1st Edition

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils

Edited By Rebecca Hamon, Mike McLaughlin, Enzo Lombi Copyright 2007
    256 Pages 66 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Understanding attenuation processes is important not only for predicting the behavior of contaminants in soil and formulating remediation strategies, but also for mitigating and enhancing the availability of micronutrients in soil for agricultural applications. Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils brings together pioneering researchers who discuss their cutting-edge work in this area.

    The first chapters focus on practical analytical techniques for the measurement and the biological assessment of natural attenuation of trace elements. The following chapters analyze the processes that occur in the natural attenuation of contaminants and nutrients, covering the structural dynamics of mineral surfaces, partitioning, diffusion, fixation, biological and redox processes, and the reversibility of these processes. The remaining chapters consider the impact and implications of natural attenuation in terms of risk assessment, remediation of inorganic contaminants, and bioavailability of essential nutrients.

    Offering a concise, well-rounded perspective, Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils demonstrates how attenuation processes can significantly impact strategies for soil remediation and serve as a basis for environmental regulations.

    Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils Assessed by Chemical Extraction; B.R. Singh
    Chemical Extraction Techniques
    Attenuation of Element Solubility and Availability in Contaminated Soils
    Other Experimental Parameters of Importance

    Techniques for Measuring Attenuation: Isotopic Dilution Methods; S. Young, N. Crout, J. Hutchinson, A. Tye, S. Tandy, L. Nakhone
    Conclusions and Future Directions

    Biological Assessment of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil; E. Lombi, D.P. Stevens, R.E. Hamon, M.J. McLaughlin
    Plants as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil
    Invertebrates as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil
    Microbial End Points as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation
    Limitations of Biological Approaches to Investigate Natural Attenuation
    Future Uses and Challenges

    Long-Term Fate of Metal Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Role of Intraparticle Diffusion in Hydrous Metal Oxides; P. Trivedi and L. Axe
    Introduction to Sorption Kinetics
    Experimental Methods
    Modeling Approach
    Results and Discussion
    Intraparticle Diffusion and Site Activation Theory
    Spectroscopic Evidences of Intraparticle Diffusion
    Oxide Coatings

    Structural Dynamics of Metal Partitioning to Mineral Surfaces; R. Ford
    Ion Partitioning in Unsaturated and Saturated Soils
    Partitioning Processes
    Relevant Process Rates
    Influence on Fate and Transport
    Data Gaps and Future Directions

    Effects of Humic Substances on Attenuation of Metal Bioavailability and Mobility in Soil; C.A. Impellitteri and H.E. Allen
    Humic Substances: Definitions and Structure
    Solid Phase Organic Substances
    Leaching of Solid-Phase Soil Organic Matter
    Sorption of Dissolved Humic Substances
    Metal Attenuation by Solid-Phase Organic Matter
    Metal Sorption and Chelation by Soluble and Potentially Soluble Humic Substances
    Ternary Complexation
    Effect of Humic Substances on the Solid Phase and Solution Phase Distribution of Metals
    Humic Substances, Metals, and Models
    Models Including Humic Substances

    Attenuation of Metal Toxicity in Soils by Biological Processes; M.B. McBride
    The Biological Response to Metal Stress
    Experimental Evidence for Biological Control of Metal Solubility
    Implications of Biological Control: Explaining Metal Losses from Soils

    Redox Processes and Attenuation of Metal Availability in Soils; N. Menzies
    Redox Conditions in Soils
    Redox-Active Trace Elements in Soils
    Indirect Effects on Trace Element Availability
    Attenuation of Metal Availability by Redox Reactions

    Fixation of Cadmium and Zinc in Soils: Implications for Risk Assessment; E. Smolders and F. Degryse

    Natural Attenuation: Implications for Trace Metal/Metalloid Nutrition; R. Hamon, S. Stacey, E. Lombi, M. McLaughlin
    Essential Micronutrients
    Importance of Understanding Micronutrient Attenuation
    Studies of Micronutrient Attenuation
    Environmental Consequences
    Strategies to Access Fixed Forms of Micronutrients
    Strategies to Minimize Fixation of Trace Elements Applied as Fertilizers

    Use of Soil Amendments to Attenuate Trace Element Exposure: Sustainability, Side Effects, and Failures; M. Mench, J. Vagronsveld, Limburgs, N. Lepp, A. Ruttens, Limburgs, P. Bleeker, W. Geebelen
    Types of Soil Amendments
    Endpoints for Testing Efficacy of Attenuation
    Background to Experimental Sites
    Chemical Tests and Speciation
    Effects of Different Amendments on Plant Growth and Contaminant Uptake
    Impacts on and Uptake by Other Organisms
    Biodiversity and Genetic Adaptation of Organisms
    Failures, Side Effects, and Limitations of Chemical Immobilization Methods for Soil Remediation



    Rebecca Hamon, Mike McLaughlin, Enzo Lombi