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Industrial Gas Handbook
Gas Separation and Purification




ISBN 9780849390050
Published February 22, 2007 by CRC Press
550 Pages - 188 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Drawing on Frank G. Kerry’s more than 60 years of experience as a practicing engineer, the Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification provides from-the-trenches advice that helps practicing engineers master and advance in the field. It offers detailed discussions and up-to-date approaches to process cycles for cryogenic separation of air, adsorption processes for front-end air purification, and related process control and instrumentation.

The book uses SI units in accordance with international industry and covers topics such as chronological development, industrial applications, air separation technologies, noble gases, front end purification systems, insulation, non-cryogenic separation, safety, cleaning for oxygen systems, economics, and product liquefaction, storage, and transportation.
No other book currently available takes the practical approach of this book — they are either outdated, too theoretical, or narrow in focus. In a clear and effective presentation, Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification covers the principles and applications of industrial gas separation and purification.

Table of Contents

Gas Separation and Purification of Industrial Gases
Introduction
Thermodynamics
Summary
References

Industrial Applications


Early Development of Industrial Liquefaction Systems
Heat Exchangers
Expansion Machines
Contemporary Liquefaction Cycles
Linde Cycle (Free Expansion through a Valve)
Theoretical Analysis of the Claude Cycle
Kapitza Cycle
Cascade Cycle
References
Further Reading

Air Separation Technology


Air Separation Overview
Theoretical Considerations of Fractionation
Practical Considerations
Operational Control
Product Recovery
Optimum Reflux
Distillation Equipment
Development of Low Oxygen-Purity Processes
Exergy
References

Rare (Noble) Gases


Helium
Neon
Argon
Krypton and Xenon
References
Further Reading

Front-End Purification Systems


Historical Background
Design of Current Front-End Purification Systems
Process Operation
Safety
Activated Aluminas for Front-End Purification Systems
References
Further Reading on the Subject of Adsorption and Carbon
Dioxide Build-up
Product Liquefaction, Storage, and Transportation
Background
Product Liquefaction
Cryogenic Storage Facilities
Cryogenic Pumps
Cryogenic Liquid Vaporizers
References

Insulation


General
Industrial Practices
Cold Box Design for Insulation
Externally Located Process and Transfer Piping
Insulation for Liquid Storage Tanks and Vessels
Vacuum Pumping Systems
References
For Further Study and Review

Special Gases


Hydrogen
Carbon Monoxide
High-Purity Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Ozone
Methane
References
Further Reading on LNG

Noncryogenic Separations


Permeable Membrane Separation
Gas Separation by Adsorption
Nitrogen Recovery
References
Additional Reading on Noncryogenic Separations
Cryogenic Equipment, Materials, and Machinery
Heat Exchangers
Parameters of Design
Basic Principles
Typical Example for Designing Tubular Heat Exchangers
Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers
Effectiveness (c)
Operability
Efficiency (h)
Industrial Applications
Development of Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers
Vacuum Brazed Heat Exchangers
Mechanical Construction
Limitations
Operation and Maintenance
References
Further Reading
Expansion Machines
Expansion Machines
Reciprocating Expansion Engine
Radial Expansion Machines
Process Applications
Operational Factor (Air Separation Plants)
Refrigeration Availability
Process Technology
Expansion Turbine Efficiency
Expansion Turbine Losses
Measuring Efficiency
Various Expansion Turbine Systems
Mechanical Design Parameters
Instrumentation and Control
Spares
General Applications for Expansion Machines
References
Supplementary Reading

Compressors


Compressors
Definitions
Centrifugal Compressors
Axial–Centrifugal Compressors
Axial Compressors
Integrally Geared Centrifugal Compressors (API-Standard-672)
Product Oxygen Compressors (RIO)
High-Pressure Labyrinth Piston Compressor
Compressor Drivers
Operating Reliability versus Capital Costs of Compressors
Applicable Compressor Correction Factors
Variables
Summary of Factors
Application of Factors
References
Valves and Valve Stations for the Cryogenic Industry
General Design and Materials
General Design in Sizing
Sizing Parameters
Valve Categories
Nonmetallic Material
Manufacturers of Fluorinated Polymers
Warm End Switching Valves
Flow Control Check Valves
Cryogenic Process Valves (General)
Hand-Operated Cryogenic Valves
Process Control Valves
Product Flow Control Valves
Valve Connections
Insulation and Casing Designs for Cryogenic Valves
Liquid Purge Valves
Automatic Control of Cryogenic Valves
Cryogenic Liquid Storage Valves
Pressure Safety Relief Valves: Overview
Maintenance of Cryogenic Valves
Valve Stations: General
Valve Station Design
Destruction of a Pressure Reduction Station
Recommendations Applicable to Pressure-Reducing Stations
Further Reading
Instrumentation and Controls
Overview
General Requirements
Controls and Control System Philosophy
Minimum Instrumentation
Possible Specific Requirements of Owner or Operator

Safety


Safety Overview
Chemistry of Ignition, Combustion, and Explosion
Critical Areas in an Air Separation Plant
Purification Systems
Parameters for the Safe Design of a Process Cycle
General Design Procedures
Limits of Contaminants and Analysis
Rotating Machines and Other Equipment
Safe Practices
Summary
Safety in the Design of Dynamic Oxygen Systems
Causes of Combustion
Test Procedures and Results as Explained by de Jessey
The Following Recommendations Are in Order
Consideration of Dynamic Oxygen Conditions
References
For Further Reading

Cleaning for Oxygen Systems


Overview
General Considerations
Cleaning Requirements for Oxygen Systems
Equipment other than Piping
Cleaning Procedures for Carbon Steel Piping
Cleaning Procedures Available
Cleaning Agents
Preparation of Cleaning Agents
Drying Gases
Testing and Inspection Procedures
Ancillary Tools and Equipment
Labor Force
Protection and Storage
References

Economics


General Overview
Historical Background
Post–World War II Development
Economic Overview
Energy Costs
Investment Costs in General
Operating Costs
Maintenance
Marketing History of Industrial Gases
Challenging Market Conditions
Investing in a Project
Envoi
Appendix Index

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Reviews

"The book has many excellent features in addition to being very well written and thoroughly covering the topic. The prose is well-supplemented with numerous tables, figures, and pictures of equipment that add tremendously to the understanding of the process being discussed."

– Gary F. Bennett, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, in Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan 2009, Vol. 161, No. 1