1st Edition

Introduction to Global Energy Issues

By Renaud Gicquel, May Gicquel Copyright 2013
    272 Pages 150 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reflection on energy at a global level. It synthesizes the main energy-related issues and requires no specialist knowledge, either of economics, engineering sciences or international relations. It comprises four main chapters, that discuss the major energy sectors (oil, natural gas, coal, synthetic hydrocarbons, electricity, renewable energy), the impacts of energy at macro-economic level, geopolitics and new issues related to energy, notably environmental aspects and successes of demand management policies. The book is aimed at industry professionals, (under)graduate students / academics, economists and policy-makers in the energy sector/field.

    Preface (by Jean-Arnold Vinois, Honorary Director at the European Commission, Former Director of the internal energy market within the Directorate General for Energy)
    About the authors

    1 Introduction
    1.1 Overall presentation
    1.2 Structure of the book
    1.3 Educational use of this book
    1.3.1 Recommended pedagogy
    1.3.2 Available Diapason sessions
    1.4 Energy and economic statistics

    2 Energy sectors
    2.1 Presentation
    2.2 Forms of energy
    2.3 Conversion of energy
    2.4 Main sources of energy
    2.4.1 Oil
    2.4.2 Natural gas
    2.4.3 Coal
    2.4.4 Non-conventional fuels
    2.4.5 Nuclear energy
    2.4.6 Renewable energies
    2.5 Electricity production
    2.5.1 Thermal power plants
    2.5.2 Production management
    2.5.3 Transport and distribution
    2.5.4 Cost structure
    2.5.5 Conclusion
    2.6 Thermal or pneumatic energy storage
    2.7 Common characteristics and comparisons
    2.7.1 Implementation time
    2.7.2 Diversity and rigidity
    2.7.3 Social acceptance
    2.7.4 Comparisons between sectors
    2.8 Conclusion
    Further reading

    3 Macroeconomic indicators and accounting of energy
    3.1 Presentation
    3.2 Evolution of the world population
    3.3 Basics
    3.3.1 Gross Domestic Product
    3.3.2 Gross National Product, Gross National Income
    3.3.3 International comparisons
    3.3.4 Economic growth and development
    3.3.5 Human Development Index
    3.4 Structure of GDP
    3.5 Energy accounting, energy chain
    3.5.1 Accounting problems
    3.5.2 Flow graphs
    3.6 Energy intensity
    3.6.1 Definition of the energy intensity
    3.6.2 World energy intensities
    3.6.3 Income elasticity
    3.6.4 Relationship between growth rates
    3.6.5 GDP and energy in France
    3.6.6 Energy intensity changes of OECD countries
    3.6.7 Convergence of world energy intensity
    3.6.8 Changes in the electricity content of GDP
    3.7 Indicators for CO2 emissions
    3.8 Energy markets
    3.8.1 International trade
    3.8.2 Oil market
    3.8.3 Natural gas market
    3.8.4 Coal market
    3.8.5 Conclusion on the energy markets
    Further reading

    4 The impact of energy on economic development
    4.1 Presentation
    4.2 Energy consumption and income level
    4.2.1 Factors of development
    4.2.2 Evolution of energy consumption
    4.3 Coal and industrial revolution
    4.4 Work/energy substitution
    4.5 Reduction of transportation cost
    4.6 An anecdotal illustration
    4.7 Energy uses
    4.8 Mechanisms of formation of energy demand
    4.8.1 Breaking down demand
    4.8.2 Determinants of aggregate demand
    4.9 Macro-economic impacts of energy
    4.9.1 Energy sector
    4.9.2 Non-energy productive sector
    4.9.3 Impact on investment
    4.9.4 Impact on the balance of payments
    4.9.5 Impact on consumers
    4.9.6 Impact on state revenue
    Further reading

    5 Energy policy
    5.1 Presentation
    5.2 Limitations of the energy policy
    5.3 Main objectives of the energy policy
    5.4 Energy policy
    5.4.1 Planning process
    5.4.2 Energy models
    5.5 Pricing elements
    5.5.1 Economist pricing approach
    5.5.2 Political approach to pricing
    5.5.3 Practical difficulties of pricing
    5.6 Institutional aspects
    5.6.1 Need for joint action levels on supply and demand
    5.6.2 Organization of national energy systems
    5.6.3 Relationship between the central administration and operators
    5.7 Conclusion
    Further reading

