1st Edition

Industrial Power Systems Evolutionary Aspects

By Amitava Sil, Saikat Maity Copyright 2022
    232 Pages 127 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Industrial Power Systems: Evolutionary Aspects provides evolutionary and integrated aspects of industrial power systems including review of development of modern power systems from DC to microgrid. Generation options of thermal and hydro power including nuclear and power from renewables are discussed along with concepts for single-line diagram, overhead transmission lines, concepts of corona, sag, overhead insulators and over voltage protective devices. Subsequent chapters cover analysis of power systems and power system protection with basic concept of power system planning and economic operations.


    • Covers the fundamentals of power systems, including its design, analysis, market structure and economic operations
    • Discusses performance of transmission lines with associated parameters, determination of performance and load flow analysis
    • Reviews residual generation/load imbalance as handled by the automatic generation control (AGC)
    • Includes different advanced technologies including HTLS overhead conductor, XLPE cable, vacuum/SF6 circuit breaker, solid state relays, among others
    • Explores practical aspects required for field level work such as installation of cable network for power distribution purposes, types of earthing and tariff mechanism

    This book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers and professionals in power engineering, load flow and power systems protection.

    1. Introduction 
     1.1 Evolution of Electric Power System 
     1.2 Electric Power Generating System
     1.3 Thermal Power Plant 
     1.4 Hydro Power Plant  
     1.5 Nuclear Power Plant 
     1.6 Gas Turbine 
     1.7 Wind Power 
     1.8 Solar Energy 
     1.9       Distributed Power Generation 
     1.10     Energy Storage 
     1.11     Tariff

    2. Transmission and Distribution System 
     2.1       Line Diagram 
     2.2       Per Unit representation 
     2.3      Calculation of fault level 
     2.4      Choice of voltage 
     2.5      Choice of frequency 
     2.6      Choice of conductor 
     2.7      Transmission and distribution topologies 
     2.8      Electrical grid 
     2.9      Review of three phase system 

    3. Overhead Transmission Line Constants 
     3.1      Line resistance 
     3.2      Line inductance 
     3.3     Shunt parameter of transmission line

    4. Corona and Sag 
     4.1     Corona 
     4.2     Sag 

    5. Cable 
     5.1     Insulation resistance of cable 
     5.2     Capacitance of a single core cable 
     5.3     Dielectric stress of a single core cable 
     5.4     Most economical conductor size in a cable 
     5.5     Grading of cables 
     5.6     Power factor of a single core cable 
     5.7     Capacitance of a three core cable 

    6. Characteristic and performance of transmission line 
     6.1     Transmission line  
     6.2     General Relations for the Analysis of a Transmission Line 
     6.3     Power Flow through a Transmission Line 
     6.4     Travelling wave equation of a transmission line 
     6.5     Characterization of a Long Lossless Line 
     6.6     Voltage and Current Characteristics of an SMIB System 
     6.7     Mid Point Voltage and Current of Loaded Lines 
     6.8     Power in a Lossless Line 
     6.9     Kelvins’ Law 
     6.10   Power factor 
     6.11   Compensation 

    7. Insulators for overhead lines 
     7.1     Basics of Insulators for overhead lines 
     7.2     Materials of Insulators 
     7.3     Types of Insulators 
     7.4     Voltage distribution on Insulator String 
     7.5     String efficiency 

    8. Over voltage and insulation requirement 
     8.1     Types of System Transients and some basic features 
     8.2     Switching an LR Circuit 
     8.3     Transients on a Transmission Line 
     8.4     Switching surge 
            8.5     Lightning surge 
     8.6     Lightning arrestor 
     8.7     Insulation coordination in power system 
     8.8     Bewely lattice diagram 

    9. Electrical fault analysis 
     9.1     Fault 
     9.2     Short Circuit of a Synchronous Machine (On no load) 
     9.3     Short Circuit of a Synchronous Machine (On load) 
     9.4     Symmetrical components 
     9.5     Sequence impedance and sequence networks of power system
     9.6     Sequence Components and its effects 
     9.7     Unsymmetrical faults 
     9.8     Earthing 
     9.9     Reactors

    10. Load flow analysis 
     10.1   Definition of Load Flow Study 
     10.2   Purpose of Load Flow Study 
     10.3   Types of Load Flow 
     10.4   Classification of Buses 
     10.5   Assumptions 
     10.6   Bus admittance matrix 
     10.7   Real and Reactive Power Injected in a Bus 
     10.8   Load Flow by Gauss-Seidel Method – Conventional Load Flow Analysis 
     10.9   Load Flow by Newton-Raphson Method - Conventional Load Flow Analysis  
     10.10  Fast – decoupled Load Flow 
     10.11  DC Load Flow 

    11. Stability analysis 
     11.1    Requirement of Power System Stability 
     11.2    Power System Stability Problem 
     11.3    Swing Equation 
     11.4    Power angle 
     11.5    Steady State Stability or small signal stability 
     11.6    Transient Stability or Large signal stability 
     11.7    Equal area criterion 
     11.8    Multimachine stability 

