Microdrop Generation: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Microdrop Generation

1st Edition

By Eric R. Lee

CRC Press

272 pages | 92 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849315596
pub: 2002-12-10
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Description

The applications and use of inkjet-like microfluidic drop ejectors have grown rapidly in many fields, including biotechnology, drug discovery, combinatorial chemistry, and microfabrication. Yet to date, end users and even designers of microdrop systems for scientific applications have had no books to reference on the subject. Microdrop Generation meets the needs of all those who need to understand the physics and engineering behind microdrop technology. It also contains detailed, how-to information on the practical construction, operation, troubleshooting, and fluid formulation for microdrop ejection systems. Written by a highly experienced practitioner of the art, the book is organized as a self-contained tutorial of microdrop technology ideal for those new to the field.

Reviews

"Microdrop technology has underpinned an exponential growth in a range of applications that could not have been envisaged at the time of the early inkjet printers. Current applications are as diverse as high-throughput screening for drug candidates to 3-D prototyping for nanoscale fabrication. Microdrop generation is also critical to many major industries ranging from the food, cosmetics and vaccine producers to the manufacturers of integrated circuits and displays. What continues to be exciting is that there are still undiscovered ways to create and use microdrops, many of which have huge commercial implications that have yet to be tapped.

"Microdrop Generation by Eric R. Lee does more than justice to this complex and fascinating subject. It is essentially a practical book that provides students, scientists, and engineers with all the relevant theory - from particle physics to fluid dynamics - while never losing sight of how the theory works in reality. It covers the practicalities of how microdrops can be ejected, how drives and nozzles can be engineered, as well information on key imaging techniques and hints on troubleshooting.

"This book is the result of nearly ten years of experiment and wide consultation by an expert in the field, and apart from being the definitive work in the area, is not only highly informative, but also highly readable. In our view Microdrop Generation must be an essential addition to the bookshelf of scientists working in many areas, as well as a valuable preparatory text for science and engineering departments alike who want to produce students who are industrially and academically useful.'"

-Ottilia Saxl, CEO, The Institute of Nanotechnology, Scotland, UK

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A MICRODROP?

Characteristics of Microdrops

Use of Microdrops in Pure Science

Use of Microdrops in Applied Science

Biotechnology Applications of Microdrops

Applications in Manufacturing and Engineering

METHODS OF GENERATING MONODISPERSE MICRODROPS

Acoustically Disrupted Continuous Fluid Jet

Thermal Inkjet (Bubble Jet)

Piezoelectric Direct Pressure Pulse

Focused Acoustic Beam Ejection

Liquid Spark Inkjet

Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet

Flextensional Aperture Plate Inkjet

Electro-Rheological Fluid Inkjet

Liquid Ink Fault Tolerant Process

TopSpotÒ Microdrop Ejector

Summary and Recommendations

PARTICLE KINETICS OF EJECTED MICRODROPS

Reynolds Number and Stokes Law

Terminal Velocity

Relaxation Time Constant

Streaming

Impact

Brownian Motion

Motion in Electric Fields

ELECTRIC CHARGING OF MICRODROPS

Rayleigh Limit to Charging Microdrops

Drop Charging Mechanisms

Practical Drop Charge Control Methods

Variations in the Induced Charge

ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS FOR RELIABLE MICRODROP GENERATION

Conditions Needed for Monodisperse Drop-On-Demand Operation

Drive Pulse Amplitude

Drive Pulse Shape

Internal Pressure Level

Drop Ejection Rate

Fluid Level

Fluid Temperature

TROUBLESHOOTING MICRODROP EJECTORS

Clogged Nozzles

Damaged Nozzles

Internal Air Bubbles

Misdirected Jets

Overly Wetted Meniscus

Internal Pressure

Insufficient Drive Amplitude

Nonoptimal Pulse Waveform

Pulse Rate

Problematic Fluids

Mechanical Mounting

Imaging System

Recommended Startup Procedure to Test a New Drop Generation and Imaging System

IMAGING MICRODROPS

Direct Viewing of Illuminated Microdrops

Bright Background Imaging of Microdrops

Bright Source Stroboscopically Illuminated Droplets

Light Emitting Diode Illumination Arrays

Imaging System Synchronization

Optics

Cameras

Stroboscopic Illumination Sources

Low-Cost Microdrop Imaging Hardware

DROP EJECTOR DRIVE ELECTRONICS

Gated Voltage Sources

Linear Pulse Power Amplifiers

FABRICATION OF EJECTION APERTURE NOZZLES

Ejection Nozzle Requirements

Fabricating Acute Edge Conical Glass Nozzles

Fabricating Tapered Profile Glass Nozzles

Silicon Micromachined Ejection Apertures

Fabrication Sequence for Silicon Micromachined Apertures

Electroformed Ejection Apertures

Jewel Orifices

Metal Optical Pinhole Apertures

Small Hole Generating Techniques

Anti-Wetting Surface Coatings

DROP EJECTOR CONSTRUCTION

Tubular Reservoir Piezoelectric Drop Ejectors

Metal Body Drop Ejectors

Glass, Straight Tube, Welded Aperture

Glass, Pipette, Welded Aperture

Glass, Miniature, Welded Aperture

Piezoelectric Element Configuration

Piezoelectric Disc Actuator

Rectangular Slab Drive Elements

Cylindrical Piezoelectric Drive Elements

Integral Heating Elements

PRESSURE CONTROL

Manometer Tube Pressure Control System

Variable Height Reservoir Pressure Control System

Automated Pressure Control

FLUID ENGINEERING FOR MICRODROP EJECTORS

Problematic Fluids

Nonclogging Fluids

First Drop Reliability

Jetting Stability

Directional Stability

Freedom from Satellite Drops

Wide Jet Velocity Tolerance

Drive Waveform Tolerance

Repetition Rate

Environmental and Temporal Stability

Chemical Reactivity with Drop Generator

Toxicity

Cost

COMPONENTS OF DROP-ON-DEMAND EJECTOR FLUIDS

Payload

Solvent

Humectants

Viscosity Modifiers

Surfactants

Dispersants

Polymeric Fluid Elasticity Agents

Anti-Fungal Agents (Biocides, Preservatives)

Chelating Agents

pH Controllers

Corrosion Inhibitors

Defoamer

Electrical Conductivity Salts

Additives Specific for Thermal Inkjet

Additives Specific for Inkjet Image Printing

MAKING JETTABLE SUSPENSIONS OF GROUND SOLIDS

Obtaining Small Diameter Particles

Necessary Particle Size

Wetting and Dispersing

Filtering and Settling

Essential References

Ejectability

Final Caution - Make Sure You Have a Real Suspension

APPENDIX I. SETTING UP A MICRODROP SYSTEM ASAP

APPENDIX II. EXAMPLE INKJET FLUID FORMULATIONS FROM PATENT LITERATURE

APPENDIX III. EJECTION TESTS OF BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

About the Series

Nano- and Microscience, Engineering, Technology and Medicine

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC009000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Engineering (General)
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS