Microorganisms are ubiquitously present in petroleum reservoirs and the facilities that produce them. Pipelines, vessels, and other equipment used in upstream oil and gas operations provide a vast and predominantly anoxic environment for microorganisms to thrive. The biggest technical challenge resulting from microbial activity in these engineered environments is the impact on materials integrity. Oilfield microorganisms can affect materials integrity profoundly through a multitude of elusive (bio)chemical mechanisms, collectively referred to as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). MIC is estimated to account for 20 to 30% of all corrosion-related costs in the oil and gas industry.
This book is intended as a comprehensive reference for integrity engineers, production chemists, oilfield microbiologists, and scientists working in the field of petroleum microbiology or corrosion. Exhaustively researched by leaders from both industry and academia, this book discusses the latest technological and scientific advances as well as relevant case studies to convey to readers an understanding of MIC and its effective management.
Table of Contents
Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production
MIC and Materials Selection
Richard Eckert and Bill Amend
Microorganisms in the Oil and Gas Industry
Ian M. Head
Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry
Torben Lund Skovhus, Jason S. Lee and Brenda J. Little
Corrosion Risks Associated with (Bio)chemical Processes in Sour Systems Due to Nitrate Injection or Oxygen Ingress
Sven Lahme and Casey Hubert
Effects of Reservoir Souring on Materials Performance
David Fischer, Monica Canalizo-Hernandez, and Amit Kumar
Management of MIC in the Oil and Gas Industry
Torben Lund Skovhus and Richard B. Eckert
Diagnosing Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
Jason S. Lee and Brenda J. Little
MIC Detection and Assessment – A Holistic Approach
Mohita Sharma and Gerrit Voordouw
Quantification of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms by Quantitative PCR: Current Challenges and Developments
Júlia R. de Rezende
Application of Biocides and Chemical Treatments to Both Combat Microorganisms and Reduce (Bio)Corrosion
Brandon E. L. Morris and Geert M. van der Kraan
MIC Mitigation – Coatings and Cathodic Protection
Sandra L. Wilson and Thomas R. Jack
MIC Monitoring – Developments, Tools, Systematics and Feedback Decision Loops in the Offshore Production Systems
Renato De Paula and Victor Keasler
Review of Current Models for MIC Management
Erlend Stokstad Andersen, Torben Lund Skovhus, and Elizabeth Hillier
MIC under Conditions of Oxygen or Nitrate Ingress
Jaspreet Mand, Yin Shen, Heike Hoffmann and Gerrit Voordouw
Integrated Methodology to Characterize Microbial Populations and Functions Across Small Spatial Scales in an Oil Production Facility
Christopher R. Marks, Joshua T. Cooper, Vincent Bonifay, Blake W. Stamps, Huynh M. Le, Brian H. Harriman, Annette De Capite, Kathryn R. Brown, Deniz F. Aktas, Jan Sunner, Bradley S. Stevenson, Kathleen E. Duncan, Michael J. McInerney, Yves Gunaltun, Pierre Souquet and Joseph M. Suflita
Determining the Source of H2S on an Offshore Oil Production Platform
John J. Kilbane II
Microbiologically Induced Corrosion Associated with the Wet Storage of Subsea Pipelines (Wet Parking)
Laura L. Machuca
How Production Chemicals Can Influence Microbial Susceptibility to Biocides and Impact Mitigation Strategies
Timothy J Tidwell, Victor Keasler, and Renato De Paula
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
Irene Roalkvam and Karine Drønen
Effects of Environmental Conditions on External Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of Underground Pipelines: A Laboratory and Field Study Using Electrical Resistance (ER) Bioprobes
Stefan Jansen, Mirjam van Burgel, Berthil Slim, and Jan Gerritse
The Use of Multiple Microbial Population Analysis Techniques to Diagnose Microbially Influenced Corrosion Potential in Oil and Gas Systems
Jennifer Fichter and Elizabeth J. Summer
Multidisciplinary Approach to Evaluate MIC of Two Stainless Steel in a Hypersaline Environment Using a Dynamic System
Viviane de Oliveira, Diogo Coutinho, Mariana Galvão, and Márcia Lutterbach
Identifying, Treating, and Monitoring for MIC in a Heavily Waterflooded Oilfield
Jodi B. Wrangham
MIC Cases Histories in Oil, Gas and Associated Operations
Faisal Mohammed Al-Abbas
Torben Lund Skovhus is Researcher and Project Manager at VIA University College in the Centre of Applied Research & Development in Building, Energy & Environment (Horsens, Denmark). He graduated from Aarhus University, Denmark in 2002 with a Master's degree (cand.scient.) in Biology. In 2005 he finished his PhD from Department of Microbiology, Aarhus University. In 2005, Torben was employed at Danish Technological Institute (DTI) in the Centre for Chemistry and Water Technology, where he was responsible for the consultancy activities for the oil and gas industry around the North Sea. Torben was heading DTI Microbiology Laboratory while he was developing several consultancy and business activities with the oil and gas industry. He founded DTI Oil & Gas in both Denmark and Norway where he was Team and Business Development Leader for five years. Thereafter Torben worked as Project Manager at DNV GL (Det Norske Veritas) in the field of Corrosion Management in both Bergen and Esbjerg.
Torben is currently chair of NACE TEG286X and ISMOS TSC an organization he co-founded in 2006. He is an international scientific reviewer and the author of 50+ technical and scientific papers and book chapters related to industrial microbiology, applied biotechnology, corrosion management, oilfield microbiology, water treatment and safety, reservoir souring and biocorrosion.
Dennis R. Enning is an Engineering Associate at ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (EMURC) in Houston, TX. He received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (Bremen, Germany) where he investigated the fundamental mechanisms of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) by lithotrophic, sulfate-reducing bacteria. He obtained his undergraduate education in microbiology, biochemistry and cell biology at Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich (Germany) and at the University of Edinburgh (UK). In his current role at EMURC, Dr. Enning leads a research program on the assessment, mitigation and monitoring of MIC with the aim of improving MIC management in oil and gas operations. He further serves as the global subject matter expert on microbial corrosion within ExxonMobil Corporation.
Jason S. Lee is a Materials Engineer at the US Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Virginia and his B.A. in Chemistry and Cellular/Molecular Biology from the University of Michigan. His research focuses on improved fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), biodeterioration and biodegradation of metals, coatings and fabrics. His has expertise in electrochemical techniques, computational modeling and environmental electron microscopy for biological analysis. He is an active member of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) and The Electrochemical Society and has co-authored over 80 peer-reviewed publications in the fields of MIC and localized corrosion.
"This is an authoritative book, written by world leaders in the field of MIC from both academia and industry. The book is suitable for a broad readership from engineers in the oil and gas industry, to microbiological researchers. There is a good mix of figures and tables, which makes the book very engaging. It has a clear approach to explaining the complex nature of MIC in upstream processing. The information presented is very current making it an excellent resource for all in the field."
— Corinne Whitby, University of Essex, United Kingdom
"This book encompasses all of the key aspects of MIC in the upstream oil & gas industry such as the importance of materials, key microbial processes involved in MIC, and the importance of effective MIC management – all exemplified by a number of excellent case studies. This book will be of great use to both newcomers to MIC and experts in the field!"
— Lisa Gieg, University of Calgary, Canada
"I believe this to be a good, comprehensive and up to date overview of pertinent MIC topics that should appeal to researchers and to practitioners of MIC responsible for performing root cause analyses, failure analyses, and coordinating corrosion management plans for oil and gas companies."
— Gary Jenneman, GJ Microbial Consulting, LLC, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA
"This book contains a group of very distinguished scientists and engineers of international caliber with impressive working experience and track record on the topic of their writing. The book contents have a very good balance between basic research and applications and cases, offering valuable important information to practitioners."
— Ji-Dong Gu, University of Hong Kong, China
"If anybody is interested in the topic of MIC or has to deal with its consequences in the field, then this book is a must-have for them. A very thorough and well-thought book with up-to-date and practical content."
—Ali Morshed, Freelance Consultant, Corrosion Engineer, and Author & Trainer, United Kingdom