1st Edition

Nineteenth-Century British Women's Education, 1840–1900

    2576 Pages
    by Routledge

    This new six-volume collection from Routledge and Edition Synapse brings together key documents from the Victorian feminist campaign to establish and improve girls’ and women’s education. The set is divided into two sections, both of which incorporate materials that argue for the improvement of girls’ and women’s education as well as arguments made against education for girls and women. The first section focuses on the debate surrounding the quality of women’s education and the question of access to higher education for women. This section also brings together documents from the feminist campaign with writing from the established press on the question of women’s higher education, and writings from the Social Sciences Association where many education reformers aired their views. The second section concentrates on the strengths and successes of Victorian women as educators, and highlights some of the most influential women in the field of education during this era.

    Drawing widely on articles from the feminist and established press, government papers, newspapers, professional and association journals, as well as memoirs, addresses, pamphlets, and reviews, this essential collection gives researchers excellent and comprehensive access to nineteenth-century debates on improving girls’ and women’s education, and women’s work as educators.


    Provisional contents (or wish list)

    Volume One. Emily Davies and the Higher Education of Women (Total: 433 pages)

    Davies, Emily. The Higher Education of Women (1866). 193 pp.

    Davies, Emily. Thoughts on Some Questions Relating to Women. 228 pp.

    -----. "The training of the imagination," Contemporary Review September

    (1869): 25-37.


    Volumes Two and Three. Girls’ and Women’s Education: Arguments and Experiences (Total: approximately 1300 pages)

    Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett. "Sex and Mind: A Reply." Fortnightly Review

    May (1874): 582-594.

    Armstrong, Edward. "A girl-graduate of Spain." Macmillan’s Magazine

    September (1900): 362-366.

    Becker, Lydia. "Is There Any Specific Distinction Between Male and

    Female Intellect?" Englishwoman’s Review 2 (1868): 483-491.

    -----. "On the study of science by women," Contemporary Review

    March (1869): 386-404.

    B.E.W. "Is Emulation a Lawful and Efficient Means of Promoting the

    Education of Women?" Englishwoman’s Review 1 (1867): 275-279.

    Bodichon, Barbara. "Middle-class schools for girls." English Woman’s Journal (1861): 168-177.

    Boucherett, Jessie. "On the Education of Girls with Reference to their future

    Position." English Woman’s Journal (1861): 217-225.

    -----. "How Shall I Educate My Daughters?" Tract. (1868): 20 pp.

    Burrows, M. "Female Education." Quarterly Review 126 (1869): 448-79.


    Butler, George. "Education Considered as a Profession for Women" Woman’s Work

    and Woman’s Culture. Ed. Josephine Butler. (1869): 49-77.

    Butler, Josephine. "Education and Employment of Women," Woman’s

    World July 1868. 20 pp.

    Byers, Mrs and Helen Blackburn. "How may the Higher Education of

    Women be most efficiently advanced in Ireland?" TNAPSS (1881): 413-433.

    Campbell, Dudley. "Mixed Education of Boys and Girls." Contemporary

    Review July (1873): 257-265.

    Case, Thomas. "Against Degrees for Women at Oxford." Fortnightly

    Review 64 (1895): 95-100.

    Chester, Harry. "The Education of Women in London." Victoria Magazine

    (1864): 481-486.

    Clough, Anne Jemima. "Hints on the Organisation of girls’ schools." Macmillan’s Magazine October (1866): 435-439.

    -----. "Women’s Progress in Scholarship." (1890). 20 pp.

    Cobbe, F.P. "The Education of Women and how it Would be Affected by University

    Examinations." From Essays on the Pursuits of Women (1863): 20 pp.

    "Colleges for Girls." English Woman’s Journal (1859): 361-374.

    "A Conservative Plea for the Higher Education of Women." Victoria

    Magazine (1874): 434-443.

    Davies, James. "Female Education." Edinburgh Review April (1866):499-


    Davies, J. Llewelyn. "A New College for Women." Macmillan’s Magazine

    June (1868): 168-175.

    Eastlake, Elizabeth. "The Englishwoman at school." Quarterly Review,

    July (1878): 254-257.

    "The Education of Girls." Papers by Mrs. W.G. Grey and Miss Mary Gurney

    delivered to the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, followed by questions and debate between audience members. TNAPSS (1871): 366-372.

    "The Education of Girls: Their Admissibility to Universities." Westminster

    Review 109 (1878): 56-90.

    Faithfull, Lillian. Selections from Women at Oxford (1833). 20 pp.

    Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. "The Medical and General Education of

    Women." Fortnightly Review 10 (1868): 554-71.

    -----. "The Education of Women in the Middle and Upper Classes."

    Macmillan’s Magazine 17 (1868): 511-17.

    -----. "The use of higher education to women." Contemporary Review

    November (1886): 719-727.

    -----. "Holes in the education net." Contemporary Review May (1887): 639-


    -----. "Degrees for Women at Oxford." Contemporary Review 69 (March

    1896): 347-56.

    Fearon, Daniel Robert. "Girls’ grammar Schools." Contemporary Review

    July (1869): 333-354.

    "Female Education in the Middle Classes." English Woman’s Journal

    (1858): 217-227.

    Fitch, J.G. "The Education of Women." Victoria Magazine (1864): 432-453.

    -----. "Women and the Universities." Contemporary Review 58 (1890):


    Gardner, Percy. "The Women at Oxford and Cambridge," Quarterly Review

    186 (1897): 529-51.

    "The General Education of Women." English Woman’s Journal 5 (1860):


    "Girls’ Grammar Schools." Contemporary Review (1869): 333-354.

    "The Higher Education of Women." Westminster Review 129 (1888): 152-


    Hodgson, W.B. "The Education of Girls in Connexion with the University

    Local Examinations." Victoria Magazine (1864): 250-272.

    "The Influence of University Degrees on the Education of Women." Victoria

    Magazine (1863): 260-271.

    "An Inquiry into the State of Girls’ Fashionable Schools." Fraser’s

    Magazine 31 (1845): 703-12.

    Johns, B.G. "The Education of Women." Edinburgh Review July (1887):


    Keiller, Alexander M.D., FRSE, and Miss Edith Pechey, M.D. "What may

    be the Dangers of Educational Overwork for both Sexes, with Special Reference to the Higher Classes of Girls’ Schools, and the effects of Competitive Examinations?" TNAPSS (1880): 420-445.

    Littledale, Richard Frederick. "The religious Education of Women."

    Contemporary Review June (1872): 1-26.

    Maclaren, Archibald. "Girls’ Schools." Macmillan’s Magazine September

    (1864): 409-416.

    Markby, Thomas. "The Education of Women," Contemporary Review

    March (1866): 396-414.

    -----. "On The Education of Women." Contemporary Review February

    (1868): 242-261.

    Martin, Frances. "A College for working women." Macmillan’s Magazine October

    (1879): 483-488.

    Martineau, Harriet. "On Female Education." Monthly Repository (1823): 20


    -----. Reasons for Female Education. (1823, 1861): 20 pp.

    -----. "Middle Class Education: Girls." Cornhill Magazine 10 (1864): 549-


    A Member of Convocation. "The University of London and the Graduation

    of Women." English Woman’s Journal (1863): 270-275.

    Maudsley, Henry. "Sex and Mind in Education," Fortnightly Review (April

    1874): 466-483.

    Maurice, F. D. Selections from Lectures to Ladies on Practical Subjects.

    Cambridge: Macmillan and Co, 1855. 20 pp.

    -----. "What Better Provision Ought to be made for the Education of Girls of

    the Upper and Middle Classes?" TNAPSS (1865): 268-274.

    Mayor, J. B. "The Cry of the Women." Contemporary Review June (1869):


    McKerlie, Helen. "The Lower Education of Women." Contemporary

    Review 60 (1887): 112-119.

    "Miss Becker’s Paper Read Before the British Association for the

    Advancement of Science." Englishwoman’s Review (October 1868): 48-55.

    "Mixed Education." Englishwoman’s Review (1872): 153-162.

    Mozley, J.B. "The Education of the People." Quarterly Review

    April (1870): 473-506.

    Norris, J.P. "On the Proposed Examination of Girls of the Professional and

    Middle Classes." TNAPSS (1864): 404-412.

    Northcote, Stafford. "Reformatory Schools." Quarterly Review December

    (1855): 32-65.

    Parkes, Bessie Rayner. "The Market for Educated Female Labour." English

    Woman’s Journal (1860): 145-152.

    Peek, Francis. "The progress of education in England." Contemporary

    Review August (1879): 862-874.

    Canon Robinson. "Suggestions for the improvement of middle class

    Education." TNAPSS (1864): 367-79.

    Reid, Marion. "Subdued, Passive Automatons." From A Plea for Women

    (1843). 20 pp.

    Seebohm, Frederick. "The Education Difficulty." Contemporary Review

    February (1872): 281-300.

    Sewell, Elizabeth. "An experiment in middle-class education." Macmillan’s Magazine January (1872): 243-249.

    -----. "Against Higher Education for Women." From Women and the

    Times we Live In (1868). 20 pp.


    Sidgwick, Henry. "Liberal Education." Macmillan’s Magazine April

    (1867): 464-473.

    Lady Stanley of Alderley. "Personal Recollections of women’s education."

    Nineteenth Century 6 (August) 1879: 308-321.

    Stuart, James. "The Teaching of Science." Woman’s Work and Woman’s

    Culture. Ed. Josephine Butler. (1869): 121-151.

    Swanick, Helena. Selections from Memoir of Girton (1882-85). 20 pp.

    Tanner, J.R. "Degrees for Women at Oxford." Fortnightly Review 117

    (1897): 716-27.

    Taylor, Whately Cooke. "On Indirect Sources of Advanced Female

    Education." TNAPSS (1868): 403-409.

    ---. "On the Separation of the Sexes in Education." Victoria Magazine

    (1869): 145-161.

    Tod, Isabella M.S. "Advanced Education for Girls of the Upper and Middle

    Classes." TNAPSS (1867): 368-378.

    "Tuition or Trade?" English Woman’s Journal (1860): 173-184.

    "The University of Cambridge and The Education of Women." English

    Woman’s Journal (1863): 276-279.

    V. "The Powers of Women, and how to use them." Contemporary Review

    July (1870): 521-539.

    "What Results Should be Sought in the Education of Girls, and How Are

    Such Results Most Likely to be Attained?" Englishwoman’s Review (1868): 354-359.

    "Why Boys are Cleverer than Girls." English Woman’s Journal 2 (1858):


    Wolstenholme, Elizabeth C. "The Education of Girls, Its Present and Its

    Future." Woman’s Work and Woman’s Culture. Ed. Josephine Butler. (1869): 290-330.

    -----. "What Better Provision ought to be made for the Education of Girls of

    the Upper and Middle Classes?" TNAPSS (1865): 287-291.



    Volume Four. Women as Educators: Dorothea Beale, Frances Mary Buss, Maria Grey and Emily Shirreff. (approximately 570 pages)


    Beale, Dorothea. "On the Education of Girls: A Paper Read at the Social

    Sciences Association." London: Bell & Daldy, 1866. 15 pp.

    -----, ed. Reports Issues by the Schools Inquiry Commission on the

    Education of Girls (London: David Nutt, 1869).

    -----. "The Ladies’ College at Cheltenham." TNAPSS (1865): 274-287.

    -----. "Education of Girls." TNAPSS (1869): 355-359.

    -----. "On the Organisation of Girls Day Schools. A Paper Read at the

    Social Sciences Association." London: Longmans, 1873. 16 pp.

    -----. "University Examinations for Women." TNAPSS (1874): 478-90.

    -----. Home Life in Relation to Girls’ Schools. London: Association of

    Headmistresses of Endowed and Proprietary Schools, 1879. 7pp.

    -----. A Few Words to Those who are Leaving. London: G. Bell, 1881.

    18 pp.

    -----. Address to Parents. London: G. Bell & Sons, 1888. 14 pp.

    -----. Selections from Work and Play in Girls’ Schools. London: Longmans, 1898. x +

    433. (40 pp.)

    -----. Address to Teachers. Longmans, 1909. ix + 79pp.

    Buss, Frances Mary. North London Collegiate School

    Witness to School Inquiry Commission. Parliamentary Papers 1867-

    8 28 Part 4; pp. 253-55; 257-8; 261.

    -----. Selections from Leaves from the Notebook of Frances Mary Buss: being selections

    from her weekly address to the girls of North London Collegiate

    School. Ed. Grace Toplis. London: Macmillan, 1896. vi + 168.

    Grey, Maria. Selections from Thoughts on Self culture Addressed to Women. 2 volumes.

    London, 1850.

    -----. Selections from Last Words to Girls on Life in School and after School. London,

    Edinburgh: Rivingtons, 1889. xii +357.

    -----. "The National Union for Improving the Education of Women." Letter

    to the Times. Reprinted London, 1872.

    -----. "Education of Women." Letter to the Times. Reprinted London,


    -----. "On the Education of Women: A paper read at the meeting of the

    Society of Arts." May 31, 1871.

    -----. "Paper on the Special Requirements for Improving the Education of

    Girls." London 1872.

    -----. "The School Board of London: Three Addresses." London, 1871.

    -----. "The Women’s Education Movement," in The Woman Question in

    Europe. Ed. Theodore Stanton. London: Sampson Low, 1884.

    Shirreff, Emily. Selections from Intellectual Education and its Influences on the

    Character and Happiness of Women (1858;1862). 20 pp.

    -----. Selections from The Work of the National Union. London: W. Ridgway,

    1872. 48 pp.

    -----. "College Education for Women." Contemporary Review 15 (1870):


    -----. "The Schools of the Future." Contemporary Review 17 (1871): 443-60.

    -----. Selections from On the Special Requirements for Improving the Education of Girls.

    London: William Ridgway, 1872.

    -----. The Kindergarten in Relation to Schools: An Address. Reading: W.

    Millard, 1877. 13 pp.

    -----. Kindergarten Teachers and Their Qualifications. London: W. Rice,


    -----. Why Should We Learn: Short Lectures Addressed to Schools.

    London: 1859.

    -----. The Work of the World and Women’s Share in It. London, 1881. 16



    Volume Five: Women as Educators: Arguments and Experiences

    (Total: 538 pages)

    Burdett-Coutts, Angela. "Project for Young Ladies as Schoolmistresses. A

    Circular." English Journal of Education 12 (April 1858): 148-52.

    Burstall, Sara. Selections from English High Schools for Girls. London:

    Longmans, 1907. xvi + 243 pp.

    Burstall and M.A. Douglas, eds. Selections from Public Schools for Girls: A

    Series of Papers on Their History, Aims, and Schemes of Study. By

    Members of the Association of Headmistresses. London: Longmans, 1911. xv + 302. (20 pp).

    -----. "The Frances Mary Buss School, 1871-75." From Retrospect and

    Prospect: Sixty Years of Women’s Education (1933). 94 pp.

    Carpenter, Mary. "The Girls." From Juvenile Delinquents: Their Condition and

    Treatment. Bristol: 1851. 81-117.

    -----. An Address Read at the Conference on Ragged Schools held at

    Birmingham. Benjamin hall, 1861. (10pp).

    -----. "On the Education of Pauper Girls." TNAPSS (1862): 286-292.

    -----. "On Female Education in India." TNAPSS (1867): 405-418.

    -----. "On Female Education." TNAPSS (1869): 351-355.

    ---. "How can Education be brought to bear on the hitherto Untouched Portions of the

    Population?" TNAPSS (1873): 335-341.

    Cartwright, Mrs. Edward. "A village school." Macmillan’s Magazine April

    (1895): 455-461.

    Coates, Miss. "On Female Inspection of Schools." TNAPSS (1873): 1 p.

    Cook, Emily, C. "On the education of girls." Macmillan’s Magazine May

    (1893): 33-37.

    Corbett, Mrs. Christopher G. B. "The Education of Children." Macmillan’s

    Magazine January (1890): 186-192.

    "Education Amongst the Working Women of Huddersfield and Bradford."

    Englishwoman’s Review (1869): 176-181.

    "A Few Suggestions on the Education of Girls." Victoria Magazine (1870):


    "Going a Governessing." English Woman’s Journal (1858): 396-404.

    "Governess Agencies." Victoria Magazine (1874): 30-38.

    Gurney, Mary. "The Establishment of Girls’ Public Middle Class Schools."

    Englishwoman’s Review (1872): 5-17.

    Hawtrey, Mabel. "Women and Education." Gentlewoman: Old and New

    Century Number (1901): 2pp.

    Hertz, Fanny. "Mechanics’ Institutes for Working Women, with Special

    Reference to the Manufacturing Districts of Yorkshire." TNAPSS

    (1859): 347-355.

    "Hints on the Modern Governess System." Fraser’s Magazine (1844): 571-


    Hubbard, Louisa. "Work for Ladies in elementary Education." London:

    Longmans, 1872. viii + 26.

    -----. "Elementary Teaching; A Profession for Ladies," TNAPSS (1873):


    -----. Why Should I send my child to School? London, 1878. 20 pp.

    -----. A Few words to the Mothers of Little Children. London, 1880. 20 pp.

    Jelf, W.E. "Home and school education." Contemporary Review October

    (1866): 220-236.

    Selections from Journal of Women’s Education Union. 20 pp.

    Lewis, Sarah, "On the Social Position of Governesses." Fraser’s Magazine

    (1848): 14 pp.

    "The London Association of Schoolmistresses." Englishwoman’s Review

    (1868): 9-12.

    Magnus, Laurie. Selections from The Jubilee Book of the Girls’ Public Day

    School Trust, 1873-1923. Cambridge: CUP, 1923. 20 pp.

    Martin, Frances. "The Other Side of the Question [training girls to work for

    the poor]." Macmillan’s Magazine April (1881): 461-464.

    "Middle-Class Schools for Girls." Englishwoman’s Review (1867): 300-305.

    Norris, J.P. "On Girls’ Industrial Training." TNAPSS (1859): 366-377.

    Parkes, Bessie Rayner. "The Profession of the Teacher: The Annual Reports

    of the Governesses’ Benevolent Institution, from 1843 to 1856," English Woman’s Journal 1 (1858): 1-13.

    -----. Selections from Remarks on the Education of Girls. London:

    Chapman, 1854. 24 pp.

    Schools’ Inquiry Commission, 1864-8 (Lord Lyttleton; Henry Roby; Joshua

    Fitch). 20 pp.

    Smedley, Menella B. "The English Girl’s Education." Contemporary

    Review April (1870): 29-41.

    -----. "Workhouse schools for girls." Macmillan’s Magazine November

    (1874): 27-36.

    Stephens, B. Girton College 1869-1932. Cambridge: 1933. 20 pp.

    "Technical Education of Girls." Englishwoman’s Review (1868): 1-9

    Twining, Louisa. "On the Training and Supervision of Workhouse Girls."

    TNAPSS (1859): 4pp.

    "A Woman’s View of Compulsory Education." Victoria Magazine (1871): 2


    "Working Women’s College." Victoria Magazine (1867): 97-107.




    Susan Hamilton is Associate Professor in the English Department at the University of Alberta.  She writes and teaches in the areas of Victorian literature and culture, and is the editor of the Victorian Review, an interdisciplinary journal of nineteenth-century studies. Her work has appeared in Nineteenth-Century Feminisms, Victorian Review, Nineteenth-Century Prose, and Literature and the Body. Recent publications include Criminals, Idiots, Women and Minors: Victorian Writing by Victorian Women (Broadview, second edition) and "Locating Victorian Feminisms: Frances Power Cobbe and the Victorian Periodical Press," (forthcoming, Nineteenth-Century Feminisms).

    Janice Schroeder is Assistant Professor in the same department.  Her research interests are:

    Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century feminisms
    The Victorian press
    Victorian women's writing and public culture