1st Edition

Introduction to Ocean Circulation and Modeling

By Avijit Gangopadhyay Copyright 2022
    454 Pages 166 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    480 Pages 166 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Also available as eBook on:

    Introduction to Ocean Circulation and Modeling provide basics for physical oceanography covering ocean properties, ocean circulations and their modeling. First part of the book explains concepts of oceanic circulation, geostrophy, Ekman, Sverdrup dynamics, Stommel and Munk problems, two-layer dynamics, stratification, thermal and salt diffusion, vorticity/instability, and so forth. Second part highlights basic implementation framework for ocean models, discussion of different models, and their unique differences from the common framework with basin-scale modeling, regional modeling, and interdisciplinary modeling at different space and time scales.


    • Covers ocean properties, ocean circulations and their modeling.
    • Explains the centrality of a rotating earth and its implications for ocean and atmosphere in a simple manner.
    • Provides basic facts of ocean dynamics.
    • Illustrative diagrams for clear understanding of key concepts.
    • Outlines interdisciplinary and complex models for societal applications.

    The book aims at Senior Undergraduate Students, Graduate Students and Researchers in Ocean Science and Engineering, Ocean Technology, Physical Oceanography, Ocean Circulation, Ocean Modeling, Dynamical Oceanography and Earth Science.

    Chapter 1 Our Home – The Earth
    1.1 The Basics
    1.2 The Oceans— An Introduction
    1.3 Spatial and Temporal Scales
    1.4 Oceans - The Regulator of Temperature
    1.5 Carriers of Heat — Cyclones and Currents

    Chapter 2 Responses and Forces
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 The response variables
    2.3 The Forcing Function
    2.4 Newton’s Laws
    2.5 Rate of Change
    2.6 Forces on Fluid
    2.7 The Conservation Equations
    2.8 Governing Equations

    Chapter 3 Geostrophic Equilibrium
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 The Geostrophic Balance
    3.3 Dynamic Height and Geostrophic velocity
    3.4 Large-scale Geostrophic Balance
    3.5 Inertial Motion
    3.6 Thermal Wind

    Chapter 4 Wind Driven Circulation
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Wind Stress and Eddy Viscosity
    4.3 The Ekman Balance
    4.4 The Integrated Ekman Transport
    4.5 Sverdrup Dynamics
    4.6 Vorticity
    4.7 Stommel’s Solution
    4.8 Munk’s Model and Future Directions

    Chapter 5 The Abyssal Connection
    5.1 The Basics
    5.2 The Sinking Regions
    5.3 The Conveyor Belt
    5.4 Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC)
    5.5 A Simple Model for The THC
    5.6 Wind-driven and Thermohaline

    Chapter 6 Time Dependent Circulation
    6.1 Time Dependence and Waves
    6.2 The Inertia-Gravity Wave Equations
    6.3 The Dispersion Relationship
    6.4 The Dispersion Diagram
    6.5 Kelvin Waves
    6.6 Rossby Waves

    Chapter 7 The Layering of Oceans
    7.1 The idea of layers
    7.2 The 2-layer ocean
    7.3 El Nino and La Nina
    7.4 The Indian Ni˜no (IOD)
    7.5 Instability
    7.6 Examples of BT/BC Instabilities

    Chapter 8 Introduction to Modeling
    8.1 Context of Modeling
    8.2 General Approach to Modeling
    8.3 An Early Ocean Model
    8.4 Numerical Methods
    8.5 The Basic Equations
    8.6 The Model Equations
    8.7 The Computer Algorithm
    8.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 9 Turbulence and Eddies
    9.1 Turbulence and eddy viscosity
    9.2 Turbulence and Mixed Layer

    Chapter 10 Multiscale Ocean Models
    10.1 A Brief Background
    10.2 Multiscale Models
    10.3 Generalized Vertical Coordinates
    10.4 Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS)
    10.5 The Princeton Ocean Model (POM)
    10.6 Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)
    10.7 MITGCM
    10.8 HYCOM
    10.9 MIT - MSEAS
    10.10 MOM6

    Chapter 11 Simulation and Prediction
    11.1 Context of simulation and Prediction
    11.2 Grid and Model Set up
    11.3 Model Initialization
    11.4 Optimal Interpolation
    11.5 Data Assimilation
    11.6 Example Simulations
    11.7 Prediction
    11.8 IOOS
    11.9 Applications

    Chapter 12 Synoptic Ocean Modeling
    12.1 The Synoptic Ocean
    12.2 FORMS
    12.3 FORMS – Western North Atlantic
    12.4 Process Studies with FORMS
    12.5 A World of FORMS

    Chapter 13 Interdisciplinary Modeling
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 The Basics
    13.3 The Biogeochemical Cycles
    13.4 Vertical Distribution of Dissolved Gases
    13.5 Meridional Distribution of Dissolved Gases
    13.6 Simple Biogeochemical modeling
    13.7 Biogeochemical models - Two Examples
    13.8 Biogeochemical Processes
    13.9 Modeling Fish - Stocks and Recruits

    Chapter 14 Modeling of the Climate System
    14.1 Atmospheric Modeling
    14.2 Temperature and CO2
    14.3 Climate System Models
    14.4 Scenario Modeling
    14.5 Climate Projection, Downscaling and Governance


    Avijit Gangopadhyay, PhD, is Professor at the School for Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, where he served as the Interim Dean and Associate Dean for seven years. Prof. Gangopadhyay holds a B.Tech (Naval Architecture) from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, M.Tech (Applied Mechanics) from IIT Delhi, and a PhD (Ocean Engineering) from the University of Rhode Island. He was a Research Associate at Harvard University and a Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory before joining UMass Dartmouth. Professor Gangopadhyay is currently the Samudragupta Chair Professor (Ministry of Earth Sciences) of the Center for Oceans, Rivers and Land Sciences (CORAL) at IITKGP. He has held multiple visiting, distinguished and honorary professorships at Harvard, the Institute of Oceanography of the University of São Paulo (Brazil), the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore), IITKGP, and IIT, Bhubaneswar. He has served as advisor to more than 20 MS and PhD students who have gone on to fill significant positions in the global ocean science community. Professor Gangopadhyay's research interests and contributions include operational ocean modeling and data assimilation, basin-scale climate-related modeling, multiscale multidisciplinary data-model synthesis studies and the dynamics of western boundary currents. Professor Gangopadhyay has led the development of feature-oriented regional modeling systems (FORMS) in many different oceanic regions around the world, including the western North Atlantic (Gulf Stream, Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, Mid-Atlantic Bight), Brazil Current System (Brazil Current and its eddies and subsurface flows), North Brazil Current Rings, California Current System, Kuroshio, Strait of Sicily and Arabian Sea. He has authored more than fifty peer-reviewed publications in international journals and books so far and is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Gangopadhyay initiated and helped implement the SMAST-IOUSP Dual-Degree PhD program and the summer undergraduate international internship program for IITs at UMass Dartmouth. Professor Gangopadhyay has been instrumental in establishing CORAL at IIT Kharagpur and has been associated with the School for Earth, Ocean and Climate Sciences and the Innovation Center for Climate Change at IIT Bhubaneswar from their inception.