Modifying Bitterness: Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modifying Bitterness

Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications, 1st Edition

Edited by Glenn M. Roy

CRC Press

356 pages

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Hardback: 9781566764919
pub: 1997-04-29
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Only recently has bitterness control become of commercial importance to a food or pharmaceutical formulation chemist. Over the years, an increasing interest in more palatable food and beverage products with low fat and low sugar content has arisen, thus creating a market need for the control of bitterness perception.

This is the first, comprehensive treatment of this subject in book form. Organized primarily by ingredients or processing approaches affecting the bitter taste reduction or inhibition, this thorough review includes an in-depth and thoroughly referenced review of mechanisms, ingredients and applications of bitter taste reduction or inhibition.


"The book is well-written and very readable, and it can be recommended as a reference text for all food scientists and technologists interested in the fundamentals of the bitter sensation and its perception."

-Dr. Bob Johnson, Chemist, for Food Science Australia

"I found the book quite fascinating, very informative, and timely. It is a book that I would recommend to those interested in the sensory property of bitterness and its control in food and beverages, as well as pharmaceutical products. I believe it to be a useful text book for all food libraries, and a 'must' in food development laboratories."

-Conrad Perara for Food Technology

Table of Contents

All chapters end with a section of references to the international literature on the chapter topic.



Section I. Mechanism, Ingredients, Applications

Recent Overview of the Mechanism of Bitter Taste, Glenn Roy

o Transduction and Perception

o Rats and Mice

o Gerbils

o Bovine

o Rabbit

o Frog

o Primates and Humans

General Correlation between Models of Sweetness and Bitterness Perception, Glenn Roy

o Theoretical Studies

o Common Similarities, Experimental Data

o Sensory Measurements

o Case Studies

The Evolution of in vitro Taste Sensors, Glenn Roy

Newer Chemical Identification of Bitter Principles and Their Sources, Glenn Roy

o Health Benefits

o Bitter as Deterrent

o Bitter Principles and Sources

o Miscellaneous Bitter Principles and Sources

General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Foods and Beverages, Glenn Roy

o Ingredient Approaches

o Process Approaches

o Inclusion Complexes, Chelating Agents, Polysaccharides and Ion-Exchange Membranes

o Chemical Modifications of Bitter Substrates

o Specific Applications of Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction

Section II. A Symposium

Interactions between Sweet and Bitter Tastes, D. Eric Walters

o Introduction

o Experimental Observations

o Mechanistic Implications

o Practical Implications

o Conclusion

Factors Affecting the Perception of Bitterness: A Review, J. H. Thorngate III

o Introduction

o Bitter Taste

o Receptor Events

o Innervation and Coding

o Bitterness Measurement

o Scalar Studies

o Temporal Studies

o Factors Affecting Bitterness Perception: Compound Effects

o Taste Interactions

o Medium of Presentation

o Viscosity

o Temperature

o Oral Chemical Irritants

o Ethanol

o Mode of Presentation

o Taste Modifiers

o Prop Status

o Salivary Status

o Age

o Conclusions

Bitterness Perception across the Life Span, Claire Murphy and Jill Razini

o Taste Threshold

o Suprathreshold Intensity

o Weber Ratios

o Chemosensory Preference

o Conclusion

Suppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Implications for Flavor Enhancement, P. A. S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp

o Introduction

o General Methods

o Results

o Discussion

o Summary

Development of a Low-Sodium Salt: A Model for Bitterness Inhibition, Robert J. Kurtz and William D. Fuller

The Use of Exopeptidases in Bitter Taste Modification, Graham Bruce and Denise Pawlett

o Introduction

o The Nature of Bitterness

o Enzyme Selection

o Peptidases and Debittering

o Use of Peptidases to Debitter Protein Hydrolyzates

o Use of Peptidases to Prevent Bitterness in Cheese

o Summary

Specific Inhibitor for Bitter Taste, Yoshihisa Katsuragi and Kenzo Kurihara

o Introduction

o Inhibition of Frog Taste Nerve Responses to Bitter Substances by the Lipoprotein

o High Adsorption Ability of Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoproteins to Frog Tongue Surface and Hydrophobic Model Membranes

o Selective Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoprotein

o Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid

o Summary and Concluding Remarks

Section III. Applications in Oral Pharmaceuticals

General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Oral Pharmaceuticals, Glenn Roy

o Introduction

o Sweeteners, Flavors and Amino Acids

o Lipids

o Lecithin-Like Substances

o Surfactants

o Coatings and Complexes with Carbohydrates, Resins, Proteins and Zeolites

o Carbohydrates

o Proteins

o Inclusion Complexes

o Resins

o Zeolites

o Salt Preparation

o Functional Group Alteration

Cautions and Prospects in Taste-Masking Formulations, Glenn Roy

o Applications That Need Commercialization of New Technologies and Additives


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