Hydraulic Fracturing: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Hydraulic Fracturing

1st Edition

By Michael Berry Smith, Carl Montgomery

CRC Press

812 pages | 510 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466566859
pub: 2015-06-09
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Description

Hydraulic Fracturing effectively busts the myths associated with hydraulic fracturing. It explains how to properly engineer and optimize a hydraulically fractured well by selecting the right materials, evaluating the economic benefits of the project, and ensuring the safety and success of the people, environment, and equipment. From data estimation to design, operation, and performance management, the text presents a logical, step-by-step process for hydraulic fracturing that aids in proper engineering decision making when stimulating a particular reservoir. Numerous problem sets reinforce the learning and aid in risk assessment. Additional material is available from the CRC Press website.

Reviews

"Hydraulic fracturing is becoming more and more prevalent in connection with the development of unconventional resources all over the world. Understanding the mechanisms associated with this type of completion method and [possessing] knowledge related to state-of-the-art, full 3D fracturing design modeling tools are mandatory for this industry. Unfortunately, the stimulation industry still relies on simplistic and plain wrong modeling and, hence, this book can make a difference. … It represents an update on fracturing technology."

—Arthur Bale, Statoil, Bergen, Norway

"This book definitely fills an important role of providing practical hydraulic fracturing field experience. The authors clearly explain the sometimes deviations from theoretical predictions. In addition, chapter 15 contains exceptional discussions on shale stimulations and horizontal completions."

—Jean-Claude Roegiers, Professor Emeritus, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA

"…definitely a book that all young fracture engineers should have at their side. The book is very well laid out and can be used as a workflow for designing fracture treatments. Its practical writing style makes it easy to understand and comments within the text on potential problem areas are an invaluable source of knowledge."

—Kirk Bartko, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran

"… presents a logical, step-by-step process, … effectively busting the myths associated with hydraulic fracturing."

SirReadalot.org, October 21, 2015

Table of Contents

History, Introduction, and How a Treatment Is Conducted

Introduction

Fracture Geometry

Fracturing Fluids

Proppants

Treatment Design

Modern Treatment Design Process

Additional Comments

References

Definitions and Simple Geometry Models

Introduction

What Is Fracturing?

Why Fracture?

Treatment Design Variables

References

Design Variables

Design Parameters: Fracture Height

Design Parameters: Modulus (E)

Design Parameters: Fluid Loss ("C" and Spurt)

References

Rock Stresses

Introduction

History

Vertical Stress

Horizontal Stress

In Situ Stress Direction

In Situ Stress Differences

In Situ Stress Measurement

Proppant Stress

Wellbore Breakdown

References

Petrophysics

Depth

Primary Logs

References

Post-Frac Performance

Fracture Length or Conductivity?

Equivalent Wellbore Radius

Folds of Increase

Acid

Transient Flow

References

Treatment Scheduling

Introduction

Perfect Support Fluids

Banking Fluids

Tip Screen-Out Fracturing

Time-Temperature Fluid History

Unexpected Design Flaws or "Gotchas"

References

Additional References

Frac Pressure Analysis

History

Similarity to Pressure Transient Analysis

Closure Pressure

Treating Pressure (PNet) Analysis

PDL Analysis

Analysis for Reservoir Parameters (After-Closure Analysis)

