High Performance Embedded Computing Handbook: A Systems Perspective, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

High Performance Embedded Computing Handbook

A Systems Perspective, 1st Edition

Edited by David R. Martinez, Robert A. Bond, M. Michael Vai

CRC Press

600 pages | 8 Color Illus. | 362 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-06-20
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Over the past several decades, applications permeated by advances in digital signal processing have undergone unprecedented growth in capabilities. The editors and authors of High Performance Embedded Computing Handbook: A Systems Perspective have been significant contributors to this field, and the principles and techniques presented in the handbook are reinforced by examples drawn from their work.

The chapters cover system components found in today’s HPEC systems by addressing design trade-offs, implementation options, and techniques of the trade, then solidifying the concepts with specific HPEC system examples. This approach provides a more valuable learning tool, Because readers learn about these subject areas through factual implementation cases drawn from the contributing authors’ own experiences.

Discussions include:

  • Key subsystems and components
  • Computational characteristics of high performance embedded algorithms and applications
  • Front-end real-time processor technologies such as analog-to-digital conversion, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays, and intellectual property–based design
  • Programmable HPEC systems technology, including interconnection fabrics, parallel and distributed processing, performance metrics and software architecture, and automatic code parallelization and optimization
  • Examples of complex HPEC systems representative of actual prototype developments
  • Application examples, including radar, communications, electro-optical, and sonar applications

The handbook is organized around a canonical framework that helps readers navigate through the chapters, and it concludes with a discussion of future trends in HPEC systems. The material is covered at a level suitable for practicing engineers and HPEC computational practitioners and is easily adaptable to their own implementation requirements.

Table of Contents


A Retrospective on High Performance Embedded Computing

D.R. Martinez

HPEC Hardware Systems and Software Technologies

HPEC Multiprocessor System

Representative Example of a High Performance Embedded Computing System

D.R. Martinez

System Complexity

Implementation Techniques

Software Complexity and System Integration

System Architecture of a Multiprocessor System

D.R. Martinez

A Generic Multiprocessor System

A High Performance Hardware System

Custom VLSI Implementation: Custom VLSI Hardware

A High Performance COTS Programmable Signal Processor

High Performance Embedded Computers: Development Process and

Management Perspectives

D.R. Martinez

Development Process

Case Study: Airborne Radar HPEC System: Programmable Signal Processor Development; Software Estimation, Monitoring, and Configuration Control; PSP Software Integration, Optimization, and Verification


Computational Nature of High Performance

Embedded Systems

Computational Characteristics of High Performance Embedded Algorithms and Applications

M. Arakawa and R.A. Bond

General Computational Characteristics of HPEC

Complexity of HPEC Algorithms

Parallelism in HPEC Algorithms and Architectures

Future Trends

Radar Signal Processing: An Example of High Performance Embedded Computing

R.A. Bond and A.I. Reuther

A Canonical HPEC Radar Algorithm: Subband Analysis and Synthesis; Adaptive Beamforming; Pulse Compression; Doppler Filtering; Space-Time Adaptive Processing; Subband Synthesis Revisited; CFAR Detection

Example Architecture of the Front-End Processor: A Discussion of the Back-End Processing

Front-End Real-Time Processor Technologies

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

J.C. Anderson and H.H. Kim

Conceptual ADC Operation

Static Metrics:Offset Error; Gain Error; Differential Nonlinearity; Integral Nonlinearity

Dynamic Metrics: Resolution; Monotonicity; Equivalent Input-Referred Noise (Thermal Noise); Quantization Error; Ratio of Signal to Noise and Distortion; Effective Number of Bits; Spurious-Free Dynamic Range; Dither; Aperture Uncertainty

System-Level Performance Trends and Limitations: Trends in Resolution; Trends in Effective Number of Bits; Trends in Spurious-Free Dynamic Range; Trends in Power Consumption; ADC Impact on Processing Gain

High-Speed ADC Design: Flash ADC; Architectural Techniques for Power Saving; Pipeline ADC

Power Dissipation Issues in High-Speed ADCs

Implementation Approaches of Front-End Processors

M.M. Vai and H.T. Nguyen

Front-End Processor Design Methodology

Front-End Signal Processing Technologies: Full-Custom ASIC; Synthesized ASIC; FPGA Technology;

Structured ASIC

Intellectual Property

Development Cost

Design Space

Design Case Studies: Channelized Adaptive Beamformer Processor; Radar Pulse Compression Processor;

