Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils  book cover
1st Edition

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils

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ISBN 9781420042825
Published November 16, 2006 by CRC Press
256 Pages 66 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Understanding attenuation processes is important not only for predicting the behavior of contaminants in soil and formulating remediation strategies, but also for mitigating and enhancing the availability of micronutrients in soil for agricultural applications. Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils brings together pioneering researchers who discuss their cutting-edge work in this area.

The first chapters focus on practical analytical techniques for the measurement and the biological assessment of natural attenuation of trace elements. The following chapters analyze the processes that occur in the natural attenuation of contaminants and nutrients, covering the structural dynamics of mineral surfaces, partitioning, diffusion, fixation, biological and redox processes, and the reversibility of these processes. The remaining chapters consider the impact and implications of natural attenuation in terms of risk assessment, remediation of inorganic contaminants, and bioavailability of essential nutrients.

Offering a concise, well-rounded perspective, Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils demonstrates how attenuation processes can significantly impact strategies for soil remediation and serve as a basis for environmental regulations.

Table of Contents

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils Assessed by Chemical Extraction; B.R. Singh
Chemical Extraction Techniques
Attenuation of Element Solubility and Availability in Contaminated Soils
Other Experimental Parameters of Importance

Techniques for Measuring Attenuation: Isotopic Dilution Methods; S. Young, N. Crout, J. Hutchinson, A. Tye, S. Tandy, L. Nakhone
Conclusions and Future Directions

Biological Assessment of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil; E. Lombi, D.P. Stevens, R.E. Hamon, M.J. McLaughlin
Plants as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil
Invertebrates as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil
Microbial End Points as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation
Limitations of Biological Approaches to Investigate Natural Attenuation
Future Uses and Challenges

Long-Term Fate of Metal Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Role of Intraparticle Diffusion in Hydrous Metal Oxides; P. Trivedi and L. Axe
Introduction to Sorption Kinetics
Experimental Methods
Modeling Approach
Results and Discussion
Intraparticle Diffusion and Site Activation Theory
Spectroscopic Evidences of Intraparticle Diffusion
Oxide Coatings

Structural Dynamics of Metal Partitioning to Mineral Surfaces; R. Ford
Ion Partitioning in Unsaturated and Saturated Soils
Partitioning Processes
Relevant Process Rates
Influence on Fate and Transport
Data Gaps and Future Directions

Effects of Humic Substances on Attenuation of Metal Bioavailability and Mobility in Soil; C.A. Impellitteri and H.E. Allen
Humic Substances: Definitions and Structure
Solid Phase Organic Substances
Leaching of Solid-Phase Soil Organic Matter
Sorption of Dissolved Humic Substances
Metal Attenuation by Solid-Phase Organic Matter
Metal Sorption and Chelation by Soluble and Potentially Soluble Humic Substances
Ternary Complexation
Effect of Humic Substances on the Solid Phase and Solution Phase Distribution of Metals
Humic Substances, Metals, and Models
Models Including Humic Substances

Attenuation of Metal Toxicity in Soils by Biological Processes; M.B. McBride
The Biological Response to Metal Stress
Experimental Evidence for Biological Control of Metal Solubility
Implications of Biological Control: Explaining Metal Losses from Soils

Redox Processes and Attenuation of Metal Availability in Soils; N. Menzies
Redox Conditions in Soils
Redox-Active Trace Elements in Soils
Indirect Effects on Trace Element Availability
Attenuation of Metal Availability by Redox Reactions

Fixation of Cadmium and Zinc in Soils: Implications for Risk Assessment; E. Smolders and F. Degryse

Natural Attenuation: Implications for Trace Metal/Metalloid Nutrition; R. Hamon, S. Stacey, E. Lombi, M. McLaughlin
Essential Micronutrients
Importance of Understanding Micronutrient Attenuation
Studies of Micronutrient Attenuation
Environmental Consequences
Strategies to Access Fixed Forms of Micronutrients
Strategies to Minimize Fixation of Trace Elements Applied as Fertilizers

Use of Soil Amendments to Attenuate Trace Element Exposure: Sustainability, Side Effects, and Failures; M. Mench, J. Vagronsveld, Limburgs, N. Lepp, A. Ruttens, Limburgs, P. Bleeker, W. Geebelen
Types of Soil Amendments
Endpoints for Testing Efficacy of Attenuation
Background to Experimental Sites
Chemical Tests and Speciation
Effects of Different Amendments on Plant Growth and Contaminant Uptake
Impacts on and Uptake by Other Organisms
Biodiversity and Genetic Adaptation of Organisms
Failures, Side Effects, and Limitations of Chemical Immobilization Methods for Soil Remediation


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