2nd Edition

Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook Two-Volume Set

    3559 Pages 1960 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This new edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences; explains sensors and the associated hardware and software; and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes.

    Organized according to measurement problem, the Second Edition:

    • Consists of 2 volumes
    • Features contributions from 240+ field experts
    • Contains 53 new chapters, plus updates to all 194 existing chapters
    • Addresses different ways of making measurements for given variables
    • Emphasizes modern intelligent instruments and techniques, human factors, modern display methods, instrument networks, and virtual instruments
    • Explains modern wireless techniques, sensors, measurements, and applications

    A concise and useful reference for engineers, scientists, academic faculty, students, designers, managers, and industry professionals involved in instrumentation and measurement research and development, Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition provides readers with a greater understanding of advanced applications.

    Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement





    Part I: Instrumentation and Measurement Concepts

    Measurements, Instrumentation, and Sensors

    Halit Eren

    Characteristics of Instrumentation

    John R. Hansman, Jr.

    Operational Modes of Instrumentation

    Richard S. Figliola

    Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Instrumentation

    Peter H. Sydenham

    Measurement Accuracy

    Ronald H. Dieck

    Development of Standards

    Halit Eren

    Measurement Standards

    DeWayne B. Sharp

    Calibrations in Instrumentation and Measurements

    Halit Eren

    Intelligent Sensors and Instruments

    Halit Eren

    Virtual Instruments

    David Potter and Halit Eren

    Fail-Safe Instruments and Devices

    Davide Quatrini, Giuseppe Fazio, Mauro Giaconi, and Adelio Salsano

    Dynamic Error Measurements of Force Sensors

    Akihiro Takita, Jin Tao, and Yusaku Fujii

    Part II: Spatial Variables

    Thickness Measurement

    John C. Brasunas, G. Mark Cushman, and Brook Lakew

    Distance Measurement

    W. John Ballantyne

    Altitude Measurement

    Dimitris E. Manolakis

    Attitude Measurement

    Mark A. Stedham, Partha P. Banerjee, Seiji Nishifuji, and Shogo Tanaka

    Inertial Navigation

    Halit Eren

    Level Measurement

    Detlef Brumbi

    Area Measurement

    Charles B. Coulbourn and Wolfgang P. Buerner

    Volume Measurement

    Rene G. Aarnink and Hessel Wijkstra

    Tilt Measurement

    Adam Chrzanowski and James M. Secord

    Proximity Sensing for Robotics

    Ricardo E. Saad, Ben Benhabib, A. Bonen, and K.C. Smith

    Part III: Displacement

    Resistive Displacement Sensors

    Keith Antonelli, James Ko, and Shyan Ku

    Inductive Displacement Sensors

    Halit Eren

    Capacitive Sensors: Displacement, Humidity, Force

    Halit Eren

    Piezoelectric Sensors and Transducers

    Ahmad Safari, Victor F. Janas, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Andrei Kholkine

    Laser Interferometer Displacement Sensor

    Bernhard Gunther Zagar

    Bore-Gaging Displacement Sensors

    Viktor P. Astakhov

    Ultrasonic Displacement Sensors

    Nils Karlsson and Ole Pedersen

    Optical Encoder Displacement Sensors

    J.R. Rene Mayer

    Magnetic Displacement Sensors

    David S. Nyce

    Synchro/Resolver Displacement Sensors

    Robert M. Hyatt, Jr. and David Dayton

    Optical Fiber Displacement Sensors

    Richard O. Claus, Vikram Bhatia, and Anbo Wang

    Optical Beam Deflection Sensors

    Grover C. Wetsel

    Velocity Measurement

    Charles P. Pinney and William E. Baker

    Part IV: Mechanical Variables

    Acceleration, Vibration, and Shock Measurement

    Halit Eren

    Strain Measurement

    Christopher S. Lynch

    Tactile Sensing

    Ricardo E. Saad, A. Bonen, K.C. Smith, and Ben Benhabib

    Pressure Measurement

    Kevin H.L. Chau

    Vacuum Measurement

    Ron Goehner, Emil Drubetsky, Howard M. Brady, and William H. Bayles, Jr.

