1st Edition

Handbook of Response to Intervention and Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

Edited By Paige C. Pullen, Michael J. Kennedy Copyright 2019
    378 Pages
    by Routledge

    378 Pages
    by Routledge

    Of the many issues facing special education (and general education) today, it is difficult to imagine one more important or timely than response to intervention (RTI). Almost overnight RTI has become standard practice across the nation. Unfortunately, RTI remains ill-defined, falls far short of its evidence-based practice goal, is almost invariably misused, and often results in more harm than good. Nevertheless, as a conceptual framework RTI has great potential for ensuring that students with disabilities receive appropriate, evidence-based instruction.

    The mission of this handbook is to present a comprehensive and integrated discussion of response to intervention (RTI) and its relation to multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) in both special education and general education. Although the two terms are currently used interchangeably, distinct differences exist between them. Therefore, chapters are dedicated to distinguishing the two concepts—RTI and MTSS—and describing each one’s unique role in both general and special education. In addition, the authors recommend a third term, Multi-Tiered Instruction, to differentiate the practices related to the purpose of the specific intervention.


    [Daniel P. Hallahan]

    Section I: Trends and Issues in RTI and MTSS

    Introduction to Section I

    [Paige C. Pullen]

    1. Response to Intervention and Multi-Tiered Systems of Support: How Do They Differ and How Are They the Same, If at All

    [Paige C. Pullen, Wilhelmina van Dijk, Vivian E. Gonsalves, Holly B. Lane and Kristen E. Ashworth]

    2. RTI: Controversies and Solutions

    [James M. Kauffman, Jeanmarie Badar, and Andrew L. Wiley]

    3. Response to Intervention, Multi-Tiered Systems of Support, and Federal Law: Analysis and Commentary

    [Mitchell L. Yell]

    4. Politics and Science in the RTI Time: On the Classification and Identification of Learning Disabilities

    [Dimitris Anastasiou]

    5. Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (Ci3T) Models of Prevention: The Role of Systematic Screening to Inform Instruction

    [Kathleen Lynne Lane, Wendy Peia Oakes, and Holly Mariah Menzies]

    Section II: Roles and Responsibilities in the RTI Process

    Introduction to Section II

    [Erica S. Lembke]

    6. Problem Solving within an RTI framework: Roles and Functions of Effective Teams

    [Wendy M. Reinke, Wesley Sims, Daniel Cohen, and Keith C. Herman]

    7. Leadership and Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    [Bonnie Billingsley, James McLeskey, and Jean Crockett]

    8. Preparing General and Special Education Preservice Teachers for Response to Intervention: A Practice-Based Approach

    [Mary T. Brownell, David Chard, Amber Benedict, and Ben Lignugaris/Kraft]

    9. Parent and Student Involvement in Response to Intervention Models

    [Sarah Conoyer, Erica S. Lembke, Sarah Owens, Daniel Cohen, and Heather M. Campbell]

    Section III: RTI/MTSS in Elementary Grades

    Introduction to Section III

    [Jeanne Wanzek]

    10. Progress Monitoring in the Elementary Grades

    [Nathan H. Clemens, Oscar Widales-Benitez, Jade Kestian, Corey Peltier, Ana D’Abreu, Ahmarlay Myint, and Joshua Marbach]

    11. Combining Reading Comprehension Instruction with Cognitive Training to Provide Intensive Intervention to At-Risk Students

    [Douglas Fuchs, Samuel Patton III, Lynn S. Fuchs, Jennifer Gilbert, Meagan Walsh, Nicole Lute, Loulee Yen Haga, Peng Peng, and Amy Elleman]

    12. Evidence-Based Writing Intervention: Three Tiers of Instruction for Elementary Students

    [Linda H. Mason, Nancy Mamlin, and Kalin Stewart]

    13. Supporting the Mathematics Learning of Elementary Students Within a Multi-level Framework

    [Sarah R. Powell, Sarah A. Benz, and Suzanne R. Forsyth]

    14. Building a Growth Mindset within Data-Based Individualization: A Case Study of Two Students with Reading Disabilities Learning to Learn

    [Stephanie Al Otaiba, Francesca Jones, Dawn Levy, Brenna Rivas and Jeanne Wanzek]

    Section IV: RtI/MTSS in Secondary Grades

    Introduction to Section IV

    [Michael J. Kennedy]

    15. Effects from Secondary Interventions and Approaches for the Prevention and Remediation of Mathematics Difficulties: Multi-tiered Response-to-Intervention Instructional Models

    [Asha K. Jitendra and Jennifer Krawec]

    16. Curriculum-Based Measurement for Secondary-School Students

    [Christine Espin, Siuman Chung, Anne Foegen, and Heather Campbell]

    17. Schoolwide PBIS in High Schools

    [K. B. Flannery, C. Pinkney, M. McGrath Kato, and J. Swain-Bradway]

    18. RTI in Secondary Schools: Current Issues and Recommendations

    [Kelly J. Williams, Elizabeth Stevens, and Sharon Vaughn]



    Paige C. Pullen is a Research Professor and Literacy Initiatives Officer at the University of Florida with faculty appointments in the Lastinger Center for Learning and the School of Special Education, School Psychology, and Early Childhood Studies.

    Michael J. Kennedy is an Associate Professor of special education in the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia and Co-Editor of the Journal of Special Education Technology.

    ‘This handbook is a must read for all who want to increase their knowledge of school-based prevention and intervention. By including contributions from an impressive array of leading experts, this book is timely, balanced, and comprehensive. It will appeal to both educational and psychological professionals, and it also serves as an excellent resource for training practitioners. This is the book that we’ve been waiting for—a book that provides up-to-date knowledge on how to help and support and all children in schools.’

    —Michael L. Sulkowski, Associate Professor, School Psychology Program, University of Arizona

    ‘Implementing Response to Intervention or Multi-Tiered Systems of Support to meet the needs of the full range of children in schools is a major challenge for schools today. All readers, regardless of their professional training will find this book very useful. The authors write clearly and comprehensively about the full range of best practices and policy matters. As a text, this book is equally suited for education, special education, and school psychology courses.’

    —J. Ron Nelson, Larry & Sharon Roos Family Professor Of Special Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln