1st Edition

Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology

Edited By Syed Rizvi Copyright 2005
    728 Pages 384 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    As the semiconductor industry attempts to increase the number of functions that will fit into the smallest space on a chip, it becomes increasingly important for new technologies to keep apace with these demands. Photomask technology is one of the key areas to achieving this goal. Although brief overviews of photomask technology exist in the literature, the Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology is the first in-depth, comprehensive treatment of existing and emerging photomask technologies available.

    The Handbook of Photomask Manufacturing Technology features contributions from 40 internationally prominent authors from industry, academia, government, national labs, and consortia. These authors discuss conventional masks and their supporting technologies, as well as next-generation, non-optical technologies such as extreme ultraviolet, electron projection, ion projection, and x-ray lithography. The book begins with an overview of the history of photomask development. It then demonstrates the steps involved in designing, producing, testing, inspecting, and repairing photomasks, following the sequences observed in actual production. The text also includes sections on materials used as well as modeling and simulation.

    Continued refinements in the photomask-making process have ushered in the sub-wavelength era in nanolithography. This invaluable handbook synthesizes these refinements and provides the tools and possibilities necessary to reach the next generation of microfabrication technologies.

    Foreword by Yoshio Nishi
    Preface, Syed Rizvi
    Introduction to Mask Making
    A.G. Zanzal
    Data Preparation
    P.J.M. van Adrichem and C.K. Kalus
    Mask Writers: An Overview
    S. Babin
    E-Beam Mask Writers
    N. Saitou
    Laser Mask Writers
    C. Rydberg
    Optical masks: An Overview
    N. Yoshioka
    Conventional Optical Masks
    S.A. Rizvi
    Advanced Optical Masks
    W. Maurer and F. Schellenberg
    NGL Masks: An Overview
    K.R. Kimmel and M. Lercel
    Masks for Electron Beam Projection Lithography
    H. Sano, S. Palmer, and M. Yamabe
    Masks for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
    P-Y. Yan
    Masks for Ion Projection Lithography
    S.A. Rizvi, F-M. Kamm, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and H. Loeschner
    Mask for Proximity X-Ray Lithography
    M. Oda and H. Yoshihara
    Mask Substrate
    S.A. Rizvi
    Resists for Mask Making
    B. Rathsack, D. Medeiros, and C.G. Wilson
    Resist Charging and Heating
    M. Bai, D. Chu, and F. Pease
    Mask Processing
    S.A. Rizvi
    Mask Materials: Optical Properties
    V. Liberman
    T. Yen, C.B. Wang, and R. Heuser
    Photomask Feature Metrology
    J. Potzick
    Optical Critical Dimension Metrology
    R.J. Hoobler
    Photomask Critical Dimension Metrology in the Scanning Electron Microscope
    M.T. Postek
    Geometrical Characterization of Mask Using SPM
    S. Muckenhirn and A. Meyyappan
    Metrology of Image Placement
    M.T. Takac
    Optical Thin Film Metrology for Photomask Applications
    E. Apak
    Phase Measurement Tool for PSM
    H. Kusunose
    Mask Inspection: Theories and Principle
    A. Rosenbusch and S. Hemar
    Tool for Inspecting Masks: Lasertec MD 2500
    M. Yonezawa and T. Matsuyama
    Tool for Mask Image Evaluation
    A. Zibold
    Mask Repairs
    R. Lee
    Modeling and Simulation
    A. Erdmann

    ". . . a stellar addition to this field . . . a must-have for every mask maker’s library . . . there is too much in this book that is absolutely fantastic."

    – Dan Hutcheson, in Paper Details, March 2007