    Force Measurement

    M.A. Elbestawi

    Angle Measurement

    Robert J. Sandberg

    Mass, Weights, and Instrumentation

    Emil Hazarian

    Torque and Power Measurement

    Ivan J. Garshelis

    Density Measurement

    Halit Eren

    Fluid Viscosity Measurement

    R.A. Secco, M. Kostic, and J.R. deBruyn

    Surface Tension Measurement

    David B. Thiessen and Kin F. Man

    Part V: Acoustics

    Acoustic Measurement

    Per Rasmussen

    Ultrasound Measurement

    Peder C. Pedersen

    Part VI: Flow and Spot Velocity

    Capillary-Type Mass Flow Meter

    Reza Pakdaman Zangabad and Manouchehr Bahrami

    Differential Pressure Flowmeters

    Richard Thorn

    Variable Area Flowmeters

    Adrian Melling, Herbert Köchner, and Reinhard Haak

    Positive Displacement Flowmeters

    Zaki D. Husain and Donald J. Wass

    Turbine and Vane Flowmeters

    David Wadlow

    Impeller Flowmeters

    Harold M. Miller

    Electromagnetic Flowmeters

    Halit Eren

    Ultrasonic Flowmeters

    Hans-Peter Vaterlaus, Thomas Hossle, Paolo Giordano, and Christophe Bruttin

    Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters

    Wade M. Mattar and James H. Vignos

    Thermal Anemometry

    Jugal K. Agarwal and John G. Olin

    Coriolis Effect Mass Flowmeters

    Jesse Yoder

    Drag Force Flowmeters

    Rekha Philip-Chandy, Roger Morgan, and Patricia J. Scully

    Pitot Probe Anemometer

    John A. Kleppe

    Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meters

    John G. Olin

    Laser Anemometry

    Rajan K. Menon

    Part VII: Thermal and Temperature Measurement

    Temperature Measurements, Scales, and Calibrations

    Franco Pavese

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement

    William A. Wakeham and Marc J. Assael

    Heat Flux

    Thomas E. Diller

    Resistive Thermometers

    Jim Burns

    Thermistor Thermometers

    Rod White and Meyer Sapoff

    Thermocouple Thermometry

    R.P. Reed

    Semiconductor Junction Thermometers

    Randy Frank

    Noncontact Thermometers

    Jacob Fraden

    Pyroelectric Detectors

    Jacob Fraden

    Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    Rod White and J.V. Nicholas

