1st Edition

Magnetic Resonance Imaging The Basics

By Christakis Constantinides Copyright 2014
    240 Pages 105 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    236 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology.

    The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution.

    The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of magnetic fields. It introduces NMR spectroscopy and spectral acquisition and imaging techniques employing various pulse sequences. The final section explores the advanced imaging technique of parallel imaging.

    Structured so that each chapter builds on the knowledge gained in the previous one, the book is enriched by numerous worked examples and problem sets with selected solutions, giving readers a firm grasp of the foundations of MRI technology.


    Fourier Transformations
    Mathematical Representation of Images
    Continuous Images
    Delta Function
    Separable Images
    Linear Shift Invariant (LSI) Systems
    Cascade Systems
    Fourier Transformation and Inverse FT
    Properties of Fourier Transformations
    Frequency Response
    Discrete Images and Systems
    Separable Images
    Linear Shift Invariant Systems
    Frequency Response—Point Spread Sequence
    Discrete Fourier Transform and Its Inverse
    Properties of Discrete Fourier Transforms
    Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Quantum Mechanical Description of NMR: Energy Level Diagrams
    Boltzmann Statistics
    Pulsed and Continuous Wave NMR
    Spin Quantum Numbers and Charge Densities
    Angular Momentum and Precession
    Overview of MR Instrumentation
    The Classical View of NMR—A Macroscopic Approach
    Rotating Frame and Laboratory Frame
    RF Excitation and Detection
    Molecular Spin Relaxation—Free Induction Decay
    T1 and T2 Measurements
    Relaxation Times in Biological Tissues
    Molecular Environment and Relaxation
    Biophysical Aspects of Relaxation Times
    Spectral Density and Correlation Times
    T1 and T2 Relaxation
    Quadrupolar Moments
    Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance II: Imaging
    Magnetic Field Gradients
    Spin–Warp Imaging and Imaging Basics
    Slice Selection
    Multislice and Oblique Excitations
    Frequency Encoding
    Phase Encoding
    Fourier Transformation and Image Reconstruction
    Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance III: The Formalism of k-Space
    MRI Signal Formulation
    k-Space Formalism and Trajectories
    Concept of Pulse Sequences
    Echo Planar Imaging
    Pulse Sequences
    T1, T2, and Proton Density-Weighted Images
    Saturation Recovery, Spin–Echo, Inversion Recovery
    Gradient–Echo Imaging: FLASH, SSFP, and STEAM
    Bloch Equation Formulation and Simulations
    Technical Limits and Safety
    Introduction to Instrumentation
    Magnets and Designs
    Stability, Homogeneity, and Fringe Field
    Gradient Coils
    RF Coils
    RF Decoupling
    B Field Distributions and Simulations
    Safety Issues
    Tour of an MRI Facility
    Generation of MRI Images
    Signal, Noise, Resolution, and Image Contrast
    Signal and Noise Sources in MRI
    Signal to Noise Ratio
    Contrast-to-Noise Ratio
    Tissue Parameters and Image Dependence
    Imaging Parameters and Image Dependence
    Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging
    Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy
    Fundamental Principles
    Localized Spectroscopy
    Imaging Equation and Spectroscopic Imaging
    Advanced Imaging Techniques: Parallel Imaging
    Introduction to Parallel Imaging
    Parallel Imaging Fundamentals
    Transmit Phased Arrays
    Problem Sets
    Multiple Choice Questions
    Solutions to Selected Problems
    Answers to Multiple Choice Questions


    Christakis Constantinides, PhD joined the faculty of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Cyprus in September 2005. He has also acted as a consultant to his start-up firm, Chi-Biomedical Ltd. ever since. His specific research interest focuses on the study of cardiac mechanical function, computational and tissue structure modeling and characterization, hardware design, and functional and cellular tracking methods using MRI. The goal of his research efforts is the complete characterization of the electromechanical function of the heart in small animals and humans, aiming to promote the understanding of mechanisms of human disease that is predominantly underlined by genetic causes.

    "Overall this is excellent book and author has taken lot of time/effort to explain complex physiscs concepts. It will be of great use to all the radiology trainees who wish to learn more about MRI physiscs."
    —Jagadish Malla, The Society of Radiologists in Training