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1st Edition

Microdrop Generation




ISBN 9780849315596
Published December 10, 2002 by CRC Press
272 Pages 92 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The applications and use of inkjet-like microfluidic drop ejectors have grown rapidly in many fields, including biotechnology, drug discovery, combinatorial chemistry, and microfabrication. Yet to date, end users and even designers of microdrop systems for scientific applications have had no books to reference on the subject. Microdrop Generation meets the needs of all those who need to understand the physics and engineering behind microdrop technology. It also contains detailed, how-to information on the practical construction, operation, troubleshooting, and fluid formulation for microdrop ejection systems. Written by a highly experienced practitioner of the art, the book is organized as a self-contained tutorial of microdrop technology ideal for those new to the field.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A MICRODROP?
Characteristics of Microdrops
Use of Microdrops in Pure Science
Use of Microdrops in Applied Science
Biotechnology Applications of Microdrops
Applications in Manufacturing and Engineering
METHODS OF GENERATING MONODISPERSE MICRODROPS
Acoustically Disrupted Continuous Fluid Jet
Thermal Inkjet (Bubble Jet)
Piezoelectric Direct Pressure Pulse
Focused Acoustic Beam Ejection
Liquid Spark Inkjet
Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet
Flextensional Aperture Plate Inkjet
Electro-Rheological Fluid Inkjet
Liquid Ink Fault Tolerant Process
TopSpotÒ Microdrop Ejector
Summary and Recommendations
PARTICLE KINETICS OF EJECTED MICRODROPS
Reynolds Number and Stokes Law
Terminal Velocity
Relaxation Time Constant
Streaming
Impact
Brownian Motion
Motion in Electric Fields
ELECTRIC CHARGING OF MICRODROPS
Rayleigh Limit to Charging Microdrops
Drop Charging Mechanisms
Practical Drop Charge Control Methods
Variations in the Induced Charge
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS FOR RELIABLE MICRODROP GENERATION
Conditions Needed for Monodisperse Drop-On-Demand Operation
Drive Pulse Amplitude
Drive Pulse Shape
Internal Pressure Level
Drop Ejection Rate
Fluid Level
Fluid Temperature
TROUBLESHOOTING MICRODROP EJECTORS
Clogged Nozzles
Damaged Nozzles
Internal Air Bubbles
Misdirected Jets
Overly Wetted Meniscus
Internal Pressure
Insufficient Drive Amplitude
Nonoptimal Pulse Waveform
Pulse Rate
Problematic Fluids
Mechanical Mounting
Imaging System
Recommended Startup Procedure to Test a New Drop Generation and Imaging System
IMAGING MICRODROPS
Direct Viewing of Illuminated Microdrops
Bright Background Imaging of Microdrops
Bright Source Stroboscopically Illuminated Droplets
Light Emitting Diode Illumination Arrays
Imaging System Synchronization
Optics
Cameras
Stroboscopic Illumination Sources
Low-Cost Microdrop Imaging Hardware
DROP EJECTOR DRIVE ELECTRONICS
Gated Voltage Sources
Linear Pulse Power Amplifiers
FABRICATION OF EJECTION APERTURE NOZZLES
Ejection Nozzle Requirements
Fabricating Acute Edge Conical Glass Nozzles
Fabricating Tapered Profile Glass Nozzles
Silicon Micromachined Ejection Apertures
Fabrication Sequence for Silicon Micromachined Apertures
Electroformed Ejection Apertures
Jewel Orifices
Metal Optical Pinhole Apertures
Small Hole Generating Techniques
Anti-Wetting Surface Coatings
DROP EJECTOR CONSTRUCTION
Tubular Reservoir Piezoelectric Drop Ejectors
Metal Body Drop Ejectors
Glass, Straight Tube, Welded Aperture
Glass, Pipette, Welded Aperture
Glass, Miniature, Welded Aperture
Piezoelectric Element Configuration
Piezoelectric Disc Actuator
Rectangular Slab Drive Elements
Cylindrical Piezoelectric Drive Elements
Integral Heating Elements
PRESSURE CONTROL
Manometer Tube Pressure Control System
Variable Height Reservoir Pressure Control System
Automated Pressure Control
FLUID ENGINEERING FOR MICRODROP EJECTORS
Problematic Fluids
Nonclogging Fluids
First Drop Reliability
Jetting Stability
Directional Stability
Freedom from Satellite Drops
Wide Jet Velocity Tolerance
Drive Waveform Tolerance
Repetition Rate
Environmental and Temporal Stability
Chemical Reactivity with Drop Generator
Toxicity
Cost
COMPONENTS OF DROP-ON-DEMAND EJECTOR FLUIDS
Payload
Solvent
Humectants
Viscosity Modifiers
Surfactants
Dispersants
Polymeric Fluid Elasticity Agents
Anti-Fungal Agents (Biocides, Preservatives)
Chelating Agents
pH Controllers
Corrosion Inhibitors
Defoamer
Electrical Conductivity Salts
Additives Specific for Thermal Inkjet
Additives Specific for Inkjet Image Printing
MAKING JETTABLE SUSPENSIONS OF GROUND SOLIDS
Obtaining Small Diameter Particles
Necessary Particle Size
Wetting and Dispersing
Filtering and Settling
Essential References
Ejectability
Final Caution - Make Sure You Have a Real Suspension
APPENDIX I. SETTING UP A MICRODROP SYSTEM ASAP
APPENDIX II. EXAMPLE INKJET FLUID FORMULATIONS FROM PATENT LITERATURE
APPENDIX III. EJECTION TESTS OF BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

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Reviews

"Microdrop technology has underpinned an exponential growth in a range of applications that could not have been envisaged at the time of the early inkjet printers. Current applications are as diverse as high-throughput screening for drug candidates to 3-D prototyping for nanoscale fabrication. Microdrop generation is also critical to many major industries ranging from the food, cosmetics and vaccine producers to the manufacturers of integrated circuits and displays. What continues to be exciting is that there are still undiscovered ways to create and use microdrops, many of which have huge commercial implications that have yet to be tapped.

"Microdrop Generation by Eric R. Lee does more than justice to this complex and fascinating subject. It is essentially a practical book that provides students, scientists, and engineers with all the relevant theory - from particle physics to fluid dynamics - while never losing sight of how the theory works in reality. It covers the practicalities of how microdrops can be ejected, how drives and nozzles can be engineered, as well information on key imaging techniques and hints on troubleshooting.

"This book is the result of nearly ten years of experiment and wide consultation by an expert in the field, and apart from being the definitive work in the area, is not only highly informative, but also highly readable. In our view Microdrop Generation must be an essential addition to the bookshelf of scientists working in many areas, as well as a valuable preparatory text for science and engineering departments alike who want to produce students who are industrially and academically useful.'"

-Ottilia Saxl, CEO, The Institute of Nanotechnology, Scotland, UK