    Manometric Thermometers

    Franco Pavese

    Temperature Indicators

    Jan Stasiek, Tolestyn Madaj, and Jaroslaw Mikielewicz

    Fiber-Optic Thermometers

    Brian Culshaw

    Thermal Imaging

    Herbert M. Runciman

    Calorimetry Measurement

    Sander van Herwaarden and Elina Iervolino

    Part VIII: Radiation

    Radioactivity Measurement

    Bert M. Coursey

    Radioactivity Detectors

    Larry A. Franks, Ralph B. James, and Larry S. Darken

    Charged-Particle Measurement

    John C. Armitage, Madhu S. Dixit, Jacques Dubeau, Hans Mes, and F. Gerald Oakham

    Neutron Measurement

    Steven M. Grimes

    Dosimetry Measurement

    Brian L. Justus, Mark A. Miller, and Alan L. Huston

    Part IX: Wireless Instrumentation

    Wireless Instrumentation

    J.P. Carmo and J.H. Correria

    Wireless Sensor Node Hardware

    Michael Healy, Thomas Newe, and Elfed Lewis

    Mobile Instrumentation with Wireless Design and Implementation

    Frederick Fortson and Kenneth Johnson

    Powering Autonomous Sensors

    Manel Gasulla, Maria Teresa Penella, and Oscar Lopez-Lapeña

    Wireless Sensing Technology

    Gregory C. Willden, Ben A. Abbott, and Ronald T. Green


    Albert Lozano-Nieto

    Part X: Control and Human Factors

    PID Control

    F. Greg Shinskey

    Optimal Control and the Software

    Halit Eren

    Electropneumatic and Electrohydraulic Instruments: Modeling

    M. Pachter and C.H. Houpis

    Explosion-Proof Instruments

    Sam S. Khalilieh

    Measurement and Identification of DC Brush and Brushless Stepping Motors

    Stuart Schweid, Robert Lofthus, and John McInroy

    Human Factors in Displays

    Jeffrey D. Onken, Barrett S. Caldwell, and Steven A. Murray

    Appendix: Units and Conversions

    B.W. Petley


    Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement





    Part I: Sensors and Sensor Technology

    Soft Sensors: Software-Based Sensors

    Petr Kadlec

    Implantable Systems

    Vincenzo Luciano, Emilio Sardini, Alessandro Dionisi, Mauro Serpelloni, and Andrea Cadei

    Bio-Inspired and Life-Inspired Sensors

    Cesar Ortega-Sanchez and Halit Eren

    Image Sensors

    Mehdi Habibi

    Principles and Technology of SQUIDs

    Robert L. Fagaly

    Next Generation of Smart Sensors

    Michael E. Stanley and Stéphane Gervais-Ducouret

    Needle-Type Environmental Sensors

    Woo Hyoung Lee, Jin-Hwan Lee, Woo-Hyuck Choi, Ian Papautsky, and Paul L. Bishop

    Single-Chip Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Alireza Hassanzadeh and Robert G. Lindquist

    CMOS Integrated Gas Sensors

    Prasanta K. Guha, Sumita Santra, and Julian W. Gardner

    Energy Harvesting for Sensors: DC Harvesters

    Oscar Lopez-Lapeña, Maria Teresa Penella, and Manel Gasulla

    Energy Harvesting for Sensors: AC Harvesters

    Maria Teresa Penella, Oscar Lopez-Lapeña, and Manel Gasulla

    Hydrogen Gas Sensors: Flow

    H. El Matbouly, F. Domingue, V. Palmisano, and L. Boon-Brett

    Thermal Sensors: Flow

    Nam-Trung Nguyen

    SQUID Magnetometers

    Robert L. Fagaly

    Sensor Networks and Communication

    Robert M. Crovella

    Part II: Electrical Variables

    Electric Current Sensors

    Pavel Ripka

    Nonlinear System Modeling with Invariance to Fourier Transform for Fault Diagnosis: Application to Power Transformers

    Gerasimos Rigatos and Pierluigi Siano

    Meter Voltage Measurement

    Alessandro Ferrero

    Oscilloscope Voltage Measurement

    Jerry Murphy

    Inductive and Capacitive Voltage Measurement

    Cipriano Bartoletti, Luca Podestà, and Giancarlo Sacerdoti

    Current Measurement

    Douglas P. McNutt

    Power Measurement

    Pasquale Arpaia, Francesco Avallone, Aldo Baccigalupi, and Carmine Landi

    Power Factor Measurement

    Michael Z. Lowenstein

    Phase Measurement

    Peter O’Shea

    Energy Measurement

    Arnaldo Brandolini and Alessandro Gandelli

    Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity

    Michael B. Heaney

    Charge Measurement

    Saps Buchman, John T. Mester, and T.J. Sumner

    Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements

    Halit Eren

    Permeability and Hysteresis Measurement

    Jeff P. Anderson and Richard J. Blotzer

    Inductance Measurement

    Michal Szyper

    Immittance Measurement

    Achim Dreher

    Distortion Measurement

    Michael F. Toner and Gordon W. Roberts

    Noise Measurement

    W. Marshall Leach, Jr.

    Part III: Electromagnetic Variables

    Microwave Measurement

    Alfons Dehé, K. Beilenhoff, K. Fricke, H. Klingbeil, V. Krozer, and H.L. Hartnagel

