MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South
Challenges, Successes, and Opportunities
With e-learning technologies evolving and expanding at high rates, organizations and institutions around the world are integrating massive open online courses (MOOCs) and other open educational resources (OERs). MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South explores the initiatives that are leveraging these flexible systems to educate, train, and empower populations previously denied access to such opportunities.
Featuring contributors leading efforts in rapidly changing nations and regions, this wide-ranging collection grapples with accreditation, credentialing, quality standards, innovative assessment, learner motivation and attrition, and numerous other issues. The provocative narratives curated in this volume demonstrate how MOOCs and OER can be effectively designed and implemented in vastly different ways in particular settings, as detailed by experts from Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific/Oceania, and the Caribbean.
This comprehensive text is an essential resource for policy makers, instructional designers, practitioners, administrators, and other MOOC and OER community stakeholders.
Table of Contents
Dedication Foreword Preface Chapter 1. MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: Successes and Challenges Section 1: Historical Perspectives Chapter 2. An Historical Journey into K-MOOCs Leading to Possible Collaborations with North Korea Chapter 3. Current State of Practice and Research on MOOCs in Mainland China: A Critical Review Section 2: Current Practices and Designs Chapter 4. The Different Faces of Open in Egypt Chapter 5. Delivering on the Promise of Open Educational Resources: Pitfalls and Strategies Chapter 6. Massive Online Open Courses: The State of Practice in Indonesia Chapter 7. Orchestrating Shifts in Perspectives and Practices about the Design of MOOCs Chapter 8. A Different Kind of MOOC Architecture for Emerging Economies in Oceania and the Pacific Chapter 9. Nepali High School Students in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Impressive Results and a Promising Future Chapter 10. MOOCs in Latin America: Trends and Issues Chapter 11. The Emotional Benefits of Diversity in MOOCs: Reshaping Views of Online Education Through Exposure to Global Learners Section 3: MOOCs and Open Education for Professional Development Chapter 12. Insights into a Nationwide pdMOOC portal: Bilgeis.net of Turkey Chapter 13. Promoting Open Education and MOOCs in Thailand: A Research Based Design Approach Chapter 14. Capacity Building of Teachers: A Case Study of the Technology-Enabled Learning (TEL) Massive Open Online Courses Chapter 15. The Development of MOOCs as Incubation Space for Professional and Institutional Learning: A View from South Africa Section 4: Multi-Country Collaborations and Collections Chapter 16. Courses for a Cause: MOOC Contributions to a "Better Place for All" Chapter 17. MOOCs in Six Emerging APEC Member Economies: Trends, Research and Recommendations Chapter 18. A Glimpse on How MOOCs from IDB are Impacting Learners in Latin America and the Caribbean Section 5: Government Policies and Strategies Chapter 19. Advancing Open Education Policy in Brazilian Higher Education Chapter 20. Global Trends and Policy Strategies and their Implications for the Sustainable Development of MOOCs in Malaysia Chapter 21. OERs for Development (OERs4D) Framework as Designed and Implemented in the Philippines Chapter 22. Disruptive Learning: Inspiring the Advancement of MOOCs in the Middle East Section 6: Organizational Innovations Chapter 23. Open Education at the World Bank: A Significant Dividend for Development Chapter 24. From OER to OEP: The case of an OER-integrated teacher education eLearning program in Africa Chapter 25. Responsive innovations in MOOCs for Development: A case study of AgMOOCs in India Chapter 26. Implementing a Skills Accelerator to Prepare Students in Kenya for Online-Only Bachelors and MBA Programs that Require MOOCs and OER: A Case Study Section 7: The Future of MOOCs and Open Education Chapter 27. Evolution of Online Learning Environments and the Emergence of Intelligent MOOCs Chapter 28. MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: Future Opportunities Acknowledgments
Ke Zhang is Professor of Learning Design and Technology at Wayne State University, USA.
Curtis J. Bonk is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University, USA, and President of CourseShare.
Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at The University of Georgia, USA.
Thomas H. Reynolds is Professor of Teacher Education at National University, USA.
"Contributions from 25 emerging economies make this book a unique compendium of innovative ideas and valuable insights. The chapters highlight the ‘open’ dimension of MOOCs and the potential impact on promoting lifelong learning and sustainable development. The range and diversity of contributions is a fulfilling read for both policy makers and practitioners and demonstrates the vision and commitment of the editors to inclusion, innovation, and collaboration."
—Asha Kanwar, President and CEO, Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, Canada
"MOOCs have reached a plateau. This book helps to understand how different types of economies have made use of this innovative delivery mechanism and are preparing to overcome the current plateau to take advantage of as well as expand upon the potentiality of MOOCS."
—Professor Miguel Nussbaum, Co-Editor of Computers & Education, School of Engineering, Universidad Católica de Chile
"Since its introduction a dozen years ago the MOOC has become a global phenomenon. The editors do an excellent job capturing a diversity of applications and perspectives. We see the MOOC not merely as an online course, but a vehicle for improving access, advancing pedagogy, and fostering progress for good around the world. This reflects the original purpose of the MOOC and I am delighted to see it carried forward in this volume."
