Human Factors in Lighting  book cover
3rd Edition

Human Factors in Lighting

ISBN 9781439874882
Published April 7, 2014 by CRC Press
704 Pages 255 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The availability of electric lighting has changed the lives of people the world over, yet as a major user of electricity it has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. This scrutiny has focused largely on the environmental consequences, with little consideration of the benefits of lighting. Human Factors in Lighting, Third Edition restores some balance to the discussion by examining the ways in which people interact with lighting. These interactions influence the ability to perform visual tasks; the perception of people, objects, and spaces; human comfort and behavior; as well as human health and safety. It is only by understanding how to use light to achieve these ends that lighting can be provided effectively and efficiently to the benefit of all.

See What’s New in the Third Edition:

  • New chapters on the non-image-forming system, lighting for pedestrians, light pollution, and lighting and electricity use
  • Revision of all other chapters to update them to take into account the advances that have been made in our understanding of the effects of light on people over the last decade
  • Integration of the combined effects of light via the visual and non-image-forming systems on performance and perception

The book covers both the visual and the non-visual effects of light on people as well as the benefits of lighting and the costs it imposes on the environment. It details the consequences of exposure to lighting or lighting technology and the role of exposure to light on such basic functions of the body as circadian rhythms. The author combines information from many different sources and integrates them into a coherent overview of lighting practice that can be used to develop better lighting solutions at a lower environmental cost.

Table of Contents

Light and Radiation
CIE Standard Observers
Photometric Quantities
Some Limitations
Colorimetric Quantities
Sources of Light
Control of Light Distribution
Control of Light Output

Visual System
Structure of the Visual System
Continuous Adjustments of the Visual System
Capabilities of the Visual System
Perception through the Visual System

Non-Image-Forming System
Some Physiology
Circadian Timing System
Characteristics of the Circadian Timing System
Awakening System
Pupil Size
Problems and Potential

Lighting and Work

Light, Work, and the Visual System
Light, Work, and the Non-Image-Forming System
Light, Work, Mood, and Motivation

Lighting and Visual Discomfort

Characteristics of Visual Discomfort
General Causes of Visual Discomfort
Specific Causes of Visual Discomfort
Discomfort, Performance, and Behaviour
Visual Discomfort and Lighting Quality

Lighting and the Perception of Spaces and Objects
Simple Perceptions
Higher-Order Perceptions
Perception of Objects

Lighting for Offices
Light Sources for Office Lighting
Lighting Systems
Lighting Controls

Lighting for Industry

Problems Facing Lighting in Industry
General Lighting
Localized and Task Lighting
Visual Inspection
Special Situations

Escape Lighting
Escape Lighting in Context
Operating Conditions
Exit Signs
Escape Route Lighting
Special Situations
Escape Lighting in Practice

Lighting for Driving
Vehicle Forward Lighting
Vehicle Signal Lighting
Road Lighting
Markings, Signs, and Traffic Signals

Lighting for Pedestrians

What Pedestrians Want from Lighting
Lighting Criteria
Lighting for Safe Movement
Lighting for Security
Lighting, Comfort, and Attraction
Completing the Picture

Lighting and Crime
Some History
Lighting as a Crime Prevention Measure
The Reason Why
Essential Characteristics of Lighting
Special Situations
Generalization and Value

Lighting for the Elderly

Optical Changes with Age
Neural Changes with Age
Vision Loss
Effects of Age on Visual Capabilities
Effects of Age on Real Visual Tasks
Effects of Age on the Circadian Timing System
What Can Be Done to Offset the Effects of Age?

Light and Health
Light as Radiation
Light Operating through the Visual System
Light Operating through the Circadian Timing System
Unresolved Issues

Light Pollution
Forms of Light Pollution
Causes of Light Pollution
Consequences of Light Pollution
Reactions to Light Pollution
Limiting Light Pollution
The Future

Lighting and Electricity Consumption
Legal Status
Trends in Lighting Regulation
Trends in Lighting Recommendations
Load Shedding

The Way Ahead
Problems with New Technology
Problems with New Knowledge
Problems with Increased Pressure
Research Approaches
New Tools
Evaluating Research

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"The broad scope of the book is impressive. … If you have an interest in research of lighting, vision or visual psychology, in lighting design, or in ergonomics, this book is certain to contain new and interesting ideas."
—Professor Steve Fotios, University of Sheffield

"The third edition is the best yet from Dr. Boyce. It is comprehensive, penetrating and fair in the discussion of topics, and provides the reader with an engaging narrative that facilitates a sophisticated understanding of the impact of lighting on people. The depth and breadth of Dr. Boyce’s mastery of the subject is revealed, and his writing style makes the wide range of topics highly accessible to anyone interested in Human Factors in Lighting."
—Mark S. Rea, PhD, Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.

"… I will open the book numerous times in my classes and my laboratory with my students in the coming ten years. While reading this book I feel like I am sitting in the class of human factors in lighting taught by Professor Peter Boyce. I believe Dr. Peter Boyce wrote this book with all his heart."
—Yukio Akashi, University of Fukui

"This is a really excellent textbook and continues in a modern form the paths laid by M. Luckiesh, H.C. Weston, and R.G. Hopkinson. It expounds not only the science of the subject but also the relevance to lighting practice. The style is succinct and lucid throughout, but moreover, the author communicates with the reader in that he rounds off descriptions of experimental studies with a conclusion about the implications of the work, and a summary of the main arguments is provided at the end of every chapters. This is a very readable book as well as being a unique and comprehensive source of reference. It is a vital volume, which should be possessed by everyone in the lighting profession."
—Lighting Reseach & Technology, Vol. 36., no. 1, 2004