    Q Factor Measurement

    Albert D. Helfrick

    EMI and EMC Test Methods

    Jeffrey P. Mills

    Permittivity Measurement

    Devendra K. Misra

    Electric-Field Strength

    David A. Hill and Motohisa Kanda

    Magnetic Field Measurement

    Robert L. Fagaly and Steven A. Macintyre

    RF/Microwave Spectrum Analysis

    Roberto Ambrosini, Stelio Montebugnoli, Claudio Bortolotti, and Mauro Roma

    Part IV: Time and Frequency

    Time Measurement

    Michael A. Lombardi

    Frequency Measurement

    Michael A. Lombardi

    Part V: Optical

    Photoconductive Sensors

    Fritz Schuermeyer and Thad Pickenpaugh

    Photojunction Sensors

    Michael R. Squillante, Kanai S. Shah, and James F. Christian

    Vision and Image Sensors

    Stanley S. Ipson and Chima Okereke

    Charge-Coupled Devices

    John A. Nousek, M.W. Bautz, B.E. Burke, J.A. Gregory, R.E. Griffiths, R.L. Kraft, H.L. Kwok, and D.H. Lumb

    Densitometry Measurement

    Joseph H. Altman


    Robert T. Marcus

    Polarization Measurement

    Soe-Mie F. Nee

    Refractive Index Measurement

    Gerry H. Meeten

    Turbidity Measurement

    Daniel Harrison and Michael Fisch

    Laser Output Measurement

    Haiyin Sun

    Optical Loss: Principles and Applications

    M.M. Rad, Halit Eren, and Martin Maier

    Part VI: Chemical Variables

    Interference and Selectivity in Portable Chemical Sensors

    Denise Wilson

    Electrochemical Composition Measurement

    Michael J. Schöning, Arshak Poghossian, Olaf Glück, and Marion Thust

    Thermal Composition Measurement

    Mushtaq Ali, Behrooz Pahlavanpour, and Maria Eklund

    Kinetic Composition Measurement

    E.E. Uzgiris and J.Y. Gui

    Chromatography Composition Measurement

    Behrooz Pahlavanpour, Mushtaq Ali, and C.K. Laird

    pH Measurement

    Norman F. Sheppard, Jr. and Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

    Part VII: Medical, Biomedical, and Health

    Wireless Sensor Networks in Health

    Enrique Dorronzoro, Isabel Gómez, Ana Verónica Medina, Luis Fernández-Luque, and Jose Antonio Gómez

    Sensors for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju

    Patient-Care Sensing and Monitoring Systems

    Akihiro Kajiwara and Ryohei Nakamura

    Sensor-Based Activity Recognition Techniques

    Donghai Guan, Weiwei Yuan, and Sungyoung Lee

    Biopotentials and Electrophysiology Measurement

    Nitish V. Thakor

    Blood Pressure Measurement

    Shyam Rithalia, Mark Sun, and Roger Jones

    Blood Flow Measurements

    Per Ask and P. Åke Öberg

    Medical Imaging

    James T. Dobbins III, Sean M. Hames, Bruce H. Hasegawa, Timothy R. DeGrado, James A. Zagzebski, and Richard Frayne

    Blood Chemistry Measurement

    Terry L. Rusch and Ravi Sankar

    Human Occupancy Detectors

    Jacob Fraden

    Part VIII: Environmental

    GPR Principles and Applications

    Jan Francke

    Airborne Radiometers to Measure Electromagnetic Radiation in the Earth’s Atmosphere: Mature and Emerging Technologies

    Manfred Wendisch

    In Situ Sensors for Monitoring the Marine Environment

    Graham A. Mills, Gary R. Fones, and Silke Kröger

    Mobile Environmental Sensing Using Smartphones

    Siamak Aram, A. Toriono, F. Rugiano, and E. Pasero

    Space Dosimetry

    Jarvis A. Caffrey and David M. Hamby

    Capacitance Sensors for Nondestructive Moisture Determination in Agricultural Products and Biofuel Materials