    12. Fuses and circuit breaker 
     12.1    Fuses  
     12.2    Switching Devices 
    13. Power system protection 
     13.1    Why protection 
     13.2    Types of electromagnetic relay 
     13.3    Static relay 
     13.4    Digital relay 
     13.5    Distance relay 
     13.6    Differential relay 
     13.7    Overcurrent protection 
     13.8    Pilot protection 
     13.9    Transformer protection 
     13.10   Feeder protection   
     13.11   Alternator protection 
     13.12   Motor protection 
     13.13   Power swing blocking 
     13.14   Auto reclosing 

    14. DC transmission 
     14.1    Evolution of DC Transmission System 
     14.2    Principle of HVDC Transmission System 
     14.3    Components of HVDC Transmission System 
     14.4    Types of HVDC Transmission System  

    15. Electrical power distribution substation 
     15.1   Requirement of distribution substation 
     15.2   Location of distribution substation 
     15.3   Functions of substations 
     15.4   Types of substations 
     15.5   Substation components 
     15.6   Substation earthing 
     15.7   Types of bus Systems of substation 
     15.8   DC distributors 

    16. Power system structure 
     16.1   Objective of Power system structuring 
     16.2   Concept of regulation and deregulation 
     16.3   Power systems in restructured environment 
     16.4   POOLCO Model 
     16.5   Concept of Distributed and Dispersed Generation 
     16.6   Environmental aspect of Electric Generation 

    17. Economic operation of energy generating systems 
     17.1   Introduction to Economic Operation of Energy Generations systems 
     17.2   Economic operation of thermal system, its basic operation and structuring 
     17.3   Economic Schedule including limits on generator (neglecting losses) 
     17.4   Economic Dispatch Including Transmission Losses 
     17.5   Transmission Loss as a Function of Plant Generation 
     17.6   Basics of Plant Scheduling & Optimization Technique 
     17.7   Hydro-Thermal Scheduling 
     17.8   Scheduling of pumped storage plants and applications in power plants 
     17.9   Unit Commitment 
     17.10  Contingency Analysis  

    18. Automatic Generation and Control 
     18.1   Introduction to Automatic Generation Control 
     18.2   Load frequency control (Single area case) 
     18.3   Load frequency control of two area systems 

    19. Compensation in Power System 
     19.1   Concept of power, it’s classification, active and reactive power  
     19.2   Reactive power sensitivity and voltage control, Power requirement 
     19.3   Compensation 



    Dr. Amitava Sil, Chartered Engineer.

    Obtained Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical from Bengal Engineering College (presently IIEST, Shibpore), Shibpore in 1984.Pursued integrated Ph. D in Electrical Engineering [Power System] from Jadavpur University, Kolkata in Electrical Engineering and obtained the degree in 2012. The area of work includes power system dynamics, electrical machine and modern electrical control systems. Completed Training course approved by the Directorate General of Shipping, Ministry of Surface Transport, Govt. of India and meets the requirements laid down under STC’95 Convention and Meta Manual Volume – II for Trainers & Assessors at Sensea Maritime Academy in the year 2011.

    Associated with Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., at National Institute of Technology Management &Science (formerly ITME) as Head of the Department. Associated with Department of Electrical Engineering, at Academy of Technology as Associate Professor and later as Principal. Attended the workshop MISSION 10X of Wipro that empowers the teachers from engineering colleges to teach various subjects in an inspiring way and emphasizes on learning for better career and fulfilling life experience as a team along with improvement of interpersonal communication and listening skills. Spent over one and half decade in high profile medium voltage electrical equipment manufacturing industry used predominantly by the power sector, held key portfolios and travelled a lot and adopted necessary Techno-Managerial skill. Associated with Industrial & Management Consultancy House and experienced macro studies of industrial sectoral activities including Snap Technology Status Assessment Study of wide range of Industries. Attended various workshops and seminars for career building and self-development with improvement of interpersonal skill and communication.

    Dr Saikat Maity, Professor & HOD.

    Dr Saikat Maity is associated as a Professor & Head of Computer Science & Engineering Department of JIS University from June 2019 with a total of 20 years of work experience. He has obtained B. TECH in Computer Science and Engineering from Kalyani University and doe M. TECH in Computer Science and Engineering from Calcutta University. He pursued Ph. D in Computer Science and Engineering from Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Howrah, 2018. My main area of experience has been best practices on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence. He is working primarily in the domain of networking and multimedia Soft computing & Image Processing technologies. His managerial forte is to act as a Coordinator of AICTE & UGC and NBA accreditation and Brand Ambassador of IIC and Incubation Centre establishment for self-financed Universities along with Industry Academia program initiation. He is also designated as Tech Head of maintaining PARAM SHAVAK, A Supercomputer from CDAC to work with Onama, CHReME and Ganglia. He is also the board member of Academic Council, JIS University. Dr Maity is in charge of Digital Learning through Web Medium through Myperfectice and Zoom along with Cisco Webex and Audio Visual Head. He is also CCNA professional and also Fellow IE, Senior Member IEEE, Senior Member IEEE Systems Man and Cybernetics Society, Life Member of ISTE, CSI, ICS, Member ACM.