    6 World energy situation
    6.1 Presentation
    6.2 Consumption and production
    6.2.1 Primary energy consumption in the world
    6.2.2 Historical trends
    6.2.3 Distribution of per capita consumption
    6.2.4 Regional distribution
    6.2.5 Production and consumption by region
    6.2.6 Production and consumption by country groups
    6.3 Energy reserves and resources
    6.3.1 Definitions
    6.3.2 Reserves of oil and natural gas
    6.3.3 McKelvey diagram
    6.3.4 Proved reserves
    6.3.5 Resources
    6.4 Energy problems in developing countries
    6.4.1 Definition
    6.4.2 Dual societies
    6.4.3 Oil importers DCs
    6.4.4 Energy problems of the poorest
    6.4.5 The firewood crisis
    6.4.6 Commercial energy needs
    6.4.7 Energy characteristics of developing countries
    Further reading

    7 Case studies: The energy situation in certain countries
    7.1 Algeria
    7.2 Brazil
    7.3 China
    7.4 Côte d’Ivoire
    7.5 France
    7.6 India
    7.7 Indonesia
    7.8 Russia
    7.9 South Africa
    7.10 United Kingdom
    7.11 United States
    7.12 Energy in Europe
    7.12.1 Evolution through the years
    7.12.2 Outline of the European energy policy
    7.13 Conclusion

    8 Recent developments: New dimensions of the energy problem
    8.1 Presentation
    8.2 Environmental issues
    8.2.1 Impact of energy on the atmosphere
    8.2.2 General remarks on additional environmental impacts of energy
    8.2.3 Possible solutions
    8.3 Changing technology
    8.3.1 Introduction
    8.3.2 Exploration and production in the oil sector
    8.3.3 Improved combustion
    8.3.4 Production of electricity from natural gas
    8.3.5 Reduction of specific energy consumption
    8.3.6 Carbon capture and storage
    8.4 A chronically unstable oil market
    8.4.1 Consequences on the demand to OPEC
    8.4.2 The peak oil debate
    8.4.3 Interaction between oil demand and price
    Further reading

    9 Outlook
    9.1 Presentation
    9.2 Energy scenarios
    9.2.1 Long-term scenarios (2100)
    9.2.2 Medium term scenarios (2030–2050)
    9.3 Major trends
    9.3.1 A sharp increase in energy consumption
    9.3.2 A growing levy on world wealth
    9.3.3 Adequate resources at the scale of the planet
    9.3.4 Concern over the environmental impact
    9.3.5 Reducing the energy content of GDP
    9.3.6 A continued leading role for oil
    9.3.7 Persistence of geopolitical constraints
    9.3.8 Continuation of a sustained technological development effort
    Further reading

    Annex 1: Pedagogical remarks
    A1.1 Innovative pedagogy
    A1.2 Learning objectives
    A1.2.1 Memory
    A1.2.2 Understanding
    A1.2.3 Know-how
    A1.2.4 Capacity for analysis and synthesis

    Annex 2: Energy units and conversion factors
    A2.1 Basic units
    A2.1.1 Joule
    A2.1.2 Calorie
    A2.1.3 British Thermal Unit
    A2.1.4 kWh
    A2.2 Derived units
    A2.3 Conversion factors
    A2.3.1 Oil
    A2.3.2 Natural gas
    A2.3.3 Coal
    A2.3.4 Electricity

    Subject index


    Renaud Gicquel, May Gicquel

    This authoritative and highly pedagogical book provides a very complete and thorough analysis of global energy issues. By combining technological, economic, environmental and policy aspects of energy, which are all intrinsically interlinked, the authors provide the tools which allow the reader to fully understand the complexities of global energy issues. A must for any energy course.

    Manfred Hafner, Professor, Johns Hopkins University (Bologna Center) / PSAIS (Sciences Po Paris), Skolkovo Moscow School of Management, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei