Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils

1st Edition

Edited by Rebecca Hamon, Mike McLaughlin, Enzo Lombi

CRC Press

256 pages | 66 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-11-16
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Description

Understanding attenuation processes is important not only for predicting the behavior of contaminants in soil and formulating remediation strategies, but also for mitigating and enhancing the availability of micronutrients in soil for agricultural applications. Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils brings together pioneering researchers who discuss their cutting-edge work in this area.

The first chapters focus on practical analytical techniques for the measurement and the biological assessment of natural attenuation of trace elements. The following chapters analyze the processes that occur in the natural attenuation of contaminants and nutrients, covering the structural dynamics of mineral surfaces, partitioning, diffusion, fixation, biological and redox processes, and the reversibility of these processes. The remaining chapters consider the impact and implications of natural attenuation in terms of risk assessment, remediation of inorganic contaminants, and bioavailability of essential nutrients.

Offering a concise, well-rounded perspective, Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils demonstrates how attenuation processes can significantly impact strategies for soil remediation and serve as a basis for environmental regulations.

Table of Contents

Natural Attenuation of Trace Element Availability in Soils Assessed by Chemical Extraction; B.R. Singh

Chemical Extraction Techniques

Attenuation of Element Solubility and Availability in Contaminated Soils

Other Experimental Parameters of Importance

Conclusions

Techniques for Measuring Attenuation: Isotopic Dilution Methods; S. Young, N. Crout, J. Hutchinson, A. Tye, S. Tandy, L. Nakhone

Methodology

Applications

Conclusions and Future Directions

Biological Assessment of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil; E. Lombi, D.P. Stevens, R.E. Hamon, M.J. McLaughlin

Plants as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil

Invertebrates as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation of Metals in Soil

Microbial End Points as Biological Indicators of Natural Attenuation

Limitations of Biological Approaches to Investigate Natural Attenuation

Future Uses and Challenges

Long-Term Fate of Metal Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Role of Intraparticle Diffusion in Hydrous Metal Oxides; P. Trivedi and L. Axe

Introduction to Sorption Kinetics

Experimental Methods

Modeling Approach

Results and Discussion

Intraparticle Diffusion and Site Activation Theory

Spectroscopic Evidences of Intraparticle Diffusion

Oxide Coatings

Conclusions

Structural Dynamics of Metal Partitioning to Mineral Surfaces; R. Ford

Ion Partitioning in Unsaturated and Saturated Soils

Partitioning Processes

Relevant Process Rates

Influence on Fate and Transport

Data Gaps and Future Directions

Effects of Humic Substances on Attenuation of Metal Bioavailability and Mobility in Soil; C.A. Impellitteri and H.E. Allen

Humic Substances: Definitions and Structure

Solid Phase Organic Substances

Leaching of Solid-Phase Soil Organic Matter

Sorption of Dissolved Humic Substances

Metal Attenuation by Solid-Phase Organic Matter

Metal Sorption and Chelation by Soluble and Potentially Soluble Humic Substances

Ternary Complexation

Effect of Humic Substances on the Solid Phase and Solution Phase Distribution of Metals

Humic Substances, Metals, and Models

Models Including Humic Substances

Conclusion

Attenuation of Metal Toxicity in Soils by Biological Processes; M.B. McBride

The Biological Response to Metal Stress

Experimental Evidence for Biological Control of Metal Solubility

Implications of Biological Control: Explaining Metal Losses from Soils

Summary

Redox Processes and Attenuation of Metal Availability in Soils; N. Menzies

Redox Conditions in Soils

Redox-Active Trace Elements in Soils

Indirect Effects on Trace Element Availability

Attenuation of Metal Availability by Redox Reactions

Fixation of Cadmium and Zinc in Soils: Implications for Risk Assessment; E. Smolders and F. Degryse

Introduction

Zinc

Natural Attenuation: Implications for Trace Metal/Metalloid Nutrition; R. Hamon, S. Stacey, E. Lombi, M. McLaughlin

Essential Micronutrients

Importance of Understanding Micronutrient Attenuation

Studies of Micronutrient Attenuation

Environmental Consequences

Strategies to Access Fixed Forms of Micronutrients

Strategies to Minimize Fixation of Trace Elements Applied as Fertilizers

Conclusions

Use of Soil Amendments to Attenuate Trace Element Exposure: Sustainability, Side Effects, and Failures; M. Mench, J. Vagronsveld, Limburgs, N. Lepp, A. Ruttens, Limburgs, P. Bleeker, W. Geebelen

Types of Soil Amendments

Endpoints for Testing Efficacy of Attenuation

Background to Experimental Sites

Chemical Tests and Speciation

Leaching

Effects of Different Amendments on Plant Growth and Contaminant Uptake

Impacts on and Uptake by Other Organisms

Biodiversity and Genetic Adaptation of Organisms

Failures, Side Effects, and Limitations of Chemical Immobilization Methods for Soil Remediation

Conclusions

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General