Manufacturing Technology Transfer : A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies book cover
1st Edition

Manufacturing Technology Transfer
A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies

ISBN 9781466567634
Published March 13, 2013 by Productivity Press
236 Pages 71 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Based on a bestselling book originally published in Japanese, Manufacturing Technology Transfer: A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies offers time-tested methods and little-known tips for achieving successful transfer of technology along with the skills required to operate that technology. Designed to support a series of lectures on technology transfer within a master’s course on the management of technology, it presents the results of years of research carried out at Hiroshima University.

The book delves into the authors’ decades of experience transferring technology between Japan and the rest of the world, particularly to developing countries from where much of the world’s future economic growth is expected. It contains case studies of successful technology transfers from both the ship building and food equipment industries. Its wide-reaching coverage examines methods of skill transfer, production management, and manufacturing company classification.

Introducing readers to the engineering activities that occur within the manufacturing industry, the book illustrates the engineering technology activities involved in manufacturing, along with the production management activities required to support them. It also explains how job simulators can help shorten learning times in the manufacturing industry in the same way that flight simulators are used to teach flying skills to pilots.

The book outlines a framework for teaching and learning processes that can be visualized in terms of an S-shaped learning curve. It explains how technology transfer overseas should be supported by contractual agreements between the parties concerned. Detailing the legal/contractual responsibilities for all parties involved, it also describes what you should do if problems arise during the transfer.

Integrating previously unpublished research results with illustrative case studies, this book is suitable for a wide audience within the manufacturing industry—including manufacturing engineering students in both developed and developing countries, those responsible for the development of manufacturing engineers in industry and elsewhere, and anyone interested in the international activities of Japanese manufacturing companies.

Table of Contents

Manufacturing Industry
The Machine Tool Manufacturing Process 
     Production Engineering
Information and Object Flows in Manufacturing
Compatible Manufacturing Methods
Changes in Processing Accuracy
Classification of Manufacturing Industry and Products by Number of Parts and Processing Accuracy
Industrial Field and the Type of Technical Skill Required
Abilities Required by Engineers and Technicians
Discussion Questions

Learning Curves and Their Utilization
The Learning Curve
Engineering Equivalents to the Learning Curve
Specification of Skill Levels by Means of Learning Curves 
     Specification of Skill Levels and Its Benefits 
     Individual Learning Curves and Learning Curves According to Work 
     Evaluation of Individual Skill Levels 
     Evaluating a Company’s Technical Competence 
     Learning Curves and the Lifetime Employment System
Industry Field Surveys
     Skill Levels and Learning Times
     Age and Service Years of Staff
     Companies’ Technical/Skill Level Estimated from Service Years
Skill Level and Standard Deviation
     Proficiency Measurement
     Skill Level and Standard Deviation
Discussion Questions

Skill Transfer in Manufacturing Industries
Technology and Skill Transfer
     Skill Transfer from the Time of Chuang Tzu
      Technical Skill Classification
      The Teaching of Technical Skills
      Learning Curve Time Reduction
          The Early Period
          The Fast Learning Period
          The Maturity Period
Work De-Skilling
     Historical Examples
     Limits to De-Skilling
     Mechanization and Automation of Skillful Work
     Skill Level and Automation
The Security of Technology Transfer
      Human Resources
     Material Things
Turnover Rate and Technology/Skill Transfer
Discussion Questions

Virtual Manufacturing to Speed Up Learning
Hand Scraping
An Experimental Study of Expert Scraping Judgments
Hand Scraping Strategy
Computer Simulation of Scraping
     High-Point Marking
     Interpretation and Judgment
Computer Simulation and Education
Discussion Questions

Production Management and Technology Transfer in Manufacturing
Production Management
     Production Activities and Management
     Production Systems and Their Features
The Product Life Cycle
     Management Technologies in the Product Life Cycle
     Production Strategy in the Product Life Cycle
Technology Transfer and Management of Technology
     Appropriate Technology Transfer and the Role of Management
     Importance of State of Development
     Importance of Human Resources
     Importance of Market Competition
     Importance of Strategic Factors
     Technology Strategy and Issues of Management Technology
          Offensive Strategy
          Defensive Strategy
          Imitative Strategy
          Dependent Strategy
          Traditional Strategy
          Opportunity Strategy
     Strategic Technology Transfer and Sustainable Development
Discussion Questions

Overseas Expansion and Technology Transfer
Special Features of Technology Transfer Overseas
Historical Background to Overseas Technology Transfer
Overseas Expansion and Conditions of Technology Transfer
     Strategy in Technology Transfer
     Statistics of Overseas Expansion
     The Content of Technology Transfer
     Important Considerations in Overseas Technology Transfer
     Procedures of Technology Transfer
Future Trends in Overseas Technology Transfer
Discussion Questions

Technology Transfer and Legal Affairs
Function of Legal Affairs in Technology Transfer
Example Framework of Agreement Covering Technology Transfer
     The States of Technology Transfer
     The Basic Agreement
     The Technological License Agreement
     The Technical Staff Dispatch Agreement
     The Technical and Operation Staff Training Agreement
     The Engineering Agreement
     The Plant Construction Agreement
     The Machinery Procurement Agreement
Common Points to Note in the Various Agreements’ Legal Affairs Articles
     Party to the Agreement
     Signer to the Agreement
     Effective Period
     Agreement Transfer (Assignment)
     Governing Law
     Controlling Text
     Entire Agreement
     Supplement to or Amendment of Agreement
     Force Majeure
     Termination of Agreement
     Settlement of Disputes
Discussion Questions