    Chari V. Kandala and Naveen Puppala

    Radio Location, Radio Navigation, and GPS Systems

    Halit Eren

    Air Pollution Monitoring

    Michael Bennett

    Water Quality Measurement

    Kathleen M. Leonard

    Satellite Imaging and Sensing

    Robert F. Cromp

    Humidity and Moisture Measurement

    Gert J.W. Visscher

    Ventilation Measurement

    L. Basano and P. Ottonello

    Meteorological Measurement

    John D. Garrison and Stephen B.W. Roeder

    Robotics and Sensors: Environmental Applications

    Gourab Sen Gupta

    Part IX: Signal Processing


    David M. Beams


    Rahman Jamal and Robert Steer

    Spectrum Analysis and Correlation

    Ronney B. Panerai

    Applied Intelligence Processing

    Peter H. Sydenham and Rodney Pratt

    Analog-to-Digital Converters

    E.B. Loewenstein


    A.M. MacLeod, P.F. Martin, and W.A. Gillespie

    Grounding and Shielding

    Daryl Gerke and William Kimmel

    Amplifiers and Signal Conditioners

    Ramón Pallás-Areny

    Data Acquisition Systems

    Edward McConnell

    Part X: Displays and Recorders

    Plasma-Driven Flat Panel Displays

    Robert T. McGrath, Ramanapathy Veerasingam, William C. Moffatt, and Robert B. Campbell

    Electroluminescent Displays

    William A. Barrow

    Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Mohammad A. Karim

    Magnetic and Optical Recording

    Yufeng Li

    Liquid Crystal Displays

    Kalluri R. Sarma

    Cathode Ray Tube Displays

    Christopher J. Sherman

    Appendix: Units and Conversions

    B.W. Petley



    John G. Webster received his BS from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA and M.Sc and Ph.D from University of Rochester, New York, USA. A fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Instrument Society of America, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Society, and Institute of Physics, he served on the IEEE-EMBS Administrative Committee and NIH Surgery and Bioengineering Study Section, authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited numerous books and publications, and received the IEEE-EMBS Career Achievement Award. A highly cited researcher for King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, he is currently a professor emeritus at University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

    Halit Eren received his BS, M.Sc, and Ph.D from University of Sheffield, UK. He also obtained an MBA from Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. He has served as an instrumentation engineer at Etibank, as well as an assistant professor for Hacettepe University and Middle East Technical University, all in Turkey. An author and co-editor of several books and publications, he was associate professor at Polytechnic University, Hong Kong and visiting professor at University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. A senior member of IEEE taking roles in Region 10 activities and various committees for organizing conferences, he is currently teaching and conducting research at Curtin University.

    "The new edition of this manual shows the state of  the art of measures, instrumentation, and sensors used in the field of biomedical engineering. It describes the use of instrumentation and techniques for performing underlying practical measures required particularly for medical sciences, explaining in detail the sensors that are used as well as the techniques, hardware, and software associated. ... The second edition certainly offers the most complete source of reference."
    —Centro Nazionale Edilizia e Tecnica Ospedaliera (CNETO)'s Progettare per la Sanità, October 2015

    "… a superb and well treated collection of engineering topics delving in-depth in the essential MEASUREMENT activity of almost any variable there is."
    —Max E. Valentinuzzi, Institute Biomed Engineering-University Buenos Aires, Argentina

    "… Even though different experts in their respective fields wrote the chapters; they are well-written and clear demonstrating the expert editing done by Professors Webster and Eren. The wide base of experts drawn together for this book demonstrates the broad coverage of this book by leading experts in the field of instrumentation.
    —Michael R. Neuman, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, USA

    "This is a very interesting, and moreover incredibly thorough, treatment of all aspects relating to sensors and measurements. … The material presented on soft sensors was very much a representation of the state-of-the-art whilst also being understandable and a good introduction to the subject."
    —Alex Casson, University of Manchester, UK