As new digital forms of formal and informal learning proliferate, there is an increasing need to better understand how people in different regions of the world are implementing massive open online courses (MOOCs) and other forms of open educational resources (OERs). Educators, researchers, politicians, and numerous other stakeholders want to grasp what the outcomes of these initiatives are and how they can be improved. Ongoing e-learning developments related to both technology and pedagogy have pushed institutions and organizations to grapple with issues of accreditation, credentialing, quality standards, innovative assessment, and learner motivation and attrition, among other areas of concern.
In response, MOOCs and Open Education Around the World explores and illuminates unique implementations of MOOCs and open education across regions and nations. The book also focuses on the various opportunities as well as the dilemmas presented in this rapidly evolving age of technology-enabled learning. What are the different delivery formats, interaction possibilities, assessment schemes, and business models? What are the key controversies or issues that must be discussed and addressed? This edited collection explains MOOCs and open education trends and issues in a variety of contexts, shares key research findings, and provides practical suggestions and recommendations for the near future.
Table of Contents
Foreword #1: The Role of MOOCs in the Future of Education, George Siemens, University of Texas Arlington, USA
Foreword #2: Open(ing up) Education for All…Boosted by MOOCs?, Fred Mulder, UNESCO/ICDE Chair in Open Educational Resources at the Open University of the Netherlands
Preface: Actions Leading to "MOOCs and Open Education Around the World," Curtis J. Bonk, Indiana University, USA, Mimi Miyoung Lee, University of Houston, USA, Thomas C. Reeves, The University of Georgia, USA, and Thomas H. Reynolds, National University, USA
PART ONE. MOOCs and Open Education: Historical and Critical Reflections
1. The MOOC Misstep and the Open Education Infrastructure, David Wiley, Co-founder and Chief Academic Officer, Lumen Learning, USA
2. The Single Canon: MOOCs and Academic Colonization, Karen Head, The Georgia Tech Institute of Technology, USA
3. MOOCs and Open Education in Japan: A Case of the Open University of Japan, Kumiko Aoki, The Open University of Japan
PART TWO. Open Education Opportunities Now and On the Horizon
4. MOOCs, MERLOT, and Open Educational Services, Gerard L. Hanley, Executive Director, MERLOT and Assistant Vice Chancellor, California State University, Office of the Chancellor, USA
5. Enabling Open Education: A Feasibility Protocol for Australian Higher Education, Carina Bossu, University of Tasmania, Australia, David Bull, University of Southern Queensland, Australia, and Mark Brown, Dublin City University, Ireland
6. Open Education at the University of Cape Town, Laura Czerniewicz, Glenda Cox, Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams, and Michelle Willmers, University of Cape Town, South Africa
PART THREE. Researching and Evaluating Notions of MOOCs and Openness
7. Strange Bedfellows?!: What can MOOCs learn from Distance Education?, Markus Deimann, Alexander Lipka, and Theo Bastiaens, FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany
8. MOOCs Downunder: Insights from the Open2Study Experience, Maggie Hartnett, Massey University, New Zealand, Mark Brown, Dublin City University, Ireland, Amy Wilson, Massey University, New Zealand
9. Reflections of an early MOOC provider: Achievements and Future Directions, Jeff Haywood, Amy Woodgate, and David Dewhurst, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
PART FOUR. Thoughts on the Quality of MOOCs and OER
10. AMP: A Tool for Characterizing the Pedagogical Approaches of MOOCs, Karen Swan, Scott Day, Leonard Bogle, and Traci van Prooyen, University of Illinois Springfield, USA
11. Quality Assurance for Open Educational Resources: What’s the Difference?, Sanjaya Mishra, Commonwealth of Learning, New Delhi, India, and Asha Kanwar, Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, BC, Canada
12. MOOCs for Opening Up Education and the OpenupEd Initiative, Fred Mulder, UNESCO Chair in Open Educational Resources at the Open University of the Netherlands, Darco Jansen, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU), The Netherlands
PART FIVE. Designing Innovative Courses, Programs, and Models of Instruction
13. Unbundling Higher Education and the Georgia Tech Online M.S. in Computer Science: A Chronicle, Richard DeMillo, The Georgia Tech Institute of Technology, USA
14. Creating a Temporary Spontaneous Mini-Ecosystem through a MOOC, Paul Kim, Stanford University, USA and Charlie Chung, Class Central, USA
15. Learning about MOOCs by Talking to Students, Chuck Severance, University of Michigan, USA
16. The Collaborative Design and Development of MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development, Bernard Robin, and Sara McNeil, University of Houston, USA
17. Feminist Alternatives to Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): The Inception of the Distributed Open Collaborative Course (DOCC), Erika M Behrmann, Bowling Green State University, USA, Radhika Gajjala, Bowling Green State University, USA, Elizabeth Losh, University of California, San Diego, USA, T.L. Cowan, The New School, USA, Penelope Boyer, San Antonio, TX, USA, Jasmine Rault, The New School, USA, Laura Wexler, Yale University, USA, CL Cole, University of Illinois, USA
PART SIX. MOOCs and Open Education in the Developing World
18. Changing the Tune: MOOCs for Human Development? – A Case Study, Balaji Venkataraman and Asha Kanwar, Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, BC, Canada
19. Harnessing the Power of Open Learning to Share Global Prosperity and Eradicate Poverty, Sheila Jagannathan, World Bank, Washington DC, USA
20. The Glocalization of MOOCs in Southeast Asia, Zoraini Wati Abas, Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional – The Sampoerna University, Jakarta, Indonesia
21. Situating MOOCs in the Developing World Context: The Philippines Case Study, Melinda dela Pena Bandalaria and Grace Javier Alfonso, University of the Philippines Open University, the Philippines
22. OER and MOOCs in Africa: The AVU Experience, Griff Richards, Athabasca University, Canada; Bakary Diallo, African Virtual University, Nairobi, Kenya
PART SEVEN. MOOC and Open Learning Alternatives in Corporate Settings
23. Open Learning in the Corporate Setting, Elliot Masie, The Learning CONSORTIUM @ The MASIE Center, USA
24. ALISON: A New World of Free Certified Learning, Mike Feerick, CEO & Founder, ALISON, Ireland
25. Alternative Models of MOOCs, Ray Schroeder, Vickie Cook, Carrie Levin, and Michele Gribbins, University of Illinois, Springfield, USA
PART EIGHT. Future Glimpses and Open Options
26. The Learning Future: Personalised Learning in an Open World. Michael Keppell, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
27. Peer2Peer and Open Pedagogy of MOOCs to Support the Knowledge Commons, Rita Kop, Yorkville University, New Brunswick, Canada, Hélène Fournier, National Research Council Canada
28. MOOCs 2030: A Future for Massive Open Learning, Rebecca Ferguson, The Open University, UK, Mike Sharples, The Open University, UK, and Russell Beale, University of Birmingham, UK
29. Open Options: Recapping this Book with Eyes on the Future, Thomas H. Reynolds, National University, USA, Thomas C. Reeves, The University of Georgia, USA, Mimi Miyoung Lee, University of Houston, USA, and Curtis J. Bonk, Indiana University, USA
Curtis J. Bonk is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University, USA, and President of CourseShare.
Mimi Miyoung Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Houston, USA.
Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at The University of Georgia, USA.
Thomas H. Reynolds is Professor of Teacher Education at National University, USA.
"I am truly astonished by the creative energy that the MOOC has unleashed in recent years. This book is a wonderful collection of some of the very best thinking in this very young field."
—Sebastian Thrun, CEO and cofounder of Udacity
"Curt Bonk and his colleagues have captured some of the central issues in the early development of MOOC technology - from completion rates to content to community - and have brought together many of the top names in the field. The result is an authoritative collection."
—Stephen Downes, Senior Researcher, National Research Council of Canada and the originator of the MOOC
"Grounded in history, this volume clearly articulates the goals, challenges, and promise of MOOCs globally. It is filled with practical takeaways that will be useful to corporate leaders, university administrators, professors, instructional designers, policymakers, and technologists alike."
—Dennis Yang, Chief Executive Officer, Udemy
"If you are interested in the future of learning, whether you are a teacher, administrator, parent, or citizen, this book is a great place to start."
—Howard Rheingold, Internet Pioneer, TED talk presenter, and author of several books including Net Smart and Smart Mobs
"Bonk, Lee, Reeves, and Reynolds accomplish a tremendous task in bringing together dozens of key international leaders to discuss the efforts of open education and MOOCs. Numerous social technologies are open and mostly free thereby providing us the opportunity to connect with others in ways that globally transform our relational and organizational values. It was only natural that we would see this movement impact education. The authors deliver a diverse perspective on these phenomena discussing not only where we have been and where we are going in higher education, but providing us practical information to guide our research and instruction. Moreover, they do not shy away from the challenges and realities of these trends; instead, they offer the reader a critical perspective too. If you want a comprehensive look at the state of higher education and technology today, this is the book to get."