Technology Transfer from Participants’ Viewpoints
Background of Technology Transfer
     The Scope of This Chapter
     Japan’s Needs for Technology Transfer
     Asian Nations’ Needs for Technology Transfer
New Technology Transfer—Issues That Should Be Tackled
A Technology Transfer Survey
     Purpose of the Investigation
     Survey Outline
Results from the Survey
     Issues as Seen by Receiving Sides
     Issues as Seen by Transferring Sides
     Country-Specific Issues
Road Map for Resolving Problems
     Differences between the Transferring and Receiving Sides
     Issues Arising at the Individual Level
          Cause 1: The Personality of the Individual in Charge
          Cause 2: Not Understanding the Technology Transfer Agreement and Its Range
          Cause 3: A Language Barrier
          Cause 4: Insufficient Basic Learning and Skills on the Receiving Side; and also
          Cause 5: Inherent Problems in the Transfer Process
     Issues Arising at Transferring Company Level
          Cause 1: Unclear Agreement Documents and Lack of Mutual Understanding
          Cause 2: Inadequate Risk Management
          Cause 3: Agreement Documents Not Anticipating All Problems
          Cause 4: Difficulties in the Management of Technology (MOT) 
     Issues Arising at an Educational Level
          Cause 1: Insufficient Basic Education
          Cause 2: Shortage of Cultural Exchange Education
          Cause 3: A Language Barrier
     Issues Arising at Local and National Levels
          Cause 1: The Business Environment and Laws of the Receiving Country
          Cause 2: Insufficient National Support
     Communication and Language Barriers
Discussion Questions

Overseas Expansion Technology Decision Making
Overseas Expansion and the Learning Curve
     A Way of Thinking to Underpin Overseas Expansion
     Is the Learning Speed Different Overseas?
     Decisions to Be Made When Expanding Overseas
Problems after Transfer
Overseas Expansion Decision Making Using Block Diagrams
     Benefits of Block Diagrams
     A Costing Example, with Quality and Defect Rate Constraints
Discussion Questions

Example of Shipbuilding Industry in Overseas Technology Transfer
General Survey of Shipbuilding Transfers and Selection of Successful and Unsuccessful Cases
     Comparison Measures
     Survey Results
     Selections of Successful and Unsuccessful Cases
Case Study 1: Tsuneishi Heavy Industries
     Background to Overseas Expansion
     Selection of the Place
      Selection of Local Partners
     Technology Transfer in THI
Case Study 2: Technical Cooperation in Shipbuilding to Indonesia
     Outline of Indonesia’s Shipbuilding Industry
     Development of Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry
          An Initial Success Story (the Origin of the Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry)
          The Caraka Jaya, Mina Jaya, and Other Projects
          Japanese Assistance to Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry
     Problems of Indonesian Shipbuilding Development
          Problems of National Projects
          Problems of Alienation from the Needs of the Shipping Industry
          Management Problems
          Methods for Introduction of Technology
     Tacit Knowledge
     Construction Strategies
     Supply Chain Problems
     Motivation and Management Problems
Discussion Questions

Example of Overseas Expansion (Food Machinery)
The Subsidiary Companies’ Products
Manufacturing Effectiveness and Costs
Other Factors to Consider
Overseas Expansion Example: Thailand
Discussion Questions


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Yasuo Yamane received his undergraduate engineering education from Hiroshima University before taking a position as a machine tool designer with the Toshiba Machine Tool Company. He gained his doctoral degree, again from Hiroshima, in 1980, before commencing an academic career. He has been a professor (1983-present), Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering (2005-2009), and the Director of Hiroshima University’s Venture Business Laboratory (2000-2003) and Collaborative Research Centre (2003-2005). He is currently (2009-present) the Vice President of Hiroshima University with a special responsibility for international affairs. It is this broad background experience, added to his career-long special researches in metal machining, machine tool design, and technology transfer, that has given him the insights and desire to develop the present book’s scope and contents. He is also a co-author of the advanced level text book Metal Machining: Theory and Applications.

Tom Childs was the lead-author of the book Metal Machining: Theory and Applications. He received his undergraduate and postgraduate degrees from Cambridge University. From 1989 until his retirement in 2008 was Professor of Manufacturing Engineering in the School of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Leeds. He has published some 200 papers in the areas of metal machining and more generally on friction and wear in engineering components. He has spent three extensive periods as guest scholar / visiting professor in Japan, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Osaka University and most recently Hiroshima University. It is these and other exchanges that have given him an interest and insight into the origins of Japanese manufacturing skills and culture (sometimes described by the word ‘monozukuri’ in Japan) and which underpin his co-authorship of this book.


I am on a committee to start a new program in manufacturing engineering on our campus this fall and this book will help us define the types of student outcomes and research goals we need to have. We are now having to move to a more holistic, modeling, optimization and global manufacturing view which includes more management and strategy which is covered in this book.
—Mark Henderson, Arizona State University

Very nice topic and I especially enjoyed Chapter 9 with its model and thinking-processes for how (or not) to expand overseas and outsourcewell done.
—Paul Wright, University of California, Berkeley