1st Edition

Magnetics, Dielectrics, and Wave Propagation with MATLAB® Codes

By Carmine Vittoria Copyright 2012
    472 Pages 202 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Because future microwave, magnetic resonance, and wave propagation systems will involve miniature devices, nanosize structures, multifunctional applications, and composites of various types of materials, their development requires distinctly multidisciplinary collaborations. That means specialized approaches will not be sufficient to satisfy requirements.

    Anticipating that many students lack specialized training in magnetism and magnetics, Magnetics, Dielectrics, and Wave Propagation with MATLAB® Codes avoids application-specific descriptions.Instead, it connects phenomenological approaches with comprehensive microscopic formulations to provide a new and sufficiently broad physical perspective on modern trends in microwave technology. Reducing complex calculation approaches to their simplest form, this book’s strength is in its step-by-step explanation of the procedure for unifying Maxwell’s equations with the free energy via the equation of motion. With clear and simple coverage of everything from first principles to calculation tools, it revisits the fundamentals that govern the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and wave propagation in magneto-dielectric materials.

    Introduces constitutive equations via the free energy, paving the way to consider wave propagation in any media

    This text helps students develop an essential understanding of the origin of magnetic parameters from first principles, as well as how these parameters are to be included in the large-scale free energy. More importantly, it facilitates successful calculation of said parameters, which is required as the dimensionality of materials is reduced toward the microscopic scale. The author presents a systematic way of deriving the permeability tensor of the most practical magnetic materials, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. Using this simple and very general approach, he effectively bridges the gap between microscopic and macroscopic principles as applied to wave propagation.

    Review of Maxwell Equations and Units
    Maxwell Equations in MKS System of Units
    Major and Minor Magnetic Hysteresis Loops
    Tensor and Dyadic Quantities
    Maxwell Equations in Gaussian System of Units
    External, Surface, and Internal Electromagnetic Fields

    Classical Principles of Magnetism
    Historical Background
    First Observation of Magnetic Resonance
    Definition of Magnetic Dipole Moment
    Magnetostatics of Magnetized Bodies
    Electrostatics of Electric Dipole Moment
    Relationship between B and H Fields
    General Definition of Magnetic Moment
    Classical Motion of the Magnetic Moment

    Introduction to Magnetism
    Energy Levels and Wave Functions of Atoms
    Intra-Exchange Interactions
    Heisenberg Representation of Exchange Coupling
    Multiplet States
    Hund Rules
    Spin–Orbit Interaction
    Lande gJ-Factor
    Effects of Magnetic Field on a Free Atom
    Crystal Field Effects on Magnetic Ions
    Super-exchange Coupling between Magnetic Ions
    Double Super-exchange Coupling
    Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Metals

    Free Magnetic Energy
    Thermodynamics of Non-interacting Spins: Paramagnets
    Ferromagnetic Interaction in Solids
    Ferrimagnetic Ordering
    Spinwave Energy
    Effects of Thermal Spinwave Excitations
    Free Magnetic Energy
    Single Ion Model for Magnetic Anisotropy
    Pair Model
    Demagnetizing Field Contribution to Free Energy
    Numerical Examples
    Cubic Magnetic Anisotropy Energy
    Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy Energy

    Phenomenological Theory
    Smit and Beljers Formulation
    Examples of Ferromagnetic Resonance
    Simple Model for Hysteresis
    General Formulation
    Connection between Free Energy and Internal Fields
    Static Field Equations
    Dynamic Equations of Motion
    Microwave Permeability
    Normal Modes
    Magnetic Relaxation
    Free Energy of Multi-Domains

    Electrical Properties of Magneto-Dielectric Films
    Basic Difference between Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments
    Electric Dipole Orientation in a Field
    Equation of Motion of Electrical Dipole Moment in a Solid
    Free Energy of Electrical Materials
    Magneto-Elastic Coupling
    Microwave Properties of Perfect Conductors
    Principles of Superconductivity: Type I
    Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconductors: Type I
    London’s Penetration Depth
    Type-II Superconductors
    Microwave Surface Impedance
    Conduction through a Non-Superconducting Constriction
    Isotopic Spin Representation of Feynman Equations

    Kramers–Kronig Equations

    Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Magneto-Dielectric Media
    Spinwave Dispersions for Semi-Infinite Medium
    Spinwave Dispersion at High k-Values
    The k¼0 Spinwave Limit
    Surface or Localized Spinwave Excitations
    Pure Electromagnetic Modes of Propagation: Semi-Infinite Medium
    Coupling of the Equation of Motion and Maxwell’s Equations
    Normal Modes of Spinwave Excitations
    Magnetostatic Wave Excitations
    Ferrite Bounded by Parallel Plates

    Spin Surface Boundary Conditions
    A Quantitative Estimate of Magnetic Surface Energy
    Another Source of Surface Magnetic Energy
    Static Field Boundary Conditions
    Dynamic Field Boundary Conditions
    Applications of Boundary Conditions
    Electromagnetic Spin Boundary Conditions

    Matrix Representation of Wave Propagation
    Matrix Representation of Wave Propagation in Single Layers
    Ferromagnetic Resonance in Composite Structures: No Exchange Coupling
    Ferromagnetic Resonance in Composite Structures: Exchange Coupling


    Each chapter concludes with Problems, References, and Solutions


    Carmine Vittorias career spans 40–45 years in academia and research establishments. His approach to scientific endeavors has been to search for the common denominator or thread that links the various sciences to make some logical sense. The fields of study include physics, electrical engineering, ceramics, metallurgy, surface or interfaces, nano-composite films. His interest in science ranges from the physics of particle–particle interaction at the atomic scale to nondestructive evaluation of bridge structures, from EPR of a blood cell to electronic damage in the presence of gamma rays, from design of computer chips to radar systems, from microscopic interfacial structures to thin film composites. The diversity and seriousness of his work and his commitment to science are evident in the ~ 400 publications in peer-reviewed journals, patents, and two other scientific books. Dr. Vittoria is also the author of a nonscientific book on soccer for children. He is a life fellow of the IEEE (1990) and an APS fellow (1985). He has received research awards and special patent awards from government research laboratories.

    Dr. Vittoria was appointed to a professorship position in 1985 in the Electrical Engineering Department at Northeastern University, and was awarded the distinguished professorship position in 2001 and a research award in 2007 by the College of Engineering. In addition, he was cited for an outstanding teacher award by the special need students at Northeastern University. His teaching assignments included electromagnetics, antenna theory, microwave networks, wave propagation in magneto-dielectrics, magnetism and superconductivity, electronic materials, microelectronic circuit designs, circuit theory, electrical motors, and semiconductor devices.

    ... Even if you thought you understood magnetism, it is likely that you would learn a lot ... Many books on magnetism end where Vittoria’s is just beginning. ... An unusual feature of Vittoria’s book are the solutions that are included to the problems at the end of each chapter. These solutions form a lengthy set of examples for sorting out the many theories and models now used in trying to understand magnetism. ... If you make magnetism your profession, or are just casually involved with magnetic materials, it is worth reading a book such as Vittoria’s. ... about as approachable as this subject can get.
    --Alfy Riddle, IEEE Microwave Magazine