—Tanya Joosten, Director, eLearning Research and Development, Academic Affairs, and Co-Director, National Research Center for Distance Education and Technological Advancements, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
"For over twenty years you can count on the fact that if you’ve visited the frontiers of online learning, you will have encountered Dr Curt Bonk. He and his colleagues, Mimi Lee, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, have done it again here! This volume represents the best thinking and ultimate compendium of opinion on online learning’s latest manifestation . . . MOOCs."
—Herb Hilderley, Managing Partner, Paxen Publishing LLC
"After MOOCs took the world by storm in 2012, more sober-minded onlookers concluded that their impact may not be what the breathless adulation they first received indicated. This book cuts through these perspectives to offer a comprehensive look at the promise and peril of MOOCs, as it delves deep into the complicated issues underlying them through a variety of perspectives from different authors."
—Michael Horn, Co-Founder and Executive Director, Education, Clayton Christensen Institute, and author of Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns and Blended: Using Disruptive Innovation to Improve School
"Open educational resources, practices, and their poster child—MOOCs—deliver a digital learning dividend to billions of learners globally. Bonk, Lee, Reeves, and Reynolds and have assembled a "who’s who" of expertise in this quickly emerging field, each of whom shares their insights into the means to both improve and reduce the cost of learning."
—Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University, Canada, and author of numerous books including Theory and Practice of Online Learning
"Curt Bonk and his colleagues again stir the world in thinking about where open education is going . . . and why. This book is a tour de force collection of both thought and insight for the numerous evolving paths, perils, and potential gleaned from early experiences with MOOCs and the many forms of open education."
—Bradley C. Wheeler, Vice President for IT, CIO, & Professor, Indiana University
"A long awaited book which reveals controversies surrounding MOOCs and some debates and critical analysis of these controversies; the strengths of open education and how when both these concepts are combined innovatively, will result in greater learning impact for a technological diverse community. A must have, must read, and must analyse book for more impactful understanding!"
—Abtar Kaur, Dean, School of E-Education, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, UAE
"A most authoritative examination of MOOCs and their implications for education in the world from some of the finest leading voices in the field! A must read for anyone interested in emerging trends in technology and education."
—Yong Zhao, Professor, Presidential Chair, and Director, Institute for Global and Online Education, College of Education, University of Oregon
"Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and open educational resources have a great deal of potential to transform the world of corporate training and learning here in Korea too. Few managers, however, have specific ideas or strategies about how to surf this gigantic wave and leverage it. This book shows a clear path for strategic moves to all corporate learning professionals who want to shift to a new era of empowered employee learning."
—Mijin Cho, Vice President of Leadership Develop Group at Hyundai Motor Group University
"The world really needs MOOCs and Open Education Around the World. It is extremely important for academics, practitioners, administrators, and leaders to understand fully the phenomenon that is the MOOC in order to make the right decisions in considering their design, development, and delivery. This book, edited by some of the foremost scholars in our field, provides a full account of MOOCs and open education. It answers all the pressing questions while offering the necessary guidance to make informed and sensible decisions. In addition, it provides a definitive source of timely and salient information for the countless people for whom MOOCs are of interest and value, and, as such, it has my highest recommendation."
—Professor Ron Oliver, Deputy Vice-Chancellor for Teaching, Learning and International, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia
"Now that MOOC’s have become part of Higher Education delivery landscape all over the world, we are fortunate that Curt Bonk, Mimi Lee, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds have marshalled an extensive social network of leaders in the use of technology in education to give us a thorough review of their impact as well as potential future contributions. The experiences drawn from such diverse backgrounds are invaluable to anyone interested in the globalisation of education. In addition, the views and ideas offered on implications, concerns, and opportunities make this book a highly valuable resource for those charged with understanding how open educational resources, MOOCs, and other forms of distance learning all fit together. My colleagues and I in the UK have extensively used Bonk’s strategic advice before and I am pleased to offer congratulations on yet another unquestionably insightful and yet practically based book."
