Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The Basics, 1st Edition

By Christakis Constantinides

CRC Press

235 pages | 105 B/W Illus.

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Description

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology.

The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution.

The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of magnetic fields. It introduces NMR spectroscopy and spectral acquisition and imaging techniques employing various pulse sequences. The final section explores the advanced imaging technique of parallel imaging.

Structured so that each chapter builds on the knowledge gained in the previous one, the book is enriched by numerous worked examples and problem sets with selected solutions, giving readers a firm grasp of the foundations of MRI technology.

 

Reviews

"Overall this is excellent book and author has taken lot of time/effort to explain complex physiscs concepts. It will be of great use to all the radiology trainees who wish to learn more about MRI physiscs."

—Jagadish Malla, The Society of Radiologists in Training

Table of Contents

Fourier Transformations

Mathematical Representation of Images

Continuous Images

Delta Function

Separable Images

Linear Shift Invariant (LSI) Systems

Cascade Systems

Stability

Fourier Transformation and Inverse FT

Properties of Fourier Transformations

Frequency Response

Discrete Images and Systems

Separable Images

Linear Shift Invariant Systems

Frequency Response—Point Spread Sequence

Discrete Fourier Transform and Its Inverse

Properties of Discrete Fourier Transforms

Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Quantum Mechanical Description of NMR: Energy Level Diagrams

Boltzmann Statistics

Pulsed and Continuous Wave NMR

Spin Quantum Numbers and Charge Densities

Angular Momentum and Precession

Overview of MR Instrumentation

The Classical View of NMR—A Macroscopic Approach

Rotating Frame and Laboratory Frame

RF Excitation and Detection

Molecular Spin Relaxation—Free Induction Decay

T1 and T2 Measurements

Relaxation Times in Biological Tissues

Molecular Environment and Relaxation

Biophysical Aspects of Relaxation Times

Spectral Density and Correlation Times

T1 and T2 Relaxation

Quadrupolar Moments

Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance II: Imaging

Magnetic Field Gradients

Spin–Warp Imaging and Imaging Basics

Slice Selection

Multislice and Oblique Excitations

Frequency Encoding

Phase Encoding

Fourier Transformation and Image Reconstruction

Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance III: The Formalism of k-Space

MRI Signal Formulation

k-Space Formalism and Trajectories

Concept of Pulse Sequences

Echo Planar Imaging

Pulse Sequences

T1, T2, and Proton Density-Weighted Images

Saturation Recovery, Spin–Echo, Inversion Recovery

Gradient–Echo Imaging: FLASH, SSFP, and STEAM

Bloch Equation Formulation and Simulations

Technical Limits and Safety

Introduction to Instrumentation

Magnets and Designs

Stability, Homogeneity, and Fringe Field

Gradient Coils

RF Coils

RF Decoupling

B Field Distributions and Simulations

Safety Issues

Tour of an MRI Facility

Hardware

Imaging

Generation of MRI Images

Safety

Signal, Noise, Resolution, and Image Contrast

Signal and Noise Sources in MRI

Signal to Noise Ratio

Contrast-to-Noise Ratio

Tissue Parameters and Image Dependence

Imaging Parameters and Image Dependence

Resolution

Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging

Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy

Fundamental Principles

Localized Spectroscopy

Imaging Equation and Spectroscopic Imaging

Advanced Imaging Techniques: Parallel Imaging

Introduction to Parallel Imaging

Parallel Imaging Fundamentals

Transmit Phased Arrays

Problem Sets

Multiple Choice Questions

Solutions to Selected Problems

Answers to Multiple Choice Questions

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

About the Author

Christakis Constantinides, PhD joined the faculty of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Cyprus in September 2005. He has also acted as a consultant to his start-up firm, Chi-Biomedical Ltd. ever since. His specific research interest focuses on the study of cardiac mechanical function, computational and tissue structure modeling and characterization, hardware design, and functional and cellular tracking methods using MRI. The goal of his research efforts is the complete characterization of the electromechanical function of the heart in small animals and humans, aiming to promote the understanding of mechanisms of human disease that is predominantly underlined by genetic causes.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED000000
MEDICAL / General
MED080000
MEDICAL / Radiology & Nuclear Medicine
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC059000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Biomedical