Hydraulic Fracturing effectively busts the myths associated with hydraulic fracturing. It explains how to properly engineer and optimize a hydraulically fractured well by selecting the right materials, evaluating the economic benefits of the project, and ensuring the safety and success of the people, environment, and equipment. From data estimation to design, operation, and performance management, the text presents a logical, step-by-step process for hydraulic fracturing that aids in proper engineering decision making when stimulating a particular reservoir. Numerous problem sets reinforce the learning and aid in risk assessment. Additional material is available from the CRC Press website.
Table of Contents
History, Introduction, and How a Treatment Is Conducted
Modern Treatment Design Process
Definitions and Simple Geometry Models
What Is Fracturing?
Treatment Design Variables
Design Parameters: Fracture Height
Design Parameters: Modulus (E)
Design Parameters: Fluid Loss ("C" and Spurt)
In Situ Stress Direction
In Situ Stress Differences
In Situ Stress Measurement
Fracture Length or Conductivity?
Equivalent Wellbore Radius
Folds of Increase
Perfect Support Fluids
Tip Screen-Out Fracturing
Time-Temperature Fluid History
Unexpected Design Flaws or "Gotchas"
Frac Pressure Analysis
Similarity to Pressure Transient Analysis
Treating Pressure (PNet) Analysis
Analysis for Reservoir Parameters (After-Closure Analysis)
Application and Examples
QLoss: Fluid Loss Rate
"G" Function Plot for ΔP*
Engineering the Fluid
Types of Fracturing Fluids
Characterization of Fracturing Fluids
Proppant Fall Rates
Viscosity and Fracture-Treating Pressure
Fracturing Fluid Components
Clay Control Agents
History of Proppant
Proppant Conductivity Corrections
Proppant Size and Placement
Selecting Acid Fluids
Carbonate Acid Chemistry
Acid Reaction Rate
Reaction Rate Laboratory Testing
Acid Mass Transport
Natural Fracture Fluid Loss
Special Topics: Shale/Horizontal Well Fracturing, Frac Packing, and Waste Disposal
Shale/Horizontal Well Fracturing
Frac Packing (Fracturing in Sand Control Environments)
Using Hydraulic Fracturing for Waste Disposal
Wellbore Breakdown Calculations
Elastic Analysis for an Open Hole
Tensile Failure Mechanism
Qualifying Source Water
Acid Quality Checks
Quality Control of Proppants
During the Job
Back in the Office
Quality Control and Testing of Water-Based Fracturing Fluids
Friction Reducers/Slick Water
Friction Reduces Stability and Water Compatibility
Quality Control and Testing of Oil-Based Fluids
Qualifying Base Oil
Gelled Oil Systems
Generic Procedures/Guidelines for a Step-Rate Test/Step-Down Test
Step-Rate Test (Used to Measure Fracture Extension Pressure)
Step-Down Test (Used to Measure Friction vs. Pump Rate)
Hydraulic Fracture Design Data Needs
Reservoir Fluid Data
Future Production Conditions
Glossary and Terms
Data Needs/Data Sources
Prue #1—Suggested Solution
Janie Bea: Shallow Gas Zone
CCCruz #1 Wilcox Low-Permeability Gas Well
Michael Berry Smith holds a Ph.D in rock mechanics from Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA, and has more than 30 years of experience in rock mechanics, well completions, and hydraulic fracturing. While with Amoco Production Company, Dr. Smith co-developed the framework for fracturing pressure analysis, which revolutionized the fracturing technology. He has been a consultant worldwide, served several times as a distinguished lecturer at the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), authored multiple chapters in the SPE monograph Recent Advances In Hydraulic Fracturing, and developed and presented SPE short courses on fracturing pressure analysis. Recently, he was presented with the SPE Lester C. Uren Award for his contributions to hydraulic fracturing technology.
Carl T. Montgomery is recognized within the industry as one of the leaders in all areas of stimulation, including hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, matrix stimulation, cavity completions, waste/cuttings injection, rock mechanics, and scale prevention/removal. In addition, he has considerable experience in cementing, sand management, conformance control, perforating strategy, and formation damage. Formerly, he was with ConocoPhillips, Arco, and Dowell Schlumberger. He also served as a special member of the petroleum engineering graduate faculty at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA, and received the 2007 SPE Drilling and Completions Award.
"Hydraulic fracturing is becoming more and more prevalent in connection with the development of unconventional resources all over the world. Understanding the mechanisms associated with this type of completion method and [possessing] knowledge related to state-of-the-art, full 3D fracturing design modeling tools are mandatory for this industry. Unfortunately, the stimulation industry still relies on simplistic and plain wrong modeling and, hence, this book can make a difference. … It represents an update on fracturing technology."
—Arthur Bale, Statoil, Bergen, Norway
"This book definitely fills an important role of providing practical hydraulic fracturing field experience. The authors clearly explain the sometimes deviations from theoretical predictions. In addition, chapter 15 contains exceptional discussions on shale stimulations and horizontal completions."
—Jean-Claude Roegiers, Professor Emeritus, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA
"…definitely a book that all young fracture engineers should have at their side. The book is very well laid out and can be used as a workflow for designing fracture treatments. Its practical writing style makes it easy to understand and comments within the text on potential problem areas are an invaluable source of knowledge."
—Kirk Bartko, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran
"... presents a logical, step-by-step process, ... effectively busting the myths associated with hydraulic fracturing."
—SirReadalot.org, October 21, 2015