This text introduces industrial and organisational psychologists to the discipline of human factors. It also provides a range of tools necessary for the application of human factors strategies and techniques in practice. The text is intended to respond to the growing demand for organisational psychologists to assist in the development and evaluation of initiatives that are intended to optimise the relationship between workers and the operational environments with which they engage.
• Contains practical strategies and examples that are intended to guide readers
• Combines human factors and organisational psychological concepts in a single volume
• Covers context-related examples that illustrate the application of human factors tools and principles
• Presents an integrated approach to human factors from an organisational psychological perspective
The text begins by discussing the application of human factors in organisations, together with notions of risk and uncertainty. Frameworks for human factors are considered, including error-based and system safety approaches. It explores the links between individual differences and human factors, and it covers group processes and the impact on team performance, including the role of leadership and followership. The book also presents a range of tools and techniques that can be applied by organisational psychologists to acquire human factors-related information and develop an understanding of the situation or factors that may explain human behaviour.
Table of Contents
Contents Preface Part 1: Setting the Scene Chapter 1 1.1 An Introduction to Human Factors 1.2 Human Factors and Organisational Psychology 1.3 A Brief History of Human Factors 1.4 Human Factors and Systems Thinking 1.5 Accident and Incident Analysis 1.6 Management Error 1.7 Cost-Benefit Analysis and Human Factors 1.8 Proactive Management 1.9 Organisational Design and Human Factors Chapter 2 2.1 Human Factors in Organisation 2.2 The Nature of Complex Industrial Environments 2.3 Error within Stable and Unstable Environments 2.4 Human Factors in Continuous Process Operations Chapter 3 3.1 Risk and Uncertainty 3.2 Characterising Human Behaviour 3.3 Risk and Failure 3.4 The Validity of Risk Estimates 3.5 Risk and Safety Initiatives 3.6 Risk Controls 3.7 Uncertainty and Probability 3.8 Probability Assessment 3.9 The Bowtie Method Part 2: Human Factors Frameworks Chapter 4 4.1 Human Error-Based Perspectives 4.2 The Nature of Error 4.3 Deconstructing Human Error 4.4 Preventing Human Error 4.5 The Difficulty in Modelling Human Performance 4.6 Safety Management Systems Chapter 5 5.1 System Safety Perspectives 5.2 Organisational Error 5.3 The Sequence of Accident Causation 5.4 The Systemic Model of Accident Causation 5.5 The Origins of System Failure 5.6 Accimap as Representations of System Failure 5.7 The STAMP/STPA Approach 5.8 The EAST Method 5.9 The FRAM Approach Chapter 6 6.1 Human Engineering Perspectives 6.2 Systems Engineering 6.3 Design Philosophy 6.4 User-Centred Design 6.5 Decision-Centred Design 6.6 Systems Engineering 6.7 Human Factors in Systems Engineering Chapter 7 7.1 Reliability-Based Perspectives 7.2 Reliability Engineering 7.3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment 7.4 Human Reliability Analysis 7.5 Taxonomies of Human Performance 7.6 Approaches to HRA Modelling 7.7 Quantitative versus Qualitative 7.8 Contemporary Approaches to Reliability 7.9 System Simulatio 7.10 Human Reliability Analysis in Aviation Part 3: Individual Differences and Human Factors Chapter 8 8.1 Information Processing and Human Factors 8.2 Models of Information Processing 8.3 Limitations of Human Information Processing 8.4 Implications of Information Processing Research Chapter 9 9.1 Workload and Attention 9.2 Attention 9.3 The Significance of Attention 9.4 Attention Strategies 9.5 Workload 9.6 Measuring Workload Chapter 10 10.1 Situational Awareness 10.2 Level One Situational Awareness 10.3 Level Two Situational Awareness 10.4 Level Three Situational Awareness 10.5 Team Situational Awareness 10.6 Assessing Situational Awareness Chapter 11 11.1 Decision-Making 11.2 Descriptive Decision-Making 11.3 Decision Errors 11.4 Prescriptive Decision-Making 11.5 Decision-Making in Complex Environments 11.6 Decision-Making and Reliability Analysis 11.7 Decision-Making under Uncertainty Chapter 12 12.1 Fatigue 12.2 Circadian Rhythms 12.3 Sleep Disturbance and Stages 12.4 Shift Work 12.5 Alertness-Maintenance and Sustained Attention 12.6 Individual Differences and Alertness-Maintenance (Expertise) 12.7 Fatigue Management Systems (FMS) Part 4: Group Processes and Human Factors Chapter 13 13.1 Groups and Teams 13.2 The Nature of Groups 13.3 Group Development versus Team Development 13.4 Phases of Team Development 13.5 Facilitating Group Performance 13.6 Team Performance 13.7 Critical Team Behaviours Chapter 14 14.1 Human Factors and Leadership 14.2 Contingency Approaches to Leadership 14.3 Ineffective Leadership – A Case Study 14.4 Leadership and Safety Culture 14.5 Principles of Effective Human Factors Leadership 14.6 Followership and Human Factors 14.7 Participative