Co-design Benefits

Application-Specific Integrated Circuits

M.M. Vai, W.S. Song, and B.M. Tyrell

Integrated Circuit Technology Evolution

CMOS Technology: MOSFET

CMOS Logic Structures: Static Logic; Dynamic CMOS Logic

Integrated Circuit Fabrication

Performance Metrics: Speed; Power Dissipation

Design Methodology: Full-Custom Physical Design; Synthesis Process; Physical Verification;

Simulation; Design for Manufacturability


Testing: Fault Models; Test Generation for Stuck-at Faults; Design for Testability; Built-in Self-Test

Case Study

Field Programmable Gate Arrays


FPGA Structures: Basic Structures Found in FPGAs

Modern FPGA Architectures: Embedded Blocks; Future Directions

Commercial FPGA Boards and Systems

Languages and Tools for Programming FPGAs: Hardware Description Languages; High-Level Languages; Library-Based Solutions

Case Study: Radar Processing on an FPGA: Project Description; Parallelism: Fine-Grained versus Coarse-Grained; Data Organization; Experimental Results

Challenges to High Performance With FPGA Architectures: Data: Movement and Organization; Design Trade-offs

Intellectual Property-Based Design

W. Wolf

Classes of Intellectual Property

Sources of Intellectual Property

Licenses for Intellectual Property

CPU Cores


I/O Devices


Operating Systems

Software Libraries and Middleware

IP-Based Design Methodologies

Standards-Based Design

Systolic Array Processors

M.M. Vai, H.T. Nguyen, P.A. Jackson, and W.S. Song

Beamforming Processor Design

Systolic Array Design Approach

Design Examples: QR Decomposition Processor; Real-Time FFT Processor; Bit-Level Systolic Array Methodology

Programmable High Performance Embedded

Computing Systems

Computing Devices

K. Teitelbaum

Common Metrics: Assessing the Required Computation Rate; Quantifying the Performance of COTS Computing Devices

Current COTS Computing Devices in Embedded Systems: General-Purpose Microprocessors:

Word Length, Vector Processing Units, Power Consumption versus Performance, Memory Hierarchy, Some Benchmark Results, Input/Output, Digital Signal Processors; Future Trends: Technology Projections and Extrapolating Current Architectures; Advanced Architectures and the Exploitation of Moore’s Law: Multiple-Core Processors, The IBM Cell Broadband Engine, SIMD Processor Arrays, DARPA Polymorphic Computing Architectures, Graphical Processing Units as Numerical Co-processors, FPGA-Based Co-processors

Interconnection Fabrics

K. Teitelbaum

Introduction: Anatomy of a Typical Interconnection Fabric; Network Topology and Bisection Bandwidth;

Total Exchange; Parallel Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform—A Simple Example

Crossbar Tree Networks: Network Formulas; Scalability of Network Bisection Width; Units of Replication;

Pruning Crossbar Tree Networks

VXS: A Commercial Example: Link Essentials; VXS-Supported Topologies

Performance Metrics and Software Architecture

J. Kepner, T. Meuse, and G.E. Schrader

Synthetic Aperture Radar Example Application: Operating Modes; Computational Workload

Degrees of Parallelism: Parallel Performance Metrics (no communication); Parallel Performance Metrics (with communication); Amdahl’s Law

Standard Programmable Multi-Computer: Network Model

Parallel Programming Models and Their Impact: High-Level Programming Environment with Global Arrays

System Metrics: Performance; Form Factor; Efficiency; Software Cost

Appendices: A Synthetic Aperture Radar Algorithm: Scalable Data Generator; Stage 1: Front-End Sensor Processing; Stage 2: Back-End Knowledge Formation

Programming Languages

J.M. Lebak

Principles of Programming Embedded Signal Processing Systems

Evolution of Programming Languages

Features of Third-Generation Programming Languages: Object-Oriented Programming; Exception Handling; Generic Programming

Use of Specific Languages in High Performance Embedded Computing:

C; Fortran; Ada; C++; Java

Future Development of Programming Languages

Summary: Features of Current Programming Languages

Portable Software Technology

J.M. Lebak

Libraries: Distributed and Parallel Programming; Surveying the State of Portable Software Technology:

Portable Math Libraries, Portable Performance Using Math Libraries; Parallel and Distributed Libraries; Example: Expression Template Use in the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Parallel

Vector Library

Parallel and Distributed Processing

A. I. Reuther and H. G. Kim

Parallel Programming Models: Threads: Pthreads, OpenMP; Message Passing: Parallel Virtual Machine, Message Passing Interface; Partitioned Global Address Space: Unified Parallel C, VSIPL++; Applications: Fast Fourier Transform, Synthetic Aperture Radar

