Instrumentation : Operation, Measurement, Scope and Application of Instruments book cover
1st Edition

Operation, Measurement, Scope and Application of Instruments

ISBN 9781138626553
Published December 27, 2016 by CRC Press
600 Pages 119 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Instrumentation: Operation, Measurement, Scope and Application of Instruments, provides various concepts, theoretical and practical knowledge and develops the techno-managerial skill in the field of instrumentation. Various possible methods of measurements of commonly used instruments for measuring various quantities often used in engineering and design are provided, presented and discussed sufficiently from fundamentals to advancements. It aims at providing an insight into various concepts and awareness as well as developments of the field. Numerical problems and examples and usual situations that occur in industries and daily life are presented as necessary.

Table of Contents

Measurement Systems – An Overview and Basic Concepts


The Process of Measurement

Scope of Instrumentation

Jargon of Instrumentation

Basic Principles of Measurement

Complexity of Measurement Methods

Applications of Measuring Instruments

Generalized Input-Output Model of Measurement System

Types of Inputs

Classification of Instruments

Objectives of Instrumentation

Characteristics of Instruments


Static and Dynamic Quantities

Static Characteristics

Dynamic Characteristics

Modeling for Dynamic Performance

Systems of Various Orders

Standard Test Signals

Dynamic Response of First Order System

Dynamic Response of Second Order System


Inaccuracies in Instruments



Error of Measurement and Measurement of Error


Sources/Causes of Error

Classification of Errors

Random Errors (or Precision or Accidental Error)

Systematic Error (or Bias Error)

Illegitimate Errors

Other Errors

Transducers and Measurement of Displacement


Classification of Transducers

Mechanical Transducers

Electromechanical Transducers

Resistive Type Transducers

Inductive Type Transducers

Capacitive Transducers

Piezoelectric Transducers

Photoelectric Effects

Hall Effect

Magnetostrictive Transducer

Ionization Transducers

Digital Displacement Transducers

Measurement of Temperature


Basic Concepts of Temperature

Measurement of Temperature

Measurement of Temperature by changes in Physical Dimensions

Pressure Thermometers

Electrical Effects on Temperature

Measurement of Temperature by Electrical Methods

Semiconductor Junction Temperature Sensors

The Linear Quartz Thermometer

Thermometers using Changes in Emitted Thermal Radiation-Pyrometers

Types of Pyrometers

Temperature Measurement by Changes in Chemical Phase

Measurement of Pressure


Definitions And Terminology

Classification of Pressure Measuring Devices

Dead Weight Tester


Mechanical Displacement Type Gauges

Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge

Elastic Diaphragm Gauges

Bellows Gauges

Strain Gauge Pressure Cells

The McLeod Gauge

Thermal Conductivity Gauges

Flow Measurement


Nature of Flow

Classification of Flow Measurements

Primary or Quantity Methods

Flow (Obstruction) Meters

Turbine Meters

Magnetic Flow Meters

Vortex Shedding Flow Meters

Measurement of Fluid Velocities


Measurement by Scattering

Ultrasonic Anemometry

The Interferometer

The Shadow Graph

Calibration of Flow Measuring Devices

Flow-Visualization Techniques

Measurement of Liquid Level


Measurement of Liquid Level

Classification of Liquid-Level Measurement Methods

Direct Liquid Level Measurement Devices

Float Gauges

Indirect Liquid Level Measurement Devices

Hydrostatic Pressure Devices (Bubbler or Purge System)

Electric Liquid Level Sensors

Gamma Ray Liquid Level Sensor

Ultrasonic Liquid Level Gauge

Inductive Methods or Magnetic Level Indicator

Cryogenic Fuel Level Indicator

Measurement of Speed


Classification of Tachometers

Mechanical Tachometers

Electrical Tachometers

Measurement of Vibration and Acceleration


Vibration Measurement

Transducers used in Vibration Measurement

List of Transducers/Instruments used to Measure Vibration/Acceleration

Factors Affecting the Choice of Transducers

Calibration of Vibration Transducers

Servo Accelerometer

Digital Accelerometer

Measurement of Force, Torque and Power


Methods of Measurement of Force

Arm Balance

Unequal Arm Balance

Pendulum Scale (Multi-Lever Type)

Elastic Force Meter (Proving Ring)

Strain Gauge Load Cell

Hydraulic Load Cell

Pneumatic Load Cells

Measurement of Torque and Power


Torsion Meter

Strain and Stress Measurement


Fundamentals of Stress and Strain

Strain Measurement

The Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge

Types of Strain Gauges

Selection and Preparation of Bonded Strain Gauge

Temperature Compensation

Temperature Compensation using an adjacent Arm Compensating Gauge

Gauge Rosettes (Multiple Grids)

Wheatstone bridge Circuit


Applications of Strain Gauges


Measurement of Viscosity and Surface Tension


The Jargon of Viscosity

Classification of Viscometers

Capillary Tube Viscometer

Efflux Viscometers

Falling Sphere Viscometer

Rotating Cylinder Viscometers

Surface Tension

Measurement of Surface Tension

Du Noüy Ring Tensiometer

Du Noüy-Padday Tensiometer

Wilhelmy Plate Tensiometer

Bubble Pressure Tensiometer

Goniometer/ Tensiometer

Some More Methods


Measurement of Humidity/Dampness and Density/Specific Gravity



List of Instruments used to Measure Humidity

Psychrometers (Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometers)

Sling Psychrometer

Absorption Hygrometers

Dew Point Meter

Fundamentals of Density and Specific Gravity

Instruments to Measure Specific Gravity and Density



Differential Type Bubbler Systems

Special Applications of Hydrometers

Elements of Control Systems


Basic Components of a Control System

Control Systems Terminology

Types of Control Systems

Differences between Open Loop and Closed Loop Systems

Servo Mechanism

Requirements of a Control System

Control Systems – Case Studies



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Dr. N.V.S. Raju is a BE distinction graduate in Mechanical Engineering from, OU, Hyderabad. Later, he acquired PG Dip in IRPM from OU, M.Tech. (PEM) from JNTU Hyderabad and M.B.A (Marketing) from BRAOU, Hyderabad. He is associated with professional bodies as MISTE, MORSI and MIPE. He has been awarded Ph.D. in the year 2005 in Mechanical Engineering (with specialization in Reliability Centered Maintenance) from OU, Hyderabad. He has served in industry also for more than 9 years in various capacities in Hyderabad Allwyn Ltd, Watch Division and is currently a Professor of Mechanical engineering and Vice Principal of JNTUH College of Engineering, Hyderabad, India.

Sixteen books have come from his pen earlier along with courses in Operations Research, Productivity Management, Plant Engg & Management, Condition Monitoring and Maintenance Management, Industrial Engg & Systems. He has more than 50 publications in various National and International Journals and Conferences to his credit and has been an enthusiastic supervisor for several research projects in UG, PG and Ph.D. levels.