
S.A. Rizvi
Advanced Optical Masks
W. Maurer and F. Schellenberg
NGL Masks: An Overview
K.R. Kimmel and M. Lercel
Masks for Electron Beam Projection Lithography
H. Sano, S. Palmer, and M. Yamabe
Masks for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
P-Y. Yan
Masks for Ion Projection Lithography
S.A. Rizvi, F-M. Kamm, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and H. Loeschner
Mask for Proximity X-Ray Lithography
M. Oda and H. Yoshihara
Mask Substrate
S.A. Rizvi
Resists for Mask Making
B. Rathsack, D. Medeiros, and C.G. Wilson
Resist Charging and Heating
M. Bai, D. Chu, and F. Pease
Mask Processing
S.A. Rizvi
Mask Materials: Optical Properties
V. Liberman
T. Yen, C.B. Wang, and R. Heuser
Photomask Feature Metrology
J. Potzick
Optical Critical Dimension Metrology
R.J. Hoobler
Photomask Critical Dimension Metrology in the Scanning Electron Microscope
M.T. Postek
Geometrical Characterization of Mask Using SPM
S. Muckenhirn and A. Meyyappan
Metrology of Image Placement
M.T. Takac
Optical Thin Film Metrology for Photomask Applications
E. Apak
Phase Measurement Tool for PSM
H. Kusunose
Mask Inspection: Theories and Principle
A. Rosenbusch and S. Hemar
Tool for Inspecting Masks: Lasertec MD 2500
M. Yonezawa and T. Matsuyama
Tool for Mask Image Evaluation
A. Zibold
Mask Repairs
R. Lee
Modeling and Simulation
A. Erdmann

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". . . a stellar addition to this field . . . a must-have for every mask maker’s library . . . there is too much in this book that is absolutely fantastic."

– Dan Hutcheson, in Paper Details, March 2007