Distributed Computing Models: Client-Server: SOAP, Java Remote Method Invocation, Common Object Request Broker Architecture; Data Driven: Java Messaging Service, Data Distribution Service; Applications: Radar Open Systems Architecture, Integrated Sensing and Decision Support

Automatic Code Parallelization and Optimization

N.T. Bliss

Instruction-Level Parallelism versus Explicit-Program Parallelism

Automatic Parallelization Approaches: A Taxonomy

Maps and Map Independence

Local Optimization in an Automatically Tuned Library

Compiler and Language Approach

Dynamic Code Analysis in a Middleware System

High Performance Embedded Computing

Application Examples

Radar Applications

K. Teitelbaum

Basic Radar Concepts:Pulse-Doppler Radar Operation; Multichannel Pulse-Doppler; Adaptive Beamforming; Space-Time Adaptive Processing

Mapping Radar Algorithms onto HPEC Architectures: Round-Robin Partitioning; Functional Pipelining; Coarse-Grain Data-Parallel Partitioning; Fine-Grain Data-Parallel Partitioning

Implementation Examples: Radar Surveillance Processor; Adaptive Processor (Generation 1); Adaptive Processor (Generation 2); KASSPER

A Sonar Application

W.R. Bernecky

Sonar Problem Description

Designing an Embedded Sonar System: The Sonar Processing Thread; Prototype Development; Computational Requirements; Parallelism; Implementing the Real-Time System; Verify Real-Time Performance; Verify Correct Output

An Example Development: System Attributes; Sonar Processing Thread Computational Requirements; Sensor Data Collection; Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform; Covariance Matrix Formation;

Covariance Matrix Inversion; Adaptive Beamforming; Broadband Formation; Normalization; Detection; Display Preparation and Operator Controls; Summary of Computational Requirements; Parallelism

Hardware Architecture

Software Considerations

Embedded Sonar Systems of the Future References

Communications Applications

J.I. Goodman and T.G. Macdonald

Communications Application Challenges

Communications Signal Processing, Transmitter Signal Processing; Transmitter Processing Requirements; Receiver Signal Processing; Receiver Processing Requirements

Development of a Real-Time Electro-Optical Reconnaissance System

R.A. Coury

Aerial Surveillance Background

Methodology: Performance Modeling; Feature Tracking and Optic Flow; Three-Dimensional Site Model Generation; Challenges; Camera Model; Distortion

System Design Considerations: Altitude; Sensor; GPS/IMU; Processing and Storage; Communications; Cost; Test Platform

Transition to Target Platform: Payload; GPS/IMU; Sensor; Processing; Communications and Storage; Altitude

Future Trends

Application and HPEC System Trends

D.R. Martinez

Introduction: Sensor Node Architecture Trends

Hardware Trends

Software Trends

Distributed Net-Centric Architecture

A Review on Probabilistic CMOS (PCMOS) Technology: From Device

Characteristics to Ultra-Low-Energy SOC Architectures

K.V. Palem, L.N. Chakrapani, B.E.S. Akgul, and P. Korkmaz

Characterizing the Behavior of a PCMOS Switch: Inverter Realization of a Probabilistic Switch;

Analytical Model and the Three Laws of a PCMOS Inverter; Realizing a Probabilistic Inverter with Limited Available Noise

Realizing PCMOS-Based Low-Energy Architectures: Metrics for Evaluating PCMOS-Based Architectures; Experimental Methodology; Metrics for Analysis of PCMOS-Based Implementations; Hyperencryption Application and PCMOS-Based Implementation; Results and Analysis; PCMOS-Based Architectures for Error-Tolerant Applications

Advanced Microprocessor Architectures

J. McMahon, S. Crago, and D. Yeung

Background: Established Instruction-Level Parallelism Techniques; Parallel Architectures

Motivation for New Architectures: Limitations of Conventional Microprocessors

Current Research Microprocessors: Instruction-Level Parallelism: Tile-Based Organization; Explicit Parallelism Model; Scalable On-Chip Networks; Data-Level Parallelism: SIMD Architectures; Vector Architectures; Streaming Architectures; Thread-Level Parallelism: Multithreading and Granularity;

Multilevel Memory; Speculative Execution

Real-Time Embedded Applications: Scalability; Input/Output Bandwidth; Programming Models and Algorithm Mapping

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations


About the Originator

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General