Making Sense of Cyber Capabilities for Small States Case Studies from the Asia-Pacific
Domingo explores the potential of cyber capabilities for small states in the Asia-Pacific, the most active region for cyber conflict. He develops a systematic explanation for why Brunei, New Zealand, and Singapore have developed or are developing cyber capabilities.
Studies on cyber conflict and strategy have substantially increased in the past decade but most have focused on the cyber operations of powerful states. This book moves away from the prominence of powerful states and explores the potential of cyber capabilities for small states in the Asia-Pacific, the most active region for cyber conflict. It develops a systematic explanation of why Brunei, New Zealand, and Singapore have developed or are developing cyber capabilities despite its obscure strategic value. The book argues that the distribution of power in the region and a "technology-oriented" strategic culture are two necessary conditions that influence the development of cyber capabilities in small states. Following this argument, the book draws on neoclassical realism as a theoretical framework to account for the interaction between these two conditions. The book also pursues three secondary objectives. First, it aims to determine the constraints and incentives that affect the utilization of cyber capabilities as foreign policy instruments. Second, the book evaluates the functionality of these cyber capabilities for small states. Lastly, it assesses the implications of employing cyber capabilities as foreign policy tools of small states.
This book will be an invaluable resource for academics and security analysts working on cyber conflict, military strategy, small states, and International Relations in general.
1.Introduction: Small States and Cyber Capabilities 2. Mind the Gap: The Literature on Cyber Security and International Relations 3. Explaining Cyber Capability Development 4. Distribution of Power and Cyber Capability Development 5. Strategic Culture and Cyber Capability Development 6. Cyber Capabilities as a Foreign Policy Instrument 7. Conclusion: Small States in Cyberspace. Appendix 1: List of Interview Participants
"This is an important book that sheds light on small states' use of cyber capabilities. With so much of the literature focusing on the US, Russia and China, Domingo's analysis breaks new ground and makes a compelling case that cyber capabilities have not enabled small states to better compete with more powerful rivals. It is a significant contribution to both academic and policy debates, and key reading for those interested in cyber, strategy, and the Asia Pacific."
-Rory Cormac, Professor of International Relations, University of Nottingham
"Highly recommended. Systematic and scholarly assessment of what small states can and can't make of the cyber era."
-Robert Ayson, Professor of Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington
"Francis C. Domingo addresses a crucial and timely topic of cyber capabilities in the Asia Pacific. Unlike more conventional cybersecurity works, Domingo systematically investigates the under-explored topic of small states in the contemporary strategic environment and the place of their cyber capabilities in exercising foreign policy. The case studies of Brunei, New Zealand, and Singapore provide crucial insights into how the distribution of power in the region and a "technology-oriented" strategic culture shape national capability and their future use. The book is an excellent source for learning about the full spectrum of challenges small states face in foreign policy and the extent to which cyber capabilities can provide solutions in different scenarios. This book should be essential reading for anyone interested in the role of cyber capabilities in international relations and neoclassical realist conceptualization of new domains of warfare."
-Viktoriya Fedorchak, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway