1st Edition

Modifying Bitterness Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications

Edited By Glenn M. Roy Copyright 1997

    Only recently has bitterness control become of commercial importance to a food or pharmaceutical formulation chemist. Over the years, an increasing interest in more palatable food and beverage products with low fat and low sugar content has arisen, thus creating a market need for the control of bitterness perception.
    This is the first, comprehensive treatment of this subject in book form. Organized primarily by ingredients or processing approaches affecting the bitter taste reduction or inhibition, this thorough review includes an in-depth and thoroughly referenced review of mechanisms, ingredients and applications of bitter taste reduction or inhibition.

    All chapters end with a section of references to the international literature on the chapter topic.

    Section I. Mechanism, Ingredients, Applications
    Recent Overview of the Mechanism of Bitter Taste, Glenn Roy
    o Transduction and Perception
    o Rats and Mice
    o Gerbils
    o Bovine
    o Rabbit
    o Frog
    o Primates and Humans
    General Correlation between Models of Sweetness and Bitterness Perception, Glenn Roy
    o Theoretical Studies
    o Common Similarities, Experimental Data
    o Sensory Measurements
    o Case Studies
    The Evolution of in vitro Taste Sensors, Glenn Roy
    Newer Chemical Identification of Bitter Principles and Their Sources, Glenn Roy
    o Health Benefits
    o Bitter as Deterrent
    o Bitter Principles and Sources
    o Miscellaneous Bitter Principles and Sources
    General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Foods and Beverages, Glenn Roy
    o Ingredient Approaches
    o Process Approaches
    o Inclusion Complexes, Chelating Agents, Polysaccharides and Ion-Exchange Membranes
    o Chemical Modifications of Bitter Substrates
    o Specific Applications of Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction
    Section II. A Symposium
    Interactions between Sweet and Bitter Tastes, D. Eric Walters
    o Introduction
    o Experimental Observations
    o Mechanistic Implications
    o Practical Implications
    o Conclusion
    Factors Affecting the Perception of Bitterness: A Review, J. H. Thorngate III
    o Introduction
    o Bitter Taste
    o Receptor Events
    o Innervation and Coding
    o Bitterness Measurement
    o Scalar Studies
    o Temporal Studies
    o Factors Affecting Bitterness Perception: Compound Effects
    o Taste Interactions
    o Medium of Presentation
    o Viscosity
    o Temperature
    o Oral Chemical Irritants
    o Ethanol
    o Mode of Presentation
    o Taste Modifiers
    o Prop Status
    o Salivary Status
    o Age
    o Conclusions
    Bitterness Perception across the Life Span, Claire Murphy and Jill Razini
    o Taste Threshold
    o Suprathreshold Intensity
    o Weber Ratios
    o Chemosensory Preference
    o Conclusion
    Suppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Implications for Flavor Enhancement, P. A. S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp
    o Introduction
    o General Methods
    o Results
    o Discussion
    o Summary
    Development of a Low-Sodium Salt: A Model for Bitterness Inhibition, Robert J. Kurtz and William D. Fuller

    The Use of Exopeptidases in Bitter Taste Modification, Graham Bruce and Denise Pawlett
    o Introduction
    o The Nature of Bitterness
    o Enzyme Selection
    o Peptidases and Debittering
    o Use of Peptidases to Debitter Protein Hydrolyzates
    o Use of Peptidases to Prevent Bitterness in Cheese
    o Summary
    Specific Inhibitor for Bitter Taste, Yoshihisa Katsuragi and Kenzo Kurihara
    o Introduction
    o Inhibition of Frog Taste Nerve Responses to Bitter Substances by the Lipoprotein
    o High Adsorption Ability of Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoproteins to Frog Tongue Surface and Hydrophobic Model Membranes
    o Selective Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoprotein
    o Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid
    o Summary and Concluding Remarks
    Section III. Applications in Oral Pharmaceuticals
    General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Oral Pharmaceuticals, Glenn Roy
    o Introduction
    o Sweeteners, Flavors and Amino Acids
    o Lipids
    o Lecithin-Like Substances
    o Surfactants
    o Coatings and Complexes with Carbohydrates, Resins, Proteins and Zeolites
    o Carbohydrates
    o Proteins
    o Inclusion Complexes
    o Resins
    o Zeolites
    o Salt Preparation
    o Functional Group Alteration
    Cautions and Prospects in Taste-Masking Formulations, Glenn Roy
    o Applications That Need Commercialization of New Technologies and Additives



    As the son of a German-bred, chemist-turned-perfumer for a time, Glenn Roy began training in the science of flavors and fragrances in1971 with Tombarel Freres in Grasse, France. As a field laborer from before sunrise to noon, he harvested botanic raw materials and processed them to produce essential oils and absolutes. Perfumery studies continued as part-time employment with Givaudan Corp. and Roure, Bertrand, Dupont,Inc., both in New Jersey. In 1975 he graduated with a BA in Chemistry from St. Michael's College in Winooski, Vermont. There, Mr. Roy researched and published, with the late Dr. Gilbert Grady, a new method for the purification of eucalyptol 1,8-cineole from its olfactorily undesirable 1,4-isomer. Subsequently, he graduated with MS (1977) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees in Organic Chemistry from study and research at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, under Dr. Philip D. Magnus, Royal Chemistry Society Fellow. A group discovery of new organosilicon reagent methodology was illustrated in the syntheses of Frontal in, a beetle pheromone and Latia Lucifem, a firefly lumine science principle. The organosilicon reagents are now commercially available from Petrarch Co. In 1980 Dr. Roy entered a career in the food industry. Six years of research were conducted in flavor generation and synthesis of high potency sweeteners and taste modifiers at (then) General Foods Corp. (Tarrytown, NY). In 1986 an opportunity arose to pursue research at The NutrasweetCo. (Mt. Prospect, IL) in the area of nonfermentable noncaloric sugars and fat macronutrient substitutes. Additional research in taste modification resulted in the discovery of bitterness inhibitors. The impending breakup of The NutraSweet Co. R&D with patent expiration prompted a move in 1990 to a managerial position in Food Processing Technical Services with Calgon Carbon Corp. in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There, Dr. Roy authored a book on activated carbon processing and ap­plications for the food and pharmaceutical industries which was published by Technomic Publishing Co., Inc. and was granted a U.S. patent for a continuous food-frying oil treatment to reduce color and polymer forma­tion. The process is to be commercialized when regulations for oil con­taminants emerge. In November 1994, the annual corporate downsizing of Calgon Carbon Corp. resulted in unemployment. In April 1995, Glenn Roy joined The Pepsi-Cola Company (Valhalla, NY) as a Principal Research Scientist in Product/Ingredient Technology of Nutritional and Botanical Beverages. Dr. Roy continues to maintain a position as Field Editor of Food Science & Technology with Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.

    "The book is well-written and very readable, and it can be recommended as a reference text for all food scientists and technologists interested in the fundamentals of the bitter sensation and its perception."
    -Dr. Bob Johnson, Chemist, for Food Science Australia

    "I found the book quite fascinating, very informative, and timely. It is a book that I would recommend to those interested in the sensory property of bitterness and its control in food and beverages, as well as pharmaceutical products. I believe it to be a useful text book for all food libraries, and a 'must' in food development laboratories."
    -Conrad Perara for Food Technology