Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems  book cover
2nd Edition

Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems

ISBN 9781439800508
Published December 23, 2009 by CRC Press
550 Pages 22 Color & 117 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Upon its initial publication more than fifteen years ago, this book broke new ground with its comprehensive coverage of the biology and ecology, distribution and dispersal mechanisms, physiology, monitoring, negative and positive impacts, and control of aquatic invasive species of mussels, clams, and snails. Building on this foundation, the second edition of Monitoring and Control of Macrofouling Mollusks in Fresh Water Systems includes completely revised information on species such as the zebra mussel while also covering up-and-coming nuisance species such as the quagga mussel, Conrad’s false mussel, the Asian clam, and the fast-spreading golden mussel.

The Second Edition includes:

  • Ten new species of mussels and snails
  • International case studies on mussel fouling problems and how to cope with them
  • New control and monitoring techniques
  • Discussions of the latest threats and possible future scenarios

The book contains brief descriptions of the external and internal structures, examining only those features relevant to the monitoring and control of the invasive species. It discusses why the mollusks are pests, distinguishing nuisance species from native species, their habits and habitat, reproductive potential, and life cycles and population dynamics. The authors also explain how efficient dispersal mechanisms employed by the nuisance mollusks not only help them spread so rapidly to inland lakes and rivers across continents, but how they can invade virtually every part of a facility.

While many other resources contain segments of this information, none cover all areas and link them in a cohesive fashion. It is this approach that makes the understanding of potential impacts on ecosystems, industries and utilities, as well as the many human-made physical and chemical mitigants for controlling the mollusks supplied by this book so crucial for preserving the health of raw water supplies.

Table of Contents



Morphology and Anatomy

Mode of Life

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Population Dynamics

Distribution, Dispersal Potential, and Dispersal Mechanisms



Dispersal Potential and Mechanisms

Using Physiological and Ecological Requirements and Environmental Tolerances for Assessing Risk of Invasion


Background Information on Key Variables

Assessing Survival Potential of Aquatic Invasive Bivalves

Assessing Survival Potential of Aquatic Invasive Gastropods

Assessing Potential Infestation Levels

Recommendations for Further Research

Monitoring: Searching, Finding, and Interpreting


Sampling for Larval and Adult Bivalves

Sampling for Gastropod Eggs and Adults

Early Detection of Dreissena spp. Veligers Using Molecular Methods

Monitoring for Macrofouling Control in Industry

Navigational Buoys (Navaids) as Monitoring Platforms

Impacts of Macrofoulers on Man-Made Structures


Marine Structures

Water Intakes

Pumphouse Structures

Raw Water Systems

Piping and Components of Materials of Construction

Fire Protection Systems

Drainage and Sumps

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems

Compressed Air

Facility-Specifi c Impacts

Ecological, Socio-Economic, and Benefi cial Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Mollusks








Weapons of Mollusk Destruction


Preventative versus Reactive Strategies

Mitigation of Mussels through the Use of Chemicals

Chemical Options Available

Chemical Cleaning

Nonchemical Control

Domination by Chlorination


History of Chlorine

Sodium Hypochlorite

Chemistry of Chlorination

Factors Infl uencing the Effectiveness of Chlorine

Chlorination Treatment Strategies for Zebra Mussel Control

Mechanisms of Chlorine Toxicity

Nontarget Effects of Chlorine

Sublethal Effects of Chlorine

Dosage and Consumption Calculations

Main Components of the Chlorination Systems

Mitigation of Aquatic Invasive Gastropods


Giant Ramshorn Snail, Marisa cornuarietis

Channeled Applesnail, Pomacea canaliculata

Titan Applesnail, Pomacea haustrum

Island Applesnail, Pomacea insularum

Spiketop Applesnail, Pomacea diffusa

Florida Applesnail, Pomacea paludosa

Quilted Melania, T. granifera

Red-rimmed Melania, Melanoides tuberculata

Faucet Snail, Bithynia tentaculata

New Zealand Mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Case Studies

Zebra and Quagga Mussels in the Inland Waters of European Russia and Adjacent Countries, M.I. Orlova

Zebra Mussels: Review of Ecology and Impacts Since Invasion in Ireland, F.E. Lucy

Summary of the Distribution and Impact of the Golden Mussel in Argentina and Neighboring Countries, G. Darrigran

Response of a Major Brazilian Utility to the Golden Mussel Invasion, M.E. Rolla and H.R. Mota




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Renata Claudi, an environmental scientist with over 25 years of diverse business and technical experience, currently serves as a Chief Scientist for RNT Consulting Inc. Gerald L. Mackie is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.