Acknowledgment

Application and Examples

Low Permeability

Moderate/High Permeability

"G" Function

QLoss: Fluid Loss Rate

Fracture Stiffness

"G" Function

"G" Function Plot for ΔP*

References

Additional References

Engineering the Fluid

Introduction

History

Types of Fracturing Fluids

Characterization of Fracturing Fluids

Proppant Fall Rates

Viscosity and Fracture-Treating Pressure

References

Additional References

Fracturing Fluid Components

Water

Clay Control Agents

Friction Reducers

Gelling Agents

Oil-Based Fluids

Breakers

Viscosity Stabilizers

Buffers

Surfactants/Mutual Solvents

Biocides/Bactericides

References

Additional References

Proppants

Introduction

History of Proppant

Conductivity

Proppant Conductivity Corrections

Proppant Size and Placement

Proppant Concentration

References

Additional References

Perforating

Introduction

Completion Strategies

References

Additional References

Acid Fracturing

Introduction

Selecting Acid Fluids

Treatment Techniques

Carbonate Acid Chemistry

Acid Reaction Rate

Reaction Rate Laboratory Testing

Acid Mass Transport

Fluid Loss

Wormholes

Natural Fracture Fluid Loss

Acid-Etched Conductivity

Additives

Placement/Diversion

Design Examples

References

Selected References

Fracture Diagnostics

Introduction

Post-Frac Logging

Microseismic Monitoring

Tiltmeters

References

Special Topics: Shale/Horizontal Well Fracturing, Frac Packing, and Waste Disposal

Shale/Horizontal Well Fracturing

Frac Packing (Fracturing in Sand Control Environments)

Key Elements

Using Hydraulic Fracturing for Waste Disposal

Wellbore Breakdown Calculations

Elastic Analysis for an Open Hole

Nonpenetrating Fluid

Penetrating Fluid

Tensile Failure Mechanism

References

Quality Control

Introduction

Pre-Job Planning

Qualifying Source Water

Acid Quality Checks

Base Oil

Quality Control of Proppants

On-Location Activities

Diagnostic Testing

During the Job

Post-Frac

Initial Flowback

Energized Fluids

Post-Job Evaluation

Back in the Office

Calculations

References

Additional References

Quality Control and Testing of Water-Based Fracturing Fluids

Friction Reducers/Slick Water

Friction Reduces Stability and Water Compatibility

Linear Gels

Cross-Linked Gels

Viscoelastic Surfactants

Energized Fluids

Quality Control and Testing of Oil-Based Fluids

Qualifying Base Oil

Gelled Oil Systems

Generic Procedures/Guidelines for a Step-Rate Test/Step-Down Test

Step-Rate Test (Used to Measure Fracture Extension Pressure)

Step-Down Test (Used to Measure Friction vs. Pump Rate)

Hydraulic Fracture Design Data Needs

Introduction

Reservoir Data

Log Data

Geologic Data

Fracturing Data

Additional Reference

Example Design

Well History

Log Data

Reservoir Data

Reservoir Fluid Data

Core Data

Future Production Conditions

References

Glossary and Terms

Basic Relations

Data Needs/Data Sources

References

Additional References

Problems

Prue #1

Prue #1—Suggested Solution

Janie Bea

Janie Bea: Shallow Gas Zone

Final Design

CCCruz #1

CCCruz #1 Wilcox Low-Permeability Gas Well

Reference

Index

About the Authors

Michael Berry Smith holds a Ph.D in rock mechanics from Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA, and has more than 30 years of experience in rock mechanics, well completions, and hydraulic fracturing. While with Amoco Production Company, Dr. Smith co-developed the framework for fracturing pressure analysis, which revolutionized the fracturing technology. He has been a consultant worldwide, served several times as a distinguished lecturer at the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), authored multiple chapters in the SPE monograph Recent Advances In Hydraulic Fracturing, and developed and presented SPE short courses on fracturing pressure analysis. Recently, he was presented with the SPE Lester C. Uren Award for his contributions to hydraulic fracturing technology.

Carl T. Montgomery is recognized within the industry as one of the leaders in all areas of stimulation, including hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, matrix stimulation, cavity completions, waste/cuttings injection, rock mechanics, and scale prevention/removal. In addition, he has considerable experience in cementing, sand management, conformance control, perforating strategy, and formation damage. Formerly, he was with ConocoPhillips, Arco, and Dowell Schlumberger. He also served as a special member of the petroleum engineering graduate faculty at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA, and received the 2007 SPE Drilling and Completions Award.

About the Series

Emerging Trends and Technologies in Petroleum Engineering

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
SCI031000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TEC009010
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TEC031030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels