Nano-scale CMOS Analog Circuits : Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design book cover
1st Edition

Nano-scale CMOS Analog Circuits
Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design

ISBN 9781466564268
Published February 20, 2014 by CRC Press
408 Pages 179 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Reliability concerns and the limitations of process technology can sometimes restrict the innovation process involved in designing nano-scale analog circuits. The success of nano-scale analog circuit design requires repeat experimentation, correct analysis of the device physics, process technology, and adequate use of the knowledge database.

Starting with the basics, Nano-Scale CMOS Analog Circuits: Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design introduces the essential fundamental concepts for designing analog circuits with optimal performances. This book explains the links between the physics and technology of scaled MOS transistors and the design and simulation of nano-scale analog circuits. It also explores the development of structured computer-aided design (CAD) techniques for architecture-level and circuit-level design of analog circuits.

The book outlines the general trends of technology scaling with respect to device geometry, process parameters, and supply voltage. It describes models and optimization techniques, as well as the compact modeling of scaled MOS transistors for VLSI circuit simulation.

• Includes two learning-based methods: the artificial neural network (ANN) and the least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) method

• Provides case studies demonstrating the practical use of these two methods

• Explores circuit sizing and specification translation tasks

• Introduces the particle swarm optimization technique and provides examples of sizing analog circuits

• Discusses the advanced effects of scaled MOS transistors like narrow width effects, and vertical and lateral channel engineering

Nano-Scale CMOS Analog Circuits: Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design describes the models and CAD techniques, explores the physics of MOS transistors, and considers the design challenges involving statistical variations of process technology parameters and reliability constraints related to circuit design.

Table of Contents



    Characterization of Technology Scaling

    Analog Design Challenges in Scaled CMOS Technology

    Motivation for CAD Techniques

    Conventional Design Techniques for Analog IC Design

    Knowledge-based CAD Technique for Analog ICs

    Summary and Conclusion

    High-Level Modeling and Design Techniques


    High-Level Model

    Behavioral Model Generation Technique

    Introduction to Optimization Techniques

    Some Important Optimization Algorithms

    Multi-Objective Optimization Method

    Pareto Optimal Front

    Design Space Exploration

    Computational Complexity of a CAD Algorithm

    Technology aware Computer Aided IC Design Technique

    Commercial Design Tools

    Modeling of Scaled MOS Transistor for VLSI Circuit Simulation


    Device Modeling

    Compact Models

    Long-Channel MOS Transistor

    Threshold Voltage Model for Long-channel Transistor with Uniform Doping

    SPICE Level Drain Current Model

    SPICE Level I-V Model

    MOSFET Capacitances

    Short-Channel MOS Transistor

    Threshold Voltage for Short-Channel MOS Transistor

    I-V Model for Short-Channel MOS transistor

    Weak Inversion Characteristics of a Scaled MOS transistor

    Hot Carrier Effect

    Source-Drain Resistance Model

    Compact Modeling

    Salicide Technology

    Physical Model for Output Resistance

    Poly-silicon Gate Depletion Effect

    Effective Channel Length and Width

    Summary and Conclusion

    Performance and Feasibility Model Generation using Learning based Approach


    Requirement of Leaning-based Approaches

    Regression Problem for Performance Model Generation

    Some Related Works

    Preliminaries on Artificial Neural Network

    Neural Network Model Development

    Case Study 1: Performance Modeling of CMOS Inverter

    Case Study 2: Performance Modeling of Spiral Inductor

    Dynamic Adaptive Sampling

    Introduction to Least Squares Support Vector Machines

    Feasible Design Space and Feasibility Model

    Case Study 3: Combined Feasibility and Performance Modeling of Two-Stage Operational Amplifier

    Case Study 4: Architecture-Level Performance Modeling of Analog Systems

    Meet-in-the-Middle Approach for Construction of Architecture-Level Feasible Design Space

    Case Study 5: Construction of FeasibilityModel at Architecturelevel of an Interface Electronics for MEMS Capacitive Accelerometer System

    Summary and Conclusion

    Circuit Sizing and Specification Translation


    Circuit Sizing as a Design Space Exploration Problem

    Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO)

    Case Study 1: Design of a Two Stage Miller OTA

    Case Study 2: Synthesis of On-chip Spiral Inductors

    Case Study 3: Design of a nano-scale CMOS inverter for Symmetric Switching Characteristics

    The gm/ID Methodology for Low Power Design

    High-Level Specification Translation

    Summary and Conclusion

    Advanced Effects of Scaled MOS Transistors


    Narrow Width Effect on Threshold Voltage

    Channel Engineering of MOS Transistor

    Gate Leakage Current

    High-κ Dielectrics and Metal-Gate/High-κ CMOS Technology

    Advanced Device Structures of MOS Transistors

    Noise Characterization of MOS Transistors

    Gate Resistance and Substrate Network Model of MOS Transistor for RF Applications

    Summary and Conclusion

    Process Variability and Reliability of Nano-scale CMOS Analog Circuits


    Basic Concepts on Yield and Reliability

    Sources of Variations in Nanometer Scale Technology

    Systematic Process Variations

    Random Process Variations

    Statistical Modeling

    Physical Phenomena Affecting the Reliability of Scaled MOS


    Physical Model for MOSFET Degradation due to HCI

    Reaction-Diffusion Model for NBTI

    Reliability Simulation for Analog Circuits

    Summary and Conclusion


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    Soumya Pandit received a B.Sc degree with Physics Honors, M.Sc degree in electronic science from University of Calcutta in 1998 and 2000, and an M.Tech degree in radio physics and electronics from the same university in 2002. He obtained his PhD degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in information technology in the year 2009. His current research activities are on statistical CMOS analog circuit design and optimization, process-device-circuit interaction, and soft computing applications. Dr. Pandit has to his credit several international journal and conference publications. He is a member of IEEE, USA and an associate member of the Institute of Engineers (India).

    Chittaranjan Mandal received his PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, in 1997. He is currently a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and also the School of Information Technology at IIT, Kharagpur. His research interests include high-level system design, formal modeling, and verification. He has been an Industrial Fellow of Kingston University, UK, since 2000 and was also a recipient of a Royal Society Fellowship for conducting collaborative research in the UK. He has handled sponsored projects from government agencies as well as private agencies such as Nokia, Natsem, and Intel. He also serves as a reviewer for several journals and conferences.

    Amit Patra received B.Tech., M.Tech., and Ph.D. degrees from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1984, 1986, and 1990 respectively. He is currently a professor of electrical engineering at IIT Kharagpur where he served as the Dean (Alumni Affairs and International Relations) between 2007 and 2013. His current research interests include power management circuits, mixed-signal SoC design and embedded control systems. He has published more than 200 research papers and designed about 12 integrated circuits. He has carried out sponsored research with multiple industries such as National Semiconductor Corporation, Freescale Semiconductor, Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Circuits.

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    Amit Patra

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    Kharagpur, West Bengal, India

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    "… for appropriate usage of CAD tools, deep understanding of various models and methodologies are needed for the success of today’s IC design. [this book] addresses such needs for IC design in general and analog design in particular. Thus, this is a very valuable book for students and practicing engineers involved in microelectronics."
    Dr. Samar K. Saha, Adjunct Prof. Santa Clara University; VP of Publications, IEEE Electron Devices Society