—Stephen Downes, Senior Researcher, National Research Council of Canada and the originator of the MOOC
"Following a common pattern for innovations in educational technology, Open Educational Resources - MOOCs in particular – were grossly over-hyped in the early 2010s. This book takes a global perspective in providing a reality check for the 2020s. While only a few emerging economies (e.g., India) are deploying home-produced MOOCs at scale, fears that they would be a vehicle for a neo-colonialist agenda have proved over-blown. Encouragingly, the book reports burgeoning research activity on open education, boding well for the future."
—Sir John Daniel, Chancellor, Acsenda School of Management, Vancouver, BC
"Informative and inspiring! This edited collection of studies, research, reports, and experiences on specific countries and regions across the global setting provides invaluable information on the current situation, trends, and challenges of MOOCs and OERs. We will apply the enhanced understanding and insight to keep innovating and expanding the impact of these knowledge tools to improve social and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean."
—Juan Cristóbal Bonnefoy, Chief, Inter-American Institute for Economic and Social Development (INDES), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
"Not often do so many famous names get together to share such relevant information. At a time when MOOCs have become mainstream it is necessary for us to re-think their position in emerging economies. The authors provide a comprehensive look at the past, present, and future of MOOCs and give valuable insights into international policy and practice. This book is a must-have for open education practitioners world-wide."
—Johannes Cronje, Dean of Informatics and Design, Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa
"This is not just another MOOC book providing the ‘openness philosophy.’ Instead, it is a well-balanced realistic overview of projects, ideas, and evaluations throughout the world. A valuable addition to a too often dominant western world view and approach."
—Theo J. Bastiaens, Rector Magnificus, Open University, the Netherlands
"MOOCs have been a game changer in the higher education world for over a decade now. What is clear from this fascinating book is that the trend toward MOOCs and open education is not only impacting in affluent countries, but today they play a huge role throughout the developing world. In fact, late starter countries benefit from the success and limits of various trials in advanced countries as well as their own innovations and in-roads. This book delineates myriad exciting MOOC approaches, open education perspectives, and real world lessons as well as the associated social and political issues and ramifications in the Global South. As such, it provides diverse points of view for educators who need to practice MOOC approaches in developing countries."
—Okhwa Lee, Professor, Chungbuk National University, Korea
"I have been so looking forward to this edited volume from Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds. It is yet another extraordinary book by a set of proven authors on topics that are highly current and extremely relevant to educators in the Global South and beyond."
—Zoraini Wati Abas, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic and Educational Technology), Wawasan Open University, Malaysia
"This book offers an insightful and rare perspective on the evolution of MOOCs in the Global South. An illustrious group of authors address issues ranging from historical perspectives, current practices, designs, multi-country collaborations, policies, and organizational innovations that impact the implementation of MOOCs in specific contexts. The diverse perspectives from several countries make this unique offering a must read for those who want to design online learning environments to enable more people from more places to learn with and from each other."
—Charlotte Nirmalani (Lani) Gunawardena, Distinguished Professor, Organization, Information, & Learning Sciences Program, University of New Mexico
"MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South brings together the multi-country issues on MOOCs and OERs which are 21st century innovations. The authors have explored a variety of interesting data across the regions of the world. This insightful new guide helps the readers to make smart decisions while designing and creating MOOCs and OERs, respectively."
—Professor Madhu Parhar, Director STRIDE, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi India
"Timely and eye-opening . . . This brilliant and comprehensive book from Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds offers a solid foundation for those interested in learning more about MOOCs and open educational content."
—Christopher J. Devers, Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology
"Throughout the book, there is a wealth of information for individuals seeking a deeper understanding of how MOOCs and open education are being adopted around the world."
—Kirk Perris, International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning
"Very timely . . . impressive . . . highly relevant and thoughtfully designed."
—Gráinne Conole, Asian Journal of Distance Education
"Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds offer readers an enticing overview of MOOCs and OERs in the Global South regions from a diverse range of perspectives. Overall, this publication introduces a series of successes and challenges of localised MOOCs and OERs that make this book both a highly valuable resource and a stepping stone for intense discussion, debate, and strategic planning."
—Feng-Ru Sheu, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning
"This book proves emphatically that the MOOC is not a failed experiment. In fact, this important work does two things: it clearly demonstrates, first, the elastic nature of the MOOC, and, second, the potent results derived from thoughtful application. The chapters present manifold successes and propose future promise. The stories are not hyperbole; they are curated by pioneers, visionaries, and thought leaders. . . . Read this book; it is illuminating, timely, extremely relevant, and full of adoptable strategies."
—Robert Bromber, Distance Education
"An important and timely publication . . . this is a very useful book that will serve to both inform and inspire educators and administrators and policy makers struggling to make effective and affordable education available to all."
—Terry Anderson, Journal of Learning for Development
"While authors of the individual chapters have done an excellent job in elaborating their experiences, the expertise, knowledge, research base and usual experiences of the editors have added value remarkably to the quality of content of this volume. . . . a must-read."
—S K Pulist, Global and Lokal Distance Education