Leadership Chapter 15 15.1 Communication 15.2 The Nature of Communication 15.3 Communication Errors 15.4 Causes of Communication Errors 15.5 Communication and Team Performance 15.6 Communication Across Teams 15.7 Successful Communication 15.8 Semantic and Prosodic Aspects of Communication Chapter 16 16.1 Resource Management 16.2 Resource Management 16.3 An Attitude Approach to Resource Management 16.4 Resource Management Redefined 16.5 Resource Management and Human Factors 16.6 The Regulation of Resource Management Initiatives 16.7 Competency-Based Resource Management 16.8 Threat and Error Management Part 5: Human Factors Tools and Techniques Chapter 17 17.1 Hazard Analysis 17.2 Hazard and Incidents 17.3 The Process of Hazard Analysis 17.4 Minimising the Impact of Hazards 17.5 Hazard Warnings Chapter 18 18.1 Cognitive Task Analysis 18.2 Task Analysis 18.3 Cognitive Task Analysis 18.4 The Precursor, Action, Result, Interpretation Method 18.5 CTA and Symbolic Architectures 18.6 Cognitive Task Analysis and Reliability Chapter 19 19.1 Accident and Incident Analysis 19.2 Accident Investigation and Aviation 19.3 The Process of Accident Investigation 19.4 The Written Report 19.5 Accident Investigation Protocols 19.6 Probable Cause versus Significant Factors 19.7 Human Factors and Accident Investigation 19.8 Crash ‘Recorders’ Chapter 20 20.1 System Evaluation, Usability, and User Experience 20.2 Indices 20.3 Productivity 20.4 Organisational Factors and Systems Assessment 20.5 Usability Engineering 20.6 Usability and Generalisation 20.7 Archetypes and Personas 20.8 User Testing 20.9 Human-Computer Interaction 20.10 GOMS and other Models 20.11 Wireframes 20.12 Design Thinking Chapter 21 21.1 Human Factors and Ergonomics 21.2 Ergonomics and the Normal Distribution 21.3 Workstation Design and the Application of Ergonomics 21.4 Training and Ergonomics 21.5 Command and Control Systems Evaluation 21.6 A Total Quality Management Approach to Ergonomics Part 6: Human Factors in Context Chapter 22 22.1 Human Factors and Automation 22.2 Automated Systems and Human Performance 22.3 Automated Systems and Reliability 22.4 Automation and Cognitive Work Analysis 22.5 Work Domain Analysis 22.6 Implications of Cognitive Work Analysis Chapter 23 23.1 Human Factors and Aviation Systems 23.2 The Significance of Survivability 23.3 East Midlands – A Case Study in Survivability 23.4 Cabin Safety Hazards 23.5 The Origins of Air Traffic Control 23.6 The Significance of Displays Chapter 24 24.1 Human Factors and Energy 24.2 Accident Causation in Nuclear Systems 24.3 Human Error in Nuclear Systems 24.4 Hazard Identification in Nuclear Systems 24.5 Predictive Strategies 24.6 Requirements for Hazardous Facilities 24.7 Management and Nuclear Power Chapter 25 25.1 Human Factors and Marine Operations 25.2 Causal Network Analysis 25.3 Occupational Health in the Marine Environment 25.4 Human Factors Initiatives 25.5 Human Performance and Off-Shore Platforms Chapter 26 26.1 Human Factors in Healthcare 26.2 Resource Management and Teams 26.3 Organisational Factors and Healthcare26.4 Resilience and Healthcare 26.5 Decisions and Reasoning Part 7: Assessment and Report Writing Chapter 27 27.1 Human Factors Testing Methodology 27.2 Reliability 27.3 Validity 27.4 Subjective versus Objective Data Acquisition 27.5 Human Factors Methods Chapter 28 28.1 Human Factors Assessments 28.2 Human Factors Audits 28.3 Standards 28.4 International Standards Organisation (ISO) and Human Factors 28.5 Standardisation and ‘Best Practice’ 28.6 Designing an Auditing Protocol 28.7 Sampling Procedures 28.8 Human Factors and Occupational Health Chapter 29 29.1 Human Reliability Analysis 29.2 Why a Human Reliability Analysis? 29.3 The Accuracy of HRA 29.4 The Inaccuracy of HRA 29.5 Human Reliability Analysis Techniques 29.6 The Process of Human Reliability Analysis Chapter 30 30.1 Report Writing 30.2 Problem Identification 30.3 Methodology 30.4 Results 30.5 Budgetary Requirements and Anticipated Outcomes 30.6 References 30.7 Human Factors Testing 30.8 Reactive Human Factors Testing 30.9 Proactive Human Factors Testing 30.10 Human Factors Reports 30.11 Research Reports References Index
Mark Wiggins is a Professor of Organisational Psychology at Macquarie University. He gained his PhD in Psychology from the University of Otago, New Zealand in 2001, is a Registered Psychologist in Australia with an endorsed area of practice in Organisational Psychology, and is a Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society. He has a broad range of experience that spans both scholarship and practice. As a research scholar, he is the author or co-author of over 100 publications on topics ranging from diagnostic error amongst physicians and allied health practitioners to cybersecurity in the banking and energy sectors. As a practicing organisational psychologist, Mark has acted as consultant to a number of national and international organisations, including the Clinical Health Commission, Energy Queensland, the New South Wales (NSW) Port Authority, Transport for New South Wales, and the United States Federal Aviation Administration.