—Nigel Banister, Chief Global Officer, Manchester Business School, UK
"This edited collection provides a comprehensive account of current practice and the possibilities afforded by MOOCs and open education approaches. Curt Bonk and his colleagues present a broad range of views sharing practice and theory from researchers and practitioners who have led the way in designing and evaluating accessible education. I love this book! It is a great addition for everyone interested in rising to the challenge of meeting the demands of the learners of today and the future."
—Denise Kirkpatrick, Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President (Academic), University of Western Sydney, Australia
"In the midst of rapid transformation, where past and current concepts, paradigms, and systems converge to create a new innovation resulting in significant disruptions, a compass and a map would be highly useful to make better sense of what is happening. Fortunately, this book serves as just such a map to venture into this emerging world of MOOCs. While the MOOC is relatively new in rendition, it is not so new in origin ("Massive," as in the wide availability of textbooks; "Open," as the Web and the Internet; "Online," as in distance education and eLearning; "Courses," as in organized instruction). This book will help join more dots, connect to other pictures, and consolidate a new baseline of understanding. As history has demonstrated, when this happens, new philosophical and technological outcomes will result."
—Daniel Tan, Group Chief Learning Officer, Taylor’s Education Group, Malaysia
"Anyone who is in the field of educational technology and/or online learning has an opinion about MOOCs and the so-called "MOOC Revolution." Curt Bonk and his colleagues, Mimi Lee, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, have provided us with an outstanding book, capturing the thoughts of leaders and experts on this timely subject. The book takes you from skeptics to supporters, while including case studies from around the world. Whether you are currently offering MOOCs, taking a MOOC, or unsure of their impact on education, this is a must-read."
—Darcy Hardy, Associate Vice President, Enterprise Consulting at Blackboard Inc.
"The irrepressible Professor Curt Bonk has now focussed his mind, and the minds of his esteemed colleagues, on the impact of MOOCs and Open Education not just in the USA but around the world. By taking an open view of what MOOCs are and by including the wider dimensions of Open Education practice, this book provides a real insight that will be a useful support for anyone who is studying the principles or practice of Open Education. The book is well timed as many of the early adopters have learnt the lessons from MOOCs and Open Education and these lessons will inform the next generation of educators and learners in the Open Education environment. Clearly, this is the ‘must read’ book on the subject."
—Haydn Blackey, Director of the Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching, the University of South Wales, UK
"This fascinating collection of stories, use cases, and research studies underscores the dramatic and transformative impact that comes from opening the walls of the institution and removing restrictions on how we share our work. Kudos to Drs. Bonk, Lee, Reeves, and Reynolds for inspiring so many experts from the newly emergent land of open education. Whether working in massive courses or from essential open frameworks for action, openness leads to transparency, transparency to trust. From trust, there are no limits as to what is possible."
—Ellen D. Wagner, Chief Research and Strategy Officer, Predictive Analytics Reporting (PAR) Framework, Inc., and Partner and Senior Analyst for Sage Road Solutions, LLC
"The concept of the MOOC has probably been the most discussed and debated topic in education during the past eight years. Despite some concerns about the actual benefits, the quality, and the business model of MOOCs, hundreds of new MOOCs are being developed and offered every day. Yet, not much literature can be found that reports on the phenomenon comprehensively. In response, this book offers critical reflections and reports on the development and practice of MOOCs around the world. It will give the readers a comprehensive view on both the benefits of as well as the issues around MOOCs that still need to be addressed to make it contribute significantly to the notion of open education."
—Tian Belawati, Rector, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia, and President of the International Council for Open and Distance Education, 2012-2015
"Just as MOOCs stormed the world only a few years ago, Bonk, Lee, Reeves, and Reynolds have brought the world of open education scholars together for a thoughtfully diverse book about the potential for open education globally. This book, thankfully, gives homage to the relatively longer history and backdrop of distance and open education, which, as the authors note, has been building over many years and is capped by the extraordinary opportunity and publicity granted by the coming of MOOCs. Kudos to the editors and authors for their broad geographic, historical, and conceptual perspective."
—Richard T. Hezel, Founder and Chairman, Hezel Associates, LLC
"This compendium of 29 essays on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) is useful and illuminating... A number of the authors have been part of groundbreaking educational experiments, and they continue to revolutionize higher education. As a result, getAbstract finds that this collection offers essential information for students, educators, educational administrators, and anyone interested in education